Coordinates: 19°45′N 107°45′E / 19.750°N 107.750°E / 19.750; 107.750

Gulf of Tonkin
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese1. 北部灣
2. 東京灣
Simplified Chinese1. 北部湾
2. 东京湾
Literal meaning1. Northern Gulf
2. Gulf of Tonkin
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese1. Vịnh Bắc Bộ
2. Vịnh Bắc Phần
3. Vịnh Bắc Việt
Chữ Nôm1. 泳北部
2. 泳北分
3. 泳北越
True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin
True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin

The Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnamese: Vịnh Bắc Bộ, simplified Chinese: 北部湾; traditional Chinese: 北部灣; pinyin: Běibù Wān; lit. Northern Gulf; formerly known as 东京湾 or 東京灣 during the ROC period) is a gulf at the northwestern portion of the South China Sea, located off the coasts of Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and South China. It has a total surface area of 126,250 km2 (48,750 sq mi). It is defined in the west and northwest by the northern coastline of Vietnam down to the Hòn La Island, in the north by China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and to the east by the Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan Island.

Etymology

The bay's Vietnamese and Chinese names – Vịnh Bắc Bộ and Běibù Wān, respectively – both mean "Northern Bay". Bắc Bộ is the native Vietnamese name of Tonkin. The name Tonkin, written "東京" in Hán-Nôm characters and Đông Kinh in the Vietnamese alphabet, means "eastern capital", and is the former toponym for Hanoi, the present capital of Vietnam. It should not to be confused with Tokyo, which is also written "東京" and also means "eastern capital". During Vietnam's French colonial era, the northern region was called Tonkin.

1964 incident

Main article: Gulf of Tonkin incident

On 4 August 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson claimed that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.[1] Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this event spawned the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 7 August 1964, ultimately leading to open war between North Vietnam and the United States. It furthermore foreshadowed the major escalation of the Vietnam War in South Vietnam, which began with the landing of US regular combat troops at Da Nang in 1965.

See also

References

  1. ^ Fletcher, Martin (1 December 2001). "LBJ tape 'confirms Vietnam war error'". The Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2001.

Further reading