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Fangchenggang
防城港市 • Fangzcwngzgangj Si
防城港市防城区一角 - panoramio.jpg
Location of Fangchenggang City jurisdiction in Guangxi
Location of Fangchenggang City jurisdiction in Guangxi
Fangchenggang is located in China
Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang
Location in China
Coordinates (Fangchenggang government): 21°41′12″N 108°21′17″E / 21.6867°N 108.3547°E / 21.6867; 108.3547Coordinates: 21°41′12″N 108°21′17″E / 21.6867°N 108.3547°E / 21.6867; 108.3547
CountryPeople's Republic of China
RegionGuangxi
Municipal seatGangkou District
Area
 • Total6,181 km2 (2,386 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total860,100
 • Density140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
538000
Area code0770
ISO 3166 codeCN-GX-06
Websitefcgs.gov.cn
Fangchenggang
Chinese name
Chinese防城港
Vietnamese name
VietnameseThành phố Phòng Thành Cảng /
Phòng Thành Cảng thị
Chữ Hán防城港市
Chữ Nôm城庯防城港
Zhuang name
ZhuangFangzcwngzgangj Si
1957 orthographyFaŋƨcɯŋƨgaŋз Si

Fangchenggang (Chinese: 防城港 ''The port of Fangcheng'') is a prefecture-level city in the south of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. The city was formerly called "Fangcheng Pan-Ethnicities Autonomous County" (25 December 1978 – 23 May 1993).[1]

Fangcheng is the southernmost port in China and is located in Fangchenggang. It primarily services bulk carriers, of up to 180,000 deadweight tonnes in size.[2] The closest airport is located in Nanning, about 170 km away (4 hours drive).[3] As of December 2018, the region had large amounts of land reclamation in progress to build new and additional ports.[4]

History

Geography and climate

Fangchenggang is a coastal city in southern Guangxi, bordering Vietnam. Its area is 6,181 km2 (2,386 sq mi), 120 km2 (46 sq mi) of that urban.

Climate data for Fangchenggang (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.3
(79.3)
28.1
(82.6)
29.8
(85.6)
33.0
(91.4)
34.5
(94.1)
37.4
(99.3)
36.5
(97.7)
37.4
(99.3)
36.9
(98.4)
33.6
(92.5)
31.2
(88.2)
28.1
(82.6)
37.4
(99.3)
Average high °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
18.7
(65.7)
21.1
(70.0)
25.7
(78.3)
29.2
(84.6)
30.5
(86.9)
31.1
(88.0)
31.3
(88.3)
30.8
(87.4)
28.7
(83.7)
24.7
(76.5)
20.4
(68.7)
25.8
(78.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
15.7
(60.3)
18.2
(64.8)
22.8
(73.0)
26.3
(79.3)
28.1
(82.6)
28.6
(83.5)
28.3
(82.9)
27.4
(81.3)
25.0
(77.0)
20.9
(69.6)
16.8
(62.2)
22.7
(72.9)
Average low °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
13.6
(56.5)
16.1
(61.0)
20.9
(69.6)
24.1
(75.4)
25.9
(78.6)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
22.4
(72.3)
18.1
(64.6)
14.2
(57.6)
20.4
(68.6)
Record low °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
2.8
(37.0)
7.5
(45.5)
9.1
(48.4)
15.3
(59.5)
21.3
(70.3)
22.2
(72.0)
21.4
(70.5)
16.1
(61.0)
15.0
(59.0)
7.7
(45.9)
3.5
(38.3)
2.8
(37.0)
Average relative humidity (%) 74 81 84 85 83 86 84 83 78 71 67 67 79
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center

Administration

Fangchenggang has 2 urban districts, 1 county, 1 county-level city, 19 townships, 13 towns, 283 villages, and 19 sub-districts.

Districts:

County-level city:

County:

Map

Demographics

Fangchenggang has a total population of 717,966. Ethnic groups and their corresponding numbers are Han 390,286 or 54.36%, Zhuang 287,207 or 40% Yao 26,749 or 3.73%, Jing 12,288 or 1.71% and all other minorities combined 1,436 or 0.02%. Population density is 116 people per km2 and population growth is 7.75% annually.

Fangchenggang is a linguistically diverse city. The local languages include Qin-Lian Yue(a branch of Yue or Cantonese), Ngai language(a branch of Hakka), Zhuang, Yao, Vietnamese(Chinese Kinh language), of which the most dominant language is Yue.

Economy

Fanchenggang, the last part of which "gang" means port is as its name implies an important port for Guangxi, and other than Beihai the only major Chinese port on the Tonkin Gulf.

Besides port related industries there is substantial tourism, commercial fishing, hydropower, food and beverage production, and agriculture. Agricultural products include rice, corn, peanuts, oranges, and sugarcane. Other natural resources are coal, limestone, and spring water. The first phase of Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Plant, a nuclear power plant project is under construction here.

Fangchenggang is served by a railway branch from Qinzhou East through a half an hour train journey and to Nanning, a one and a half hour train ride. Since the end of 2013, the city's Fangchenggang North Railway Station has high-speed (D-series) train service from Nanning. As of March 2019, there were two trains daily (T type) to Qinzhou and 9 trains (D type) daily to Nanning railway station.[5]

Flora and fauna

Like much of Guangxi, there are many forested mountains and stream filled valleys. The area along the border with Vietnam is relatively undeveloped and draws considerable tourism. Fangchenggang's forests contain more than 500 types of plants, more than 4000 medicinal plants and herbs, 25 species of mammals, and many species of insects, reptiles, amphibians, and birds. Many nationally protected animals can still be found in Fangchenggang such as gibbons, frogs, butterflies, and tortoises. In the ocean waters, whales, dolphins, and dugongs can be seen.

The city flower of Fangchenggang Camellia nitidissima (金花茶, lit. 'gloden flower tea', Mandarin: Jīnhuāchá, Fangcheng Yue: [kɐm˦˥ fa˦˥ tɕʰa˧˩], Fangcheng Hakka: [kim˦˥ fa˦˥ tɕʰa˩˧] ), which is and a kind of quite rare Camellia plant only attribute in the area near the border between Vietnam and Guangxi. The flowers of Camellia nitidissima are made as bagged dryed flowers for making tea and sell as a local specialty.

Culture

Tea-picking opera

Mandarin Chinese: 採茶戲; pinyin: Cǎichá Xì; Fangcheng Yue dialect: 採茶 [tɕʰɔj˩˧.tɕʰa˨˩], Fangcheng Hakka dialect:  採茶 [tɕʰɔj˨˩.tɕʰa˩˧]

Tea-picking opera is the most popular traditional Chinese opera in Fangchenggang, in some grant occasions, celebrations and events such as fuels, traditionally the organizers of those will hire a Tea-picking opera theatre company to perform.

Opera theatre also perform on a provisional and simple stage held by themselves on the side of streets, those locations are often fixedly chosen.

Nowadays, tea-picking opera actors generally speak Fangcheng Yue dialect in performances, but not entirely, they always consciously or unconsciously make their pronunciation approach to Guangzhou Cantonese, the standard and authoritative dialect to Cantonese.

Cuisine

Notable people

Chén Jìtáng (陳濟棠)

References

  1. ^ "China's Fangchenggang: natural beauty and port economy". Sino-US.com. 9 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  2. ^ Guide to port entry. London: IHS Port guides. 4 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Port of Fang cheng - port details". Searates. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |url= (help)
  4. ^ "Ships currently in Fangcheng port". www.marinetraffic.com. Marine traffic. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  5. ^ Fangchenggang North train schedule