Nations based on nuclear output as a percentage of national power output
Timeline of commissioned and decommissioned nuclear capacity since the 1950s.[1] Positive numbers show the commissioned capacity for each year; negative numbers show the decommissioned capacity for each year.
Global status of nuclear deployment as of April 2023
  Operating reactors, building new reactors
  Operating reactors, planning new build
  No reactors, building new reactors
  No reactors, planning new build
  Operating reactors, stable
  Operating but may phase-out
  Civil nuclear power is illegal
  No reactors
Nuclear power plants in Europe (including decommissioned nuclear power plants)

Nuclear power plants operate in 32 countries and generate about a tenth of the world's electricity.[2] Most are in Europe, North America and East Asia. The United States is the largest producer of nuclear power, while France has the largest share of electricity generated by nuclear power, at about 70%.[3]

Some countries operated nuclear reactors in the past but have no operating nuclear power plants at present. Among them, Italy closed all of its nuclear stations by 1990 and nuclear power has since been discontinued because of the 1987 referendums. Kazakhstan phased out nuclear power in 1999 but is planning to reintroduce it possibly by 2035.[4] Germany operated nuclear plants since 1960 until the completion of its phaseout policy in 2023. Austria (Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the Philippines (Bataan Nuclear Power Plant) never started to use their first nuclear plants that were completely built.

Sweden and Belgium originally had phase-out policies however they have now moved away from their original plans. The Philippines relaunched their nuclear programme on February 28, 2022 and may try to operate the 1984 mothballed Bataan Plant.[5][6]

As of 2020, Poland was in advanced planning phase for 1.5 GW and planned to have up to 9 GW by 2040.[7] Hong Kong has no nuclear power plants within its boundary, but imports 80% of the electricity generated from Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station located across the border, in which the power company of the territory holds stake.[8][9] In 2021, Iraq declared it was planning to build 8 nuclear reactors by 2030 to supply up to 25% electric power in a grid that was suffering from shortages.[10]


See also: List of commercial nuclear reactors

Of the 32 countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Slovakia, Ukraine and Belgium use them as the source for a majority of the country's electricity supply as of 2021. Other countries have significant amounts of nuclear power generation capacity. By far the largest nuclear electricity producers are the United States with 772,221 GWh of nuclear electricity in 2022, followed by China with 395,354 GWh.[2] As of 2022, 401 reactors with a net capacity of 361,144 MWe were operational, and 57 reactors with net capacity of 59,091 MWe were under construction. Of the reactors under construction, 21 reactors with 21,608 MWe were in China and 8 reactors with a capacity of 6,028 MWe were in India.[11][failed verification]

See also


  1. ^ Phase-out postponed
  2. ^ Many reactors stopped
  3. ^ One reactor (Krško Nuclear Power Plant) located within Slovenia is co-owned by and shared between Croatia and Slovenia.
  4. ^ Phase-out planned
  5. ^ Gradual phase-out planned
  6. ^ From 2021 before the Russian invasion


  1. ^ "Operational & Long-Term Shutdown Reactors". IAEA. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "Nuclear Share of Electricity Generation in 2022". IAEA. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  3. ^ "Nuclear Power in France | French Nuclear Energy - World Nuclear Association". Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  4. ^ "Kazakhstan chooses site for second NPP". Nuclear Engineering International. 9 August 2022.
  5. ^ "Philippines relaunches nuclear energy programme : Nuclear Policies - World Nuclear News".
  6. ^ "Sweden Reverses Nuclear Phase-out Policy".
  7. ^ Wilczek, Maria (16 June 2020). "Construction of Poland's first nuclear power plant to begin in 2026". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  8. ^ "Hong Kong fallout from China's reckless nuclear ambitions".
  9. ^ "CLP to increase nuclear power imports 10pc".
  10. ^ "Iraq hopes to build 8 nuclear power reactors by 2030". Brecorder. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  11. ^ Nuclear Power Reactors in the World (PDF). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 2020. ISBN 978-92-0-114820-9.