|Coordinates (Lijiang municipal government): 26°51′19″N 100°13′33″E / 26.8552°N 100.2259°ECoordinates: 26°51′19″N 100°13′33″E / 26.8552°N 100.2259°E|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Prefecture-level city||20,557 km2 (7,937 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,264 km2 (488 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,264 km2 (488 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,400 m (7,900 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||1,253,878|
|• Density||61/km2 (160/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||230/km2 (590/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||230/km2 (590/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-YN-07|
|Licence plate prefixes||云P|
Lijiang (Chinese: 丽江), also known as Likiang, is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Yunnan Province, China. It has an area of 21,219 square kilometres (8,193 sq mi) and had a population of 1,253,878 at the 2020 census whom 288,787 lived in the built-up area (metro) made of Gucheng District. Lijiang is famous for its UNESCO Heritage Site, the Old Town of Lijiang, which contains a mixture of different historical architecture styles and a complex, ancient water-supply system.
Further information: Chiefdom of Lijiang
100,000 years ago, the Lijiang people of the late Paleolithic sapiens were active here. The discovery of cave paintings in the Jinsha River Valley and numerous new stone tools, bronzes and ironsmiths prove that Lijiang is one of the important areas of ancient human activities in southwest China.
The Baisha Old Town was the political, commercial and cultural center for the local Naxi people and other ethnic groups for 400 years from the year 658 AD to 1107AD. The Dabaoji Palace of the Baisha Fresco, very close to the Baisha Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute, was built in the year 658 AD in the Tang dynasty (618 AD to 907 AD).
In ancient times, the Baisha Old Town used to be the center of silk embroidery in the southwest of China and the most important place of the Ancient Southern Silk Road, also called the Ancient Tea and Horse Road or Ancient tea route. The Ancient Southern Silk Road started from Burma, crossed Lijiang, Shangri-La County, Tibet, journeyed through Iran, the Fertile Crescent and ultimately to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Kingdom of Lijiang submitted to Khubilai Khan as he led his troops against the Dali kingdom in 1253. Though the kingdom was incorporated into the Mongol empire then the Yuan dynasty, it was given the status of tusi, or indigenous office, which gave autonomy to the local Naxi rulers. During the Ming dynasty, the Naxi were one of the few border peoples to support the Ming immediately. As the Naxi helped the Ming expand in Southwest China the ruler family was given the title of Mu. During this period the Kingdom of Lijiang was able to expand into Sichuan and Tibet bringing many Tibetan peoples into its territory as well as their cultural and religious influence. It was under the rule of the Naxi ruling house of the Mu family (木氏) during the Yuan (not yet named Mu), Ming, and Qing dynasties.The Mu "held this position until 1723, when Lijiang became directly incorporated under the authority of the Qing central government."
In 2002 Lijiang City was established, replacing the former Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County.
Lijiang is located in the northwestern portion of Yunnan and borders Sichuan. It is within the region encompassed by the Hengduan Mountains, where the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau converge. It borders Sichuan Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Panzhihua City to the east, and Jianchuan, Heqing and Binchuan three of the Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in the south. County and Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture Dayao and Yongren counties, west and north are adjacent to Lanping County of Nujiang Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Weixi County of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The city has a total area of 20,600 square kilometers and governs the ancient city, Yulong Naxi Autonomous County, Yongsheng County, Huaping County and Ninglang Yi Autonomous County.
Owing to its low latitude and high elevation, the city centre of Lijiang experiences a mild subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). Winters are mild and very dry and sunny (>70% possible sunshine), although average lows in December and January are just below the freezing mark; January, the coolest month, with 24-hour average temperature of 6.4 °C (43.5 °F). Spring begins early and remains dry and sunny until late May, when there is a dramatic uptick in frequency and amount of rainfall that lasts until late September. Summers are warm, rainy (more so than it is sunny) and damp, with June, the warmest month, averaging 18.6 °C (65.5 °F). Autumn sees an abrupt reduction in rainfall and return to sunniness. The annual mean temperature is 12.93 °C (55.3 °F), while precipitation averages 980 mm (38.6 in), around 80% of which occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 32% in July to 80% in December, the city receives 2,463 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Lijiang (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.6
|Average high °C (°F)||14.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.7
|Average low °C (°F)||0.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||5.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.3||3.5||5.0||7.0||12.3||18.3||23.6||22.5||19.8||10.7||3.2||1.1||129.3|
|Average snowy days||1.8||0.9||0.4||0.1||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.3||0.3||3.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||44||43||45||49||58||70||80||82||82||72||60||51||61|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||256.7||233.3||246.0||235.1||212.8||159.9||119.6||134.8||125.5||192.4||236.3||259.3||2,411.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||78||73||66||61||51||39||29||34||34||55||74||80||56|
|Source 1: China Meteorological Administration|
|Source 2: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, snow days, sunshine 1991–2020) |
The government of Lijiang City sits in Gucheng District.
Lijiang City comprises one district and four counties:
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
|1||Gucheng District||古城区||Gǔchéng Qū||211,151||1,127||187|
|2||Yongsheng County||永胜县||Yǒngshèng Xiàn||392,024||5,099||77|
|3||Huaping County||华坪县||Huápíng Xiàn||168,028||2,266||74|
|4||Yulong Nakhi Autonomous County||玉龙纳西族自治县||Yùlóng Nàxīzú Zìzhìxiàn||214,697||6,521||33|
|5||Ninglang Yi Autonomous County||宁蒗彝族自治县||Nínglàng Yízú Zìzhìxiàn||258,869||6,206||42|
The Naxi people have their own language. The Naxi language belongs to the Tibetan-Burmese language branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is roughly divided into two dialects by the Jinsha River. The dialects cannot talk to each other. The standard language of Naxi language is based on the dialect of the western dialect of Naxi language, and the voice of Dayan Town of Lijiang City is the standard sound. In the long history of the Naxi people, there have been Dongbawen and Gobawen characters. "Dongbawen" is a hieroglyph created by the Naxi people more than a thousand years ago (before the Tang dynasty). It consists of pictographic symbols, phonetic symbols and additional symbols. It is the only living hieroglyph in the world that is still circulating in the folk. The Naxi people generally live in dam areas, river valleys and half-mountain areas. The private housing in the dam area is mostly a tiled house with civil structures. The pattern is mostly "three rooms and one wall", and the mountainous areas are mostly low wooden raft houses, which are covered with wooden boards. The Naxi people love singing and dancing, and there are often mass songs and dances in production labor and national festivals. The "Three Festivals" at the beginning of the lunar calendar in early February is the most traditional festival of the people of Lijiang Naxi.
Mosuo is used to living in the mountains and waters. The houses are all made of wood. The traditional festivals of the Mosuo people include the Spring Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Chaoshan Festival, the Ancestor Festival, the Sacrifice God Festival, and the Festival of Land Festival. Among them, the Spring Festival and the Chaoshan Festival are the most solemn. Mosuo people can sing and dance.
The Yi people have a long history, and their ancestors are "Kunming" people who have a relationship with them. They were called "Wu Man" in the Tang and Song Dynasties. The Yi people have their own language and words. The language belongs to the Tibetan-Burmese language branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. There are six dialects. The Xiaoliangshan Yi people belong to the northern dialect Shizha. Originally an ancient ideogram, some people think it is a pictographic syllable. In the history of the Yi people, they wrote historical, literary, astronomical and medical books, religious classics and so on. Most of the Yi villages are surrounded by mountains and waters, and the environment is beautiful. Generally, there are two or 30 households, and three or five households or single households are rare. The people living in Xiaoliangshan are generally low in order to avoid the cold of the mountains. Mostly, it is a timber frame with a multi-column landing structure. The four walls are made of wood or fenced with bamboo and wood. There are many festivals for the Yi people, such as the Lunar Festival, the 15th Festival, the February 8th, and the March 3rd Festival, especially the Torch Festival.
The Lisu language belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family. The Lisu people live in a high-slope area. Due to the influence of the terrain and habits, there are no villages that live in dozens of houses. Generally, there are dozens of households on two or three hills as a village. The villages are far apart, and the houses are mainly wooden rafts. The Lisu people have oral songs and long poems, as well as many myths and legends. Every December, the people of Huaping and other places will hold a grand ceremony to celebrate the "Wide Season" (New Year's Day). There are also the Dragon Boat Festival "Hangshan Festival" and Lixia "Holy Water Festival" in Lijiang Dawn Township.
The language of the Pumi people belongs to the Yi language branch of the Tibetan-Burmese language group of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The local dialects have little difference and generally can talk to each other. There are no words in the Pumi people. The Pumi people in Ninglang and Muli used to spell the Pumi language in Tibetan language to record historical legends and songs, but they are not popular and are now widely used in Chinese. The Pumi people live in a multi-clan, mostly on the mountainside, and the houses are mostly the layout of the wooden courtyard. The Pumi people have their own unique culture and art. Among them, the myths, legends and stories are the most numerous. The Pumi people can sing and dance. In the event of a wedding or funeral festival, a "song to the song" competition is held. Pumi men also like sports such as shooting, archery, wrestling, and martial arts. The most popular national traditional festival of the Pumi is the "Ohwa Festival" (the New Year) on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month. In addition, there is the "Turning Sea Festival" on the 15th of the first month, and the "Taste of the New Festival" in the spring and autumn harvest season.
Salad of Jidou pea jelly is a traditional food that Naxi loves. It is produced in Lijiangba and belongs to the yellow bean family. Because it is shaped like a chicken head, it is called chicken pea powder. The beans are milled into vermicelli, the color is gray-green, fried, the salad is very tasty, and the fragrance is delicious. It is a dish on the Naxi table.
Lijiang Baba is the local fine wheat noodles, plus ham, chemical oil, sugar and other condiments, and mix thoroughly to form a layer. Eat a golden crisp, sweet and delicious, oily but not greasy.
Naxi barbecue is a traditional carbace dish popular on Lijiang Tea Horse Road. The main ingredient is pork belly. The skin is golden and crisp, fat but not greasy, thin and not firewood, and the taste is crisp.
Crossing-the-Bridge Noodles is a rice noodle soup from the Yunnan province, it has over 100 years of history. The dish is served with a large bowl of boiling hot broth and the soup ingredients. The soup is made with chicken, pork bone and seasoning, such as Chinese star anise and ginger. Also, using a layer of chicken fat to insulate the soup and therefore keep it warm for longer.
Erkuai is a type of rice cake, the name literally means "ear piece," a reference to the shape of one of its common forms. It is often served stir-fried with vegetables, and málà sauce, which is a mixture of dried red chilis, Sichuan pepper, and salt.
Lijiang railway station is currently the terminus of the Dali–Lijiang railway, which heads south. The Lijiang–Shangri-La railway, currently under construction, will extend this line north to Shangri-La.
Old Town of Lijiang (丽江古镇) is a national historical and cultural city. It was built in the late Song dynasty (late 13th century AD). It is located in the middle of Lijiang Dam. It is the most preserved and most Naxi-style ancient town in China. It is located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. At an altitude of 2,416 meters, the city covers an area of 3.8 square kilometers. In December 1997, it was included in the “World Cultural Heritage” list by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
Lugu Lake (泸沽湖) is 2,680 meters above sea level, with an area of more than 50 square kilometers. The average lake depth is 45 meters and the deepest is 93 meters. The lake is clear and blue, with a visibility of 12–14 meters. It is one of the deepest freshwater lakes in China.
Jade Dragon Snow Mountain (玉龙雪山) is located between 100°4′2”-100°16’30” east longitude and 27°3’2”-27°18’57” north latitude. The scenic area is 415 square kilometers. The main peak fan is 5,596 meters above sea level. It has snow all year round and develops the temperate maritime glaciers closest to the equator in the Eurasian continent. Jade Dragon Snow Mountain is called "Oulu" in Naxi, meaning silvery mountain rock. Its silver-packed, 13 snow peaks are endless, just like a "dragon" flying over the clouds, it is called "Jade Dragon." Because its lithology is mainly limestone and basalt, it is black and white, so it is also called "black and white snow mountain". She is the mountain of the hearts of the Naxi people. It is said that the Naxi people protect the gods of the "three more" incarnation.
The Laojun Mountain (老君山) is a combination of the three national-level scenic spots in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, the Three Rivers Concurrent, and the Cangshan Erhai Lake. It is an important part of the Yulong Snow Mountain Scenic Area. This scenic spot is mainly composed of Laojunshan Jiujiu Longtan, Jinsi Factory Jinshan Yuhu, Dawn Meile Danxia Landform, New Main Natural Alpine Botanical Garden and other areas (attractions), with a total area of 715 square kilometers, which is under planning and development. Ecotourism resort. It echoes with the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain and forms the east and west wings of Lijiang's tourism resources.
Some 35 kilometers north of Lijiang is the Baishui Terrace (白水台; bái shuǐ tái; 'White Water Terrace'), an area where spring water flows over a sinter terrace, leaving behind travertine.
Fifteen kilometers north of Lijiang is the village of Baisha, famous for the Baisha Fresco and the Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute. The Fresco was built in the Ming dynasty 600 years ago, the Naxi Hand-made Embroidery Institute was built 800 years ago, it is the headquarters of the Naxi embroideries and also, a school for the Naxi embroiderers. There are many Naxi embroidery masters, teachers, students and local farmers there. Their embroidery arts can be found there.
Lijiang Teachers College (Chinese: 丽江师范高等专科学校; pinyin: Lìjiāng Shīfàn Gāoděng Zhuānkēxuéxiào) and Lijiang Culture and Tourism College (丽江文化旅游学院; Lìjiāng Wénhuà Lǚyóu Xuéyuàn) are located in Lijiang. The latter was a branch of Yunnan University (YNU). At one point the teacher's college merged into YNU.