The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography:

Geography – study of earth and its people.[1]

A map of the world.
A map of the world.

Nature of geography

Geography is

Branches of geography

As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches:

Other branches include:

All the branches are further described below...

Physical geography

Fields of physical geography

Approaches of physical geography

Human geography

Fields of human geography

  1. Authority - limits of accessibility to certain places or domains placed on individuals by owners or authorities
  2. Capability - limitations on the movement of individuals, based on their nature. For example, movement is restricted by biological factors, such as the need for food, drink, and sleep
  3. Coupling - restraint of an individual, anchoring him or her to a location while interacting with other individuals in order to complete a task

Approaches of human geography

Integrated geography

Technical geography

Fields contributing to technical geography

Regional geography

Regional geography – study of world regions. Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural elements, human elements, and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions. Regional geography breaks down into the study of specific regions.

Region – an area, defined by physical characteristics, human characteristics, or functional characteristics. The term is used in various ways among the different branches of geography. A region can be seen as a collection of smaller units, such as a country and its political divisions, or as one part of a larger whole, as in a country on a continent.

Continents

Continent – one of several large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any specific criteria, but seven areas are commonly regarded as continents. They are:

1. Africa   (outline) –
2. Antarctica
3. Australia   (outline) –
The Americas:
4. North America   (outline) –
5. South America   (outline) –
Eurasia:
6. Europe   (outline) –
7. Asia   (outline) –
Subregions

Subregion (list)

Biogeographic regions

Map of six of the world's eight biogeographic realms .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Nearctic   Palearctic   Afrotropic   Indomalaya   Australasia   Neotropic   Oceania and Antarctic realms not shown
Map of six of the world's eight biogeographic realms
  Oceania and Antarctic realms not shown
Biogeographic realm

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a system of eight biogeographic realms (ecozones):

Ecoregions

Ecoregion Biogeographic realms are further divided into ecoregions. The World has over 800 terrestrial ecoregions. See Lists of ecoregions by country.

Geography of the political divisions of the World

Other regions

History of geography

Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map of the World, created during ancient Greek times
Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map of the World, created during ancient Greek times

Main articles: History of geography and Historical geography

Topics pertaining to the geographical study of the World throughout history:

By period

By region

By subject

By field

Elements of geography

Topics common to the various branches of geography include:

Tasks and tools of geography

The equal-area Mollweide projection
The equal-area Mollweide projection

Main articles: Geosophy and Philosophy of geography

Types of geographic features

Geographic feature – component of a planet that can be referred to as a location, place, site, area, or region, and therefore may show up on a map. A geographic feature may be natural or artificial.

Location and place

Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006
Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006

Natural geographic features

Natural geographic feature – an ecosystem or natural landform.

Ecosystems

Ecosystem – community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.

Natural landforms
The Ganges river delta in India and Bangladesh is one of the most fertile regions in the world.
The Ganges river delta in India and Bangladesh is one of the most fertile regions in the world.
The volcano Mount St. Helens in Washington, United States.
The volcano Mount St. Helens in Washington, United States.

See also: List of landforms

Natural landform – terrain or body of water. Landforms are topographical elements, and are defined by their surface form and location in the landscape. Landforms are categorized by traits such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. Some landforms are artificial, such as certain islands, but most landforms are natural.

Natural terrain feature types

Natural body of water types

Artificial geographic features

Artificial geographic feature – a thing that was made by humans that may be indicated on a map. It may be physical and exist in the real world (like a bridge or city), or it may be abstract and exist only on maps (such as the Equator, which has a defined location, but cannot be seen where it lies).

Provinces and territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China
Provinces and territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China

Geographic features that include the natural and artificial

Geography awards

Hubbard Medal awarded to Anne Morrow Lindbergh, showing her flight route
Hubbard Medal awarded to Anne Morrow Lindbergh, showing her flight route

See also: List of geography awards

Some awards and competitions in the field of geography:

Persons influential in geography

Main articles: Geographer, List of geographers, and List of Graeco-Roman geographers

A geographer is a scientist who studies Earth's physical environment and human habitat. Geographers are historically known for making maps, the subdiscipline of geography known as cartography. They study the physical details of the environment and also its effect on human and wildlife ecologies, weather and climate patterns, economics, and culture. Geographers focus on the spatial relationships between these elements.

Influential physical geographers

Alexander Von Humboldt, considered to be the founding father of physical geography.
Alexander Von Humboldt, considered to be the founding father of physical geography.
Richard Chorley, 20th-century geographer who progressed quantitative geography and who helped bring the systems approach to geography.
Richard Chorley, 20th-century geographer who progressed quantitative geography and who helped bring the systems approach to geography.

Influential human geographers

Sketch of Carl Ritter
Sketch of Carl Ritter
David Harvey
David Harvey

Geography educational frameworks

Educational frameworks upon which primary and secondary school curricula for geography are based upon include:

See also

References

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