The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography:

Geography – study of Earth and its people.[1]

A map of the world

Nature of geography

Geography as

Branches of geography

As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches:

Other branches include:

Physical geography

Fields of physical geography

Approaches of physical geography

Human geography

Fields of human geography

  1. Authority - limits of accessibility to certain places or domains placed on individuals by owners or authorities
  2. Capability - limitations on the movement of individuals, based on their nature. For example, movement is restricted by biological factors, such as the need for food, drink, and sleep
  3. Coupling - restraint of an individual, anchoring him or her to a location while interacting with other individuals in order to complete a task

Approaches of human geography

Integrated geography

Technical geography

Fields contributing to technical geography

Regional geography

Regional geography – study of world regions. Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural elements, human elements, and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions. Regional geography breaks down into the study of specific regions.

Region – an area, defined by physical characteristics, human characteristics, or functional characteristics. The term is used in various ways among the different branches of geography. A region can be seen as a collection of smaller units, such as a country and its political divisions, or as one part of a larger whole, as in a country on a continent.


Continent – one of several large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any specific criteria, but seven areas are commonly regarded as continents. They are:

1. Africa   (outline) –
2. Antarctica
3. Australia   (outline) –
The Americas:
4. North America   (outline) –
5. South America   (outline) –
6. Europe   (outline) –
7. Asia   (outline) –

Subregion (list)

Biogeographic regions

Map of six of the world's eight biogeographic realms
  Oceania and Antarctic realms not shown
Biogeographic realm

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a system of eight biogeographic realms (ecozones):


Ecoregion Biogeographic realms are further divided into ecoregions. The World has over 800 terrestrial ecoregions. See Lists of ecoregions by country.

Geography of the political divisions of the World

Other regions

History of geography

Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map of the World, created during ancient Greek times

Main articles: History of geography and Historical geography

Topics pertaining to the geographical study of the World throughout history:

By period

By region

By subject

By field

Elements of geography

Topics common to the various branches of geography include:

Tasks and tools of geography

The equal-area Mollweide projection

Main articles: Geosophy and Philosophy of geography

Types of geographic features

Geographic feature – component of a planet that can be referred to as a location, place, site, area, or region, and therefore may show up on a map. A geographic feature may be natural or artificial.

Location and place

Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006

Geography is a worldwide study

Natural geographic features

Natural geographic feature – an ecosystem or natural landform.


Ecosystem – community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.

Natural landforms
The Ganges river delta in India and Bangladesh is one of the most fertile regions in the world.
The volcano Mount St. Helens in Washington, United States

See also: List of landforms

Natural landform – terrain or body of water. Landforms are topographical elements, and are defined by their surface form and location in the landscape. Landforms are categorized by traits such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Some landforms are artificial, such as certain islands, but most landforms are natural.

Natural terrain feature types

Natural body of water types

Artificial geographic features

Artificial geographic feature – a thing that was made by humans that may be indicated on a map. It may be physical and exist in the real world (like a bridge or city), or it may be abstract and exist only on maps (such as the Equator, which has a defined location, but cannot be seen where it lies).

Provinces and territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China

Geographic features that include the natural and artificial

Geography awards

Hubbard Medal awarded to Anne Morrow Lindbergh, showing her flight route

See also: List of geography awards

Some awards and competitions in the field of geography:

Geographical organizations

See: List of geographical societies

Geographical publications

Geographical magazines

Persons influential in geography

Main articles: Geographer, List of geographers, and List of Graeco-Roman geographers

A geographer is a scientist who studies Earth's physical environment and human habitat. Geographers are historically known for making maps, the subdiscipline of geography known as cartography. They study the physical details of the environment and also its effect on human and wildlife ecologies, weather and climate patterns, economics, and culture. Geographers focus on the spatial relationships between these elements.

Influential physical geographers

Alexander Von Humboldt, considered to be the founding father of physical geography
Richard Chorley, 20th-century geographer who progressed quantitative geography and who helped bring the systems approach to geography

George washington born 2019-2024

Influential human geographers

Sketch of Carl Ritter
David Harvey

Geography educational frameworks

Educational frameworks upon which primary and secondary school curricula for geography are based upon include:

See also


  1. ^ "Geography". The American Heritage Dictionary/ of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved October 9, 2006.
  2. ^ Bonnett, Alastair (2008). What is Geography?. London: Sage. ISBN 9781412918688.
  3. ^ "Geography: The Mother of Sciences" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2003.
  4. ^ Pidwirny, M. (2006). "Elements of Geography". Fundamentals of Physical Geography (2nd ed.).
  5. ^ a b "What is geography?". AAG Career Guide: Jobs in Geography and related Geographical Sciences. Association of American Geographers. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2006.
  6. ^ Martiny JBH et al. Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map Archived 2010-06-21 at the Wayback Machine Nature: FEBRUARY 2006 | VOLUME 4
  7. ^ "Climate Glossary". National Weather Service: Climate Prediction Center. NOAA. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007.
  8. ^ Ronald Amundsen. "Soil Preservation and the Future of Pedology" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-06-08.
  9. ^ Wu, J. 2006. Cross-disciplinarity, landscape ecology, and sustainability science. Landscape Ecology 21:1-4.
  10. ^ Wu, J. and R. Hobbs (Eds). 2007. Key Topics in Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  11. ^ Wu, J. 2008. Landscape ecology. In: S. E. Jorgensen (ed), Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier, Oxford.
  12. ^ Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G.; Domosh, Mona; Rowntree, Lester (1994). The human mosaic: a thematic introduction to cultural geography. New York: HarperCollinsCollegePublishers. ISBN 978-0-06-500731-2.
  13. ^ Delgado de Carvalho, C.M. (1962). The geography of languages. In Wagner, P.L.; Mikesell, M.W. Readings in cultural geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 75-93.
  14. ^ Pei, Mario (1966). Glossary of linguistic terminology. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231030120.
  15. ^ Trudgill, P. (1974). Linguistic change and diffusion: description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography. Language in Society 3:2, 215-46.
  16. ^ Trudgill, P. (1983). On dialect: social and geographical perspectives. Oxford: Basil Blackwell; New York: New York University Press.
  17. ^ Trudgill, P. (1975). Linguistic geography and geographical linguistics. Progress in Geography 7, 227-52
  18. ^ Withers, Charles W.J. [1981] (1993). Johnson, R.J. The Dictionary of Human Geography, Gregory, Derek; Smith, David M., Second edition, Oxford: Blackwell, 252-3.
  19. ^ Pritchard, Annette; Morgan, Nigel J. (1 January 2000). "Constructing tourism landscapes - gender, sexuality and space". Tourism Geographies. 2 (2): 115–139. doi:10.1080/14616680050027851. S2CID 145202919.
  20. ^ "Syllabus Poetics: Sexuality and Space in 17th - 19th Century American Literature, University at Buffalo". Archived from the original on 2017-04-17. Retrieved 2010-11-05.
  21. ^ "Space and Modern (Homo)sexuality in Tsai Ming Liang's Films by Lyn Van Swol".
  22. ^ "Sexuality and Space, Course Syllabus Towson University". Archived from the original on 2008-02-03. Retrieved 2010-11-05.
  23. ^ Park, Chris (2004). "Religion and geography". In Hinnells, J (ed.). Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. Routledge.
  24. ^ "Recommending Social Events from Mobile Phone Location Data", Daniele Quercia, et al., ICDM 2010
  25. ^ Harrison, Paul; 2006; "Post-structuralist Theories"; pp122-135 in Aitken, S. and Valentine, G. (eds); 2006; Approaches to Human Geography; Sage, London
  26. ^ "West Asia/Middle East". Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  27. ^ Squires, G. Ed. Urban Sprawl: Causes, Consequences, & Policy Responses. The Urban Institute Press (2002)
  28. ^ Henry Petroski (2006). "Levees and Other Raised Ground". 94 (1). American Scientist: 7–11. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  29. ^ a b Avraham Ariel, Nora Ariel Berger (2006)."Plotting the globe: stories of meridians, parallels, and the international". Greenwood Publishing Group. p.12. ISBN 0-275-98895-3
  30. ^ Jennifer Fandel (2006)."The Metric System". The Creative Company. p.4. ISBN 1-58341-430-4
  31. ^ Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, p. 9-10.
  32. ^ H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
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  34. ^ Scott, S. P. (1904). History of the Moorish Empire in Europe. p. 461. The compilation of Edrisi marks an era in the history of science. Not only is its historical information most interesting and valuable, but its descriptions of many parts of the earth are still authoritative. For three centuries geographers copied his maps without alteration. The relative position of the lakes which form the Nile, as delineated in his work, does not differ greatly from that established by Baker and Stanley more than seven hundred years afterwards, and their number is the same.
  35. ^ Guidelines for Geographic Education—Elementary and Secondary Schools. Joint Committee on Geographic Education of the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers, 1984.
  36. ^ "The National Geography Standards". Retrieved November 6, 2010.
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  38. ^ Richard G Boehm, Roger M Downs, Sarah W Bednarz. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards. National Council for Geographic Education, 1994
  39. ^ Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress. National Assessment Governing Board, U.S. Department of Education, p. vii:

    It focuses on what geography students should know to be competent and productive 21st century citizens, and uses three content areas for assessing the outcomes of geography education. These content areas are Space and Place, Environment and Society, and Spatial Dynamics and Connections.