watt | |
---|---|
Unit system | SI |
Unit of | power |
Symbol | W |
Named after | James Watt |
Conversions | |
1 W in ... | ... is equal to ... |
SI base units | 1 kg⋅m^{2}⋅s^{−3} |
CGS units | 10^{7} erg⋅s^{−1} |
English Engineering Units | 0.7375621 ft⋅lbf/s = 0.001341022 hp |
The watt (symbol: W) is the unit of power or radiant flux in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 1 joule per second or 1 kg⋅m^{2}⋅s^{−3}.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]} It is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer. The watt is named in honor of James Watt (1736–1819), an 18th-century Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved the Newcomen engine with his own steam engine in 1776. Watt's invention was fundamental for the Industrial Revolution.
When an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against a constant opposing force of one newton, the rate at which work is done is one watt.
In terms of electromagnetism, one watt is the rate at which electrical work is performed when a current of one ampere (A) flows across an electrical potential difference of one volt (V), meaning the watt is equivalent to the volt-ampere (the latter unit, however, is used for a different quantity from the real power of an electrical circuit).
Two additional unit conversions for watt can be found using the above equation and Ohm's law. where ohm () is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance.
The watt is named after the Scottish inventor James Watt.^{[5]} The unit name was proposed by C. William Siemens in August 1882 in his President's Address to the Fifty-Second Congress of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.^{[6]} Noting that units in the practical system of units were named after leading physicists, Siemens proposed that watt might be an appropriate name for a unit of power.^{[7]} Siemens defined the unit within the existing system of practical units as "the power conveyed by a current of an Ampère through the difference of potential of a Volt".^{[8]}
In October 1908, at the International Conference on Electric Units and Standards in London,^{[9]} so-called international definitions were established for practical electrical units.^{[10]} Siemens' definition was adopted as the international watt. (Also used: 1 A^{2} × 1 Ω.)^{[5]} The watt was defined as equal to 10^{7} units of power in the practical system of units.^{[10]} The "international units" were dominant from 1909 until 1948. After the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1948, the international watt was redefined from practical units to absolute units (i.e., using only length, mass, and time). Concretely, this meant that 1 watt was defined as the quantity of energy transferred in a unit of time, namely 1 J/s. In this new definition, 1 absolute watt = 1.00019 international watts. Texts written before 1948 are likely to be using the international watt, which implies caution when comparing numerical values from this period with the post-1948 watt.^{[5]} In 1960, the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures adopted the absolute watt into the International System of Units (SI) as the unit of power.^{[11]}
For additional examples of magnitude for multiples and submultiples of the watt, see Orders of magnitude (power). |
Submultiples | Multiples | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Value | SI symbol | Name | Value | SI symbol | Name |
10^{−1} W | dW | deciwatt | 10^{1} W | daW | decawatt |
10^{−2} W | cW | centiwatt | 10^{2} W | hW | hectowatt |
10^{−3} W | mW | milliwatt | 10^{3} W | kW | kilowatt |
10^{−6} W | μW | microwatt | 10^{6} W | MW | megawatt |
10^{−9} W | nW | nanowatt | 10^{9} W | GW | gigawatt |
10^{−12} W | pW | picowatt | 10^{12} W | TW | terawatt |
10^{−15} W | fW | femtowatt | 10^{15} W | PW | petawatt |
10^{−18} W | aW | attowatt | 10^{18} W | EW | exawatt |
10^{−21} W | zW | zeptowatt | 10^{21} W | ZW | zettawatt |
10^{−24} W | yW | yoctowatt | 10^{24} W | YW | yottawatt |
10^{−27} W | rW | rontowatt | 10^{27} W | RW | ronnawatt |
10^{−30} W | qW | quectowatt | 10^{30} W | QW | quettawatt |
Common multiples are in bold face |
"Kilowatt" and "Kilowatts" redirect here. For the musician James Watts, see KiloWatts (musician). |
"kW" redirects here. For other uses, see kW (disambiguation). |
In the electric power industry, megawatt electrical (MWe^{[30]} or MW_{e})^{[31]} refers by convention to the electric power produced by a generator, while megawatt thermal or thermal megawatt^{[32]} (MWt, MW_{t}, or MWth, MW_{th}) refers to thermal power produced by the plant. For example, the Embalse nuclear power plant in Argentina uses a fission reactor to generate 2,109 MW_{t} (i.e. heat), which creates steam to drive a turbine, which generates 648 MW_{e} (i.e. electricity). Other SI prefixes are sometimes used, for example gigawatt electrical (GW_{e}). The International Bureau of Weights and Measures, which maintains the SI-standard, states that further information about a quantity should not be attached to the unit symbol but instead to the quantity symbol (e.g., P_{th} = 270 W rather than P = 270 W_{th}) and so these unit symbols are non-SI.^{[33]} In compliance with SI, the energy company Ørsted A/S uses the unit megawatt for produced electrical power and the equivalent unit megajoule per second for delivered heating power in a combined heat and power station such as Avedøre Power Station.^{[34]}
When describing alternating current (AC) electricity, another distinction is made between the watt and the volt-ampere. While these units are equivalent for simple resistive circuits, they differ when loads exhibit electrical reactance.
Main article: Effective radiated power |
Radio stations usually report the power of their transmitters in units of watts, referring to the effective radiated power. This refers to the power that a half-wave dipole antenna would need to radiate to match the intensity of the transmitter's main lobe.
The terms power and energy are closely related but distinct physical quantities. Power is the rate at which energy is generated or consumed and hence is measured in units (e.g. watts) that represent energy per unit time.
For example, when a light bulb with a power rating of 100W is turned on for one hour, the energy used is 100 watt hours (W·h), 0.1 kilowatt hour, or 360 kJ. This same amount of energy would light a 40-watt bulb for 2.5 hours, or a 50-watt bulb for 2 hours.
Power stations are rated using units of power, typically megawatts or gigawatts (for example, the Three Gorges Dam in China is rated at approximately 22 gigawatts). This reflects the maximum power output it can achieve at any point in time. A power station's annual energy output, however, would be recorded using units of energy (not power), typically gigawatt hours. Major energy production or consumption is often expressed as terawatt hours for a given period; often a calendar year or financial year. One terawatt hour of energy is equal to a sustained power delivery of one terawatt for one hour, or approximately 114 megawatts for a period of one year:
equivalent to approximately 114 megawatts of constant power output.
The watt-second is a unit of energy, equal to the joule. One kilowatt hour is 3,600,000 watt seconds.
While a watt per hour is a unit of rate of change of power with time,^{[iii]} it is not correct to refer to a watt (or watt-hour) as a watt per hour.^{[35]}