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Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina topographic map.svg
ContinentEurope
RegionSoutheastern Europe
Coordinates44°N 18°E / 44°N 18°E / 44; 18Coordinates: 44°N 18°E / 44°N 18°E / 44; 18
Area
 • Total51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi)
 • Land99.8%
 • Water0.2%
Coastline20 km (12 mi)
BordersTotal land borders:
1,538 km
Highest pointMaglić
2,386 m
Lowest pointAdriatic Sea
0 m
Longest riverDrina
Largest lakeBuško Blato
Bk-map.png

Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in Southeastern Europe, in the western Balkans. It has a 932 km (579 mi) border with Croatia to the north and southwest, a 357 km (222 mi) border with Serbia to the east, and a 249 km (155 mi) border with Montenegro to the southeast.[1] It borders the Adriatic Sea along its 20 km (12 mi) coastline.

The most striking features of the local terrain are valleys and mountains which measure up to 2,386 m (7,828 ft) in height. The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps. The northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian basin, while in the south it borders the Adriatic Sea.

The country's natural resources include coal, iron ore, bauxite, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber and hydropower.[2]

Regions

The country's name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them. Bosnia occupies the northern areas which are roughly four fifths of the entire country, while Herzegovina occupies the rest in the southern part of the country.

The major cities are the capital Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Bihać in the northwest region known as Bosanska Krajina, Tuzla in the northeast, Zenica in the central part of Bosnia and Mostar is the capital of Herzegovina.

The south part of Bosnia has Mediterranean climate and a great deal of agriculture. Central Bosnia is the most mountainous part of Bosnia featuring prominent mountains Vlašić, Čvrsnica, and Prenj. Eastern Bosnia also features mountains like Trebević, Jahorina, Igman, Bjelašnica and Treskavica. It was here that the 1984 Winter Olympics were held.

Eastern Bosnia is heavily forested along the river Drina, and overall close to 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. Most forest areas are in Central, Eastern and Western parts of Bosnia. Northern Bosnia contains very fertile agricultural land along the river Sava and the corresponding area is heavily farmed. This farmland is a part of the Parapannonian Plain stretching into neighbouring Croatia and Serbia. The river Sava and corresponding Posavina river basin hold the cities of Brčko, Bosanski Šamac, Bosanski Brod and Bosanska Gradiška.

The northwest part of Bosnia is called Bosanska Krajina and holds the cities of Banja Luka, Prijedor, Sanski Most, Jajce, Cazin, Velika Kladuša and Bihać. Kozara National Park and Mrakovica World War II monument is located in this region.

The country has only 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) of coastline,[3] around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton, although surrounded by Croatian peninsulas it is possible to get to the middle of the Adriatic from Neum. By United Nations law, Bosnia has a right of passage to the outer sea. Neum has many hotels and is an important tourism destination.

Rivers

Watersheds in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Watersheds in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosna river, Ilidža
Bosna river, Ilidža

There are seven major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina:

The Sava is the longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, within Bosnia and Herzegovina, it only runs along the border with Croatia. It then flows into Serbia. Towns like Brčko, Bosanski Šamac, and Bosanska Gradiška lie on the river.

Phytogeography

Phytogeographically, Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region and Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. According to the WWF, the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests.

Climate

The western and southern parts of the country have a transitional Mediterranean climate.[4]

Climate data for Mostar (1961–1990, extremes 1949–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
25.0
(77.0)
27.6
(81.7)
31.5
(88.7)
35.6
(96.1)
41.2
(106.2)
43.0
(109.4)
43.1
(109.6)
38.8
(101.8)
32.5
(90.5)
25.5
(77.9)
19.4
(66.9)
43.1
(109.6)
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
10.8
(51.4)
14.6
(58.3)
19.0
(66.2)
24.0
(75.2)
27.6
(81.7)
31.1
(88.0)
31.2
(88.2)
26.9
(80.4)
21.0
(69.8)
14.5
(58.1)
9.7
(49.5)
19.9
(67.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
6.6
(43.9)
9.7
(49.5)
13.3
(55.9)
18.0
(64.4)
21.5
(70.7)
24.7
(76.5)
24.2
(75.6)
20.4
(68.7)
15.3
(59.5)
10.1
(50.2)
6.2
(43.2)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.2
(37.8)
5.4
(41.7)
8.4
(47.1)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
18.4
(65.1)
15.3
(59.5)
11.2
(52.2)
6.7
(44.1)
3.3
(37.9)
10.1
(50.2)
Record low °C (°F) −10.9
(12.4)
−9.6
(14.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.3
(37.9)
8.0
(46.4)
8.4
(47.1)
9.6
(49.3)
6.4
(43.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
−7.8
(18.0)
−10.9
(12.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 164.7
(6.48)
153.2
(6.03)
150.0
(5.91)
127.3
(5.01)
102.1
(4.02)
77.9
(3.07)
44.8
(1.76)
73.7
(2.90)
96.3
(3.79)
153.5
(6.04)
199.9
(7.87)
178.9
(7.04)
1,522.5
(59.94)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.5 12.1 12.4 13.0 12.3 11.6 7.4 7.4 8.2 10.3 13.4 13.1 133.8
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 2.9 1.5 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.2 6.3
Average relative humidity (%) 65.9 63.3 61.0 61.8 62.7 61.2 52.7 53.7 60.1 65.2 69.3 67.4 62.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 109.3 117.5 155.3 173.9 222.7 252.1 322.8 296.2 230.7 186.8 116.6 102.8 2,286.5
Source: Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina[5][6]

The hills and mountains are drier, colder, windier, and cloudier.[4]

Climate data for Sarajevo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
21.4
(70.5)
26.6
(79.9)
30.2
(86.4)
33.2
(91.8)
35.9
(96.6)
38.2
(100.8)
40.0
(104.0)
37.7
(99.9)
32.2
(90.0)
24.7
(76.5)
18.0
(64.4)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
6.0
(42.8)
10.9
(51.6)
15.6
(60.1)
21.4
(70.5)
24.5
(76.1)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
22.0
(71.6)
17.0
(62.6)
9.7
(49.5)
4.2
(39.6)
15.8
(60.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
1.8
(35.2)
6.0
(42.8)
10.2
(50.4)
15.2
(59.4)
18.2
(64.8)
20.3
(68.5)
20.4
(68.7)
16.0
(60.8)
11.7
(53.1)
5.8
(42.4)
1.2
(34.2)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.1
(34.0)
4.8
(40.6)
9.0
(48.2)
11.9
(53.4)
13.7
(56.7)
13.7
(56.7)
10.0
(50.0)
6.4
(43.5)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.4
(41.7)
Record low °C (°F) −26.8
(−16.2)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−13.2
(8.2)
−9.0
(15.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
−1.0
(30.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−10.9
(12.4)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−26.8
(−16.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68
(2.7)
64
(2.5)
70
(2.8)
77
(3.0)
72
(2.8)
90
(3.5)
72
(2.8)
66
(2.6)
91
(3.6)
86
(3.4)
85
(3.3)
86
(3.4)
928
(36.5)
Average rainy days 8 10 13 17 17 16 14 13 15 13 12 11 159
Average snowy days 10 12 9 2 0.2 0 0 0 0 2 6 12 53
Average relative humidity (%) 79 74 68 67 68 70 69 69 75 77 76 81 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 57.1 83.8 125.6 152.3 191.7 207.1 256.3 238.2 186.6 148.8 81.2 40.7 1,769.4
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[7]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[8]

The north region has a typical continental climate.[4]

Climate data for Banja Luka
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
25.2
(77.4)
29.0
(84.2)
31.8
(89.2)
35.2
(95.4)
37.9
(100.2)
41.6
(106.9)
41.1
(106.0)
40.2
(104.4)
30.9
(87.6)
27.1
(80.8)
23.2
(73.8)
41.6
(106.9)
Average high °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.8
(46.0)
13.7
(56.7)
19.3
(66.7)
23.2
(73.8)
27.3
(81.1)
29.9
(85.8)
30.1
(86.2)
24.3
(75.7)
18.5
(65.3)
13.0
(55.4)
7.2
(45.0)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
2.5
(36.5)
7.3
(45.1)
12.5
(54.5)
16.8
(62.2)
20.8
(69.4)
22.8
(73.0)
22.3
(72.1)
17.1
(62.8)
11.8
(53.2)
7.3
(45.1)
2.8
(37.0)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F) −2.1
(28.2)
−1.4
(29.5)
1.8
(35.2)
6.4
(43.5)
10.0
(50.0)
14.4
(57.9)
16.0
(60.8)
15.6
(60.1)
11.4
(52.5)
7.0
(44.6)
3.2
(37.8)
−0.7
(30.7)
6.8
(44.2)
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
(−9.0)
−21.5
(−6.7)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−5.9
(21.4)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
6.7
(44.1)
6.1
(43.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−11.0
(12.2)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−22.8
(−9.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 71.7
(2.82)
67.6
(2.66)
77.8
(3.06)
86.5
(3.41)
98.3
(3.87)
109.2
(4.30)
73.9
(2.91)
74.2
(2.92)
83.9
(3.30)
103.9
(4.09)
89.5
(3.52)
100.8
(3.97)
1,037.2
(40.83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.9 9.7 9.4 9.2 9.8 8.1 7.9 5.8 7.9 8.9 8.1 10.2 104.0
Average relative humidity (%) 82 80 73 69 71 71 70 73 78 82 84 83 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 54 71 125 158 206 222 272 238 186 133 70 46 1,781
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst (temperatures, 1992–2016, extremes 1973–2016, precipitation, 1926–2016, precipitation days, 1992–2016, humidity, 1973–1991 and sun, 1961–1990)[9][10][a]

Climate change

Floods in 2014 severely affected Bosnia and Herzegovina, as pictured in Doboj.
Floods in 2014 severely affected Bosnia and Herzegovina, as pictured in Doboj.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is considered vulnerable to climate change, with limited capacity to adapt.[11][12] Between 1961 and 2016, the country's climate warmed and precipitation became more intense.[13] The country has experienced extreme weather events, in particular a severe drought in 2012 and floods in 2014, which had severe economic impacts, with further impacts expected as the global climate continues to warm.[11] Its agricultural sector, which forms a significant part of the economy and supports its majority rural population, is also being significantly impacted.[12] Tourism, energy production and consumption will also be significantly impacted.[13]

Mining industry

Calcite Crystal found at Trebević mountain around Sarajevo; Bosnia and Herzegovina on display at National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Calcite Crystal found at Trebević mountain around Sarajevo; Bosnia and Herzegovina on display at National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Various archaeological artifacts including relicts of mining activities and tools belonging to similar age groups, provide an indication of the geographical distribution, scale and methods of mining activities in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Paleolithic to Roman era.

Most important of these is the so-called area of “central Bosnian mountains” located between the rivers Vrbas, Lašva, Neretva, Rama and their tributaries. The second one is the area of western Bosnia, bordered by the Vrbas and Una rivers, with its main orebearing formations found in the river-valleys of Sana and Japra, and their tributaries. The third area is eastern Bosnia, around the river Drina between the towns of Foča and Zvornik, the principal mining activity centered around Srebrenica.

Ores of various metals, including iron, are found in these areas and exploitation has been going on for more than 5000 years – from the period of prehistoric human settlers, through Illyrian, Roman, Slavic, Turkish and Austrian rulers, into the present.[14]

Land use

Irrigated land: 30 km2 (12 sq mi) (2003)

Total renewable water resources: 37.5 km3 (9.0 cu mi) (2011)

Environment

Natural hazards:

Current issues:

International agreements:

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Op?i i geografski podaci o BiH". Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
  2. ^ "References :: Definitions and Notes — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2019-11-02.[dead link]
  3. ^ Field Listing – Coastline, The World Factbook, 2006-08-22
  4. ^ a b c "Bosnia Herzegovina climate: average weather, temperature, precipitation, best time". www.climatestotravel.com. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  5. ^ "Meteorlogical data for station Mostar in period 1961–1990". Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Mostar: Record mensili dal 1949" (in Italian). Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  7. ^ "Weather and Climate: The Climate of Sarajevo" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  8. ^ "Sarajevo Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  9. ^ "Klimatafel von Banja Luka/Bosnien und Herzegowina" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  10. ^ "Station 14542 Banja Luka". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  11. ^ a b Trbic, Goran; Bajic, Davorin; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Ducic, Vladan; Cupac, Raduska; Markez, Đorđe; Vukmir, Goran; Dekić, Radoslav; Popov, Tatjana (2018), Leal Filho, Walter; Nalau, Johanna (eds.), "Limits to Adaptation on Climate Change in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Insights and Experiences", Limits to Climate Change Adaptation, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 245–259, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-64599-5_14, ISBN 978-3-319-64599-5, retrieved 2022-08-27
  12. ^ a b Zurovec, Ognjen; Vedeld, Pål Olav; Sitaula, Bishal Kumar (June 2015). "Agricultural Sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Climate Change—Challenges and Opportunities". Agriculture. 5 (2): 245–266. doi:10.3390/agriculture5020245. ISSN 2077-0472.
  13. ^ a b Popov, Tatjana; Gnjato, Slobodan; Trbić, Goran (2019), Leal Filho, Walter; Trbic, Goran; Filipovic, Dejan (eds.), "Effects of Changes in Extreme Climate Events on Key Sectors in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Adaptation Options", Climate Change Adaptation in Eastern Europe: Managing Risks and Building Resilience to Climate Change, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 213–228, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-03383-5_15, ISBN 978-3-030-03383-5, retrieved 2022-08-27
  14. ^ "Minerali Bosne i Hercegovine" (PDF). Anubih.ba. 1 September 2015.

Notes

  1. ^ Station ID for Banja Luka is 14542 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document: "2005 edition".