Two shatranj players in a detail from a Persian miniature painting of Bayasanghori Shahname made in 1430
Two shatranj players in a detail from a Persian miniature painting of Bayasanghori Shahname made in 1430

Shatranj (Arabic: شطرنج; Persian: شترنج; from Middle Persian chatrang چترنگ) is an old form of chess, as played in the Sasanian Empire. Its origins are in the Indian game of chaturaṅga.[1] Modern chess gradually developed from this game, as it was introduced to Europe by contacts in Muslim Al-Andalus (modern Spain) and in Sicily in the 10th century.

Etymology and origins

The Persian word shatranj ultimately derives from Sanskrit (Sanskrit: चतुरङ्ग; caturaṅga) (catuḥ: "four"; anga: "arm"), referring to the game of the same name: Chaturanga. In Middle Persian the word appears as chatrang, with the 'u' lost due to syncope and the 'a' lost to apocope, such as in the title of the text Mâdayân î chatrang ("Book of Chess") from the 7th century AD. In Persian folk etymology, a Persian text refers to Shah Ardashir I, who ruled from 224–241, as a master of the game:

Antique North Indian Mughul Shatranj Chess Set made from Sandalwood.
Antique North Indian Mughul Shatranj Chess Set made from Sandalwood.

"By the help of Providence, Ardeshir became more victorious and warlike than all, on the polo and the riding-ground, at Chatrang and Vine-Artakhshir, and in several other arts."[2]

However, Karnamak contains many fables and legends, and this only establishes the popularity of chatrang at the time of its composition.[3]

Iranian shatranj set, glazed fritware, 12th century Nishapur (New York Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Iranian shatranj set, glazed fritware, 12th century Nishapur (New York Metropolitan Museum of Art)

During the reign of the later Sassanid king Khosrau I (531–579), a gift from an Indian king (possibly a Maukhari Dynasty king of Kannauj)[6] included a chess game with sixteen pieces of emerald and sixteen of ruby (green vs. red).[3] The game came with a challenge which was successfully resolved by Khosrau's courtiers. This incident, originally referred to in the Mâdayân î chatrang (c. 620 AD), is also mentioned in Ferdowsi's Shahnama (c. 1010).

The rules of chaturanga seen in India today have enormous variation, but all involve four branches (angas) of the army: the horse (knight), the elephant (bishop), the chariot (rook) and the foot soldier (pawn), played on an 8×8 board. Shatranj adapted much of the same rules as chaturanga, and also the basic 16-piece structure. There is also a larger 10×11 board derivative; the 14th-century Tamerlane chess, or shatranj kamil (perfect chess), with a slightly different piece structure.

In some later variants the darker squares were engraved. The game spread Westwards after the Islamic conquest of Persia and a considerable body of literature on game tactics and strategy was produced from the 8th century onwards.

In early Indian chaturanga (c. 500–700), the king could be captured and this ended the game. Persian shatranj (c. 700–800) introduced the idea of warning that the king was under attack (announcing check in modern terminology). This was done to avoid the early and accidental end of a game. Later the Persians added the additional rule that a king could not be moved into check or left in check. As a result, the king could not be captured,[7] and checkmate was the only decisive way of ending a game.[8]

With the spread of Islam, chess diffused into the Maghreb and then to Andalusian Spain. During the Islamic conquest of India (c. 12th century), some forms came back to India as well, as evidenced in the North Indian term māt (mate, derivative from Persian māt) or the Bengali borey (pawn, presumed derived from the Arabic baidaq).[9] Over the following centuries, chess became popular in Europe, eventually giving rise to modern chess.

Rules

Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8
a8
b8
c8
d8
e8
f8
g8
h8
8
7
a7
b7
c7
d7
e7
f7
g7
h7
7
6 a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6 6
5 a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5 5
4 a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4 4
3 a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3 3
2
a2
b2
c2
d2
e2
f2
g2
h2
2
1
a1
b1
c1
d1
e1
f1
g1
h1
1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
Shatranj starting setup

The initial setup in shatranj was essentially the same as in modern chess; however, the position of the white shah (king), on the right or left side was not fixed. Either the arrangement as in modern chess or as shown in the diagram were possible. In either case, the white and black shāh would be on the same file (but not always in modern India). The game was played with these pieces:

Shatranj pieces
Chess kll45.svg
Chess kdl44.png
shah (king)
Chess qll44.png
Chess qdl44.png
ferz (counselor or ferz)
Chess rll44.png
Chess rdl44.png
rukh ( rook)
Chess bll45.svg
Chess bdl45.svg
pīl, or "alfil" in Arabic (elephant or alfil)
Chess nll44.png
Chess ndl44.png
asb or faras (horse or knight)
Chess pll44.png
Chess pdl44.png
sarbaz / piyadeh, or "baydaq" in Arabic (soldier, infantryman or pawn)
a5 black cross
b5
c5
d5
e5 black cross
a4
b4
c4
d4
e4
a3
b3
c3 white bishop
d3
e3
a2
b2
c2
d2
e2
a1 black cross
b1
c1
d1
e1 black cross
Moves of the alfil, which can jump over other pieces
a5
b5
c5
d5
e5
a4
b4 black cross
c4
d4 black cross
e4
a3
b3
c3 white queen
d3
e3
a2
b2 black cross
c2
d2 black cross
e2
a1
b1
c1
d1
e1
Moves of the ferz

Pieces are shown on the diagrams and recorded in the notation using the equivalent modern symbols, as in the table above. In modern descriptions of shatranj, the names king, rook, knight and pawn are commonly used for shah, rukh, faras, and baidaq.

There were also other differences compared to modern chess: Castling was not allowed (it was invented much later). Stalemating the opposing king resulted in a win for the player delivering stalemate. Capturing all one's opponent's pieces apart from the king (baring the king) was a win, unless the opponent could capture the last piece on their next move, which was considered a draw in most places in the Islamic world (except for Medina, where it was a win).[3]

a5 white bishop
b5 white knight
c5 white rook
d5 white knight
e5 white bishop
a4 white knight
b4 white queen
c4 white rook
d4 white queen
e4 white knight
a3 white rook
b3 white rook
c3 black cross
d3 white rook
e3 white rook
a2 white knight
b2 white queen
c2 white rook
d2 white queen
e2 white knight
a1 white bishop
b1 white knight
c1 white rook
d1 white knight
e1 white bishop
Complementarity of the shatranj pieces' movements, excluding king and pawn.

The possible movements of the main shatranj pieces, excluding that of the king and pawn, are complementary to one another, and without any omission or redundancy occupy all available squares with respect to the central position of a 5x5 grid, as shown in the figure to the right.[10]

History

Early shatranj
Early shatranj
Ivory chess king or vizier, 9th century, islamic art
Ivory chess king or vizier, 9th century, islamic art

Middle Persian literature

Three books written in Pahlavi, Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan, Khosrow and ridag, and Wizārišn ī čhatrang ("Treatise on Chess"), also known as the Chatrang Nama ("Book of Chess"), all mention chatrang. In Kār-nāmak it is said that Ardashīr "with the help of the gods became more victorious and experienced than all others in polo, horsemanship, chess, backgammon, and other arts," and in the small treatise on Khosrow and ridag, the latter declares that he is superior to his comrades in chess, backgammon, and hašt pāy. Bozorgmehr, the author of Wizārišn ī čhatrang, describes how the game of chess was sent as a test to Khosrow I (r. 531-79) by the "king of the Hindus Dēvsarm" with the envoy Takhtarītūs and how the test was answered by the vizier Bozorgmehr, who in his turn invented the game Backgammon as a test for the Hindus. These three Middle Persian sources do not give any certain indication of the date when chess was introduced into Persia. The mentions of chess in Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan and Khosrow and ridag are simply conventional and may easily represent late Sasanian or even post-Sasanian redactions.[11] According to Touraj Daryaee, Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan is from 6th century.[12] Wizārišn ī čhatrang was written in the 6th century.[13]

Early Arabic literature

During the Islamic Golden Age, many works on shatranj were written, recording for the first time the analysis of opening moves, game problems, the knight's tour, and many more subjects common in modern chess books. Many of these manuscripts are missing, but their content is known due to compilation work done by the later authors.[3]

The earliest listing of works on chess is in the Fihrist, a general bibliography produced in 377 AH (988 AD) by Ibn al-Nadim.[14][15] It includes an entire section on the topic of chess, listing:

There is a passage referring to chess in a work said to be by al-Hasan al-Basri, a philosopher from Basra who died in 728 AD.[citation needed] The attribution of authorship is dubious, however.

Player classification

Al-Adli as well as As-Suli introduced classifications of players by their playing strength. Both of them specify five classes of players:

To determine a player's class, a series or match would be undertaken with a player of a known class without odds. If the player won 7 or more games out of 10, he belonged to a higher class.

Players

During the reign of the Arab caliphs, shatranj players of highest class were called aliyat or grandees.[3] There were only a few players in this category including:

Gameplay

Openings

Mujannah–Mashaikhi opening
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8
a8
b8
c8
d8
e8
f8
g8
h8
8
7
a7
b7 c7
d7
e7
f7
g7
h7 7
6 a6
b6
c6
d6
e6
f6
g6
h6
6
5 a5 b5 c5
d5
e5
f5 g5 h5 5
4 a4 b4
c4
d4 e4
f4
g4 h4 4
3 a3
b3
c3
d3
e3
f3
g3
h3 3
2
a2
b2 c2 d2 e2 f2 g2
h2
2
1 a1
b1
c1
d1
e1
f1
g1
h1 1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
In the opening, players usually tried to reach a specific position, tabiya.

Openings in shatranj were usually called taʿbīya تَعبِيّة (pl. taʿbīyāt), تَعبِيّات in Arabic, which can be translated as battle array. Due to slow piece development in shatranj, the exact sequence of moves was relatively unimportant. Instead players aimed to reach a specific position, tabiya, mostly ignoring the play of their opponent.

The works of al-Adli and as-Suli contain collections of tabiyat. Tabiyat were usually given as position on a half-board with some comments about them. The concrete sequence of moves to reach them was not specified. In his book Al-Lajlaj analyzed some tabiya in detail. He started his analysis from some given opening, for example "Double Mujannah" or "Mujannah–Mashaikhi", and then continued up to move 40, giving numerous variations.

Piece values

Both al-Adli and as-Suli provided estimation of piece values in their books on shatranj. They used a monetary system to specify piece values. For example, as-Suli gives piece values in dirhem, the currency in use in his time:[3]

Piece Value Shape of piece sometimes found
king
king
2   seat, representing a throne
rook
rook
5   rectangular block with V-shaped cut in top, representing a chariot
Chess nll44.png
knight
3   cone with beak-shaped sideways projection at top
Chess qll44.png
ferz
2   seat, smaller than king, depicting a smaller throne
Chess bll44.png
alfil
2   cone with notch cut in top
the horses
pawn
1   small cone, or sometimes a dome

Mansubat

Dilaram Problem, c. 10th century
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
8 a8
b8
c8 d8 e8 f8
g8
h8 8
7 a7 b7 c7 d7 e7 f7 g7 h7 7
6 a6 b6 c6 d6 e6
f6
g6
h6 6
5 a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5 5
4
a4
b4
c4
d4 e4 f4
g4
h4
4
3 a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3
h3
3
2 a2
b2
c2 d2 e2 f2 g2 h2 2
1 a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 f1 g1
h1
1
Solid white.svg a b c d e f g h Solid white.svg
White to move and win

Persian chess masters composed many shatranj problems. Such shatranj problems were called manṣūba مَنصوبة (pl. manṣūbāt), منصوبات. This word can be translated from Arabic as arrangement, position or situation. Mansubat were typically composed in such a way that a win could be achieved as a sequence of checks. One's own king was usually threatened by immediate checkmate.

One Mansuba is the Dilaram Problem (see diagram). Black threatens immediate checkmate by 1...Ra2#, Ra8#, or either Rb4#. But White can win with a two-rook sacrifice:

1. Rh8+ Kxh8 2. Bf5+ Kg8 3. Rh8+ Kxh8 4. g7+ Kg8 5. Nh6#

Note that the alfil (bishop) moves two squares diagonally, jumping over intermediate pieces; this allows it to jump over the white knight to deliver the discovered check from the second rook with 2.Bf5+. It was said that a nobleman (playing White) wagered his wife Dilārām on a chess game and this position arose. She appealed "Sacrifice your two Rooks, and not me."[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jean-Louis Cazaux (2012-04-20). "Shatranj". History.chess.free.fr. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
  2. ^ Unknown court historian of the Sassanid Empire. The Karnamik-I-Ardashir, or The Records of Ardashir. Note: Vine-Artakhsir is a reference to the game later known as Nard, a predecessor of backgammon.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Murray 1913.
  4. ^ Eder, Manfred A. J. (2010). South Asian Archaeology 2007 Proceedings of the 19th Meeting of the European Association of South Asian Archaeology in Ravenna, Italy, July 2007, Volume II (PDF). Archaeopress Archaeology. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-4073-0674-2.
  5. ^ Bakker, Hans T. (2017). The Huns in Central and South Asia. How Two Centuries of War against Nomadic Invaders from the Steps are Concluded by a Game of Chess between the Kings of India and Iran.
  6. ^ Jean-Louis Cazaux (12 March 2004). "The Enigma of Chess birth: The Old Texts: 6th, 7th and 8th centuries". Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  7. ^ Davidson, Henry (1949), A Short History of Chess, McKay, ISBN 0-679-14550-8 (1981 paperback)*Emms, John (2004), Starting Out: Minor Piece Endgames, Everyman Chess, p. 22, ISBN 1-85744-359-4
  8. ^ Davidson, Henry (1949), A Short History of Chess, McKay, ISBN 0-679-14550-8 (1981 paperback)*Emms, John (2004), Starting Out: Minor Piece Endgames, Everyman Chess, pp. 63–64, ISBN 1-85744-359-4
  9. ^ Jean-Louis Cazaux (16 June 2006). "Indian Chess Sets". Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  10. ^ Something similar also holds for both modern chess (rook-knight-bishop and knight-queen), as well as Tamerlane chess (general-vizier-elephant-catapult-knight and rook-general-knight-camel-giraffe).
  11. ^ "CHESS". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  12. ^ Daryaee, Touraj (2009). Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd. p. 114. ISBN 9781850438984.
  13. ^ Explanation of chess and disposition of backgammon
  14. ^ Nadīm (al), Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq Abū Ya’qūb al-Warrāq (1970). Dodge, Bayard (ed.). The Fihrist of al-Nadim; a tenth-century survey of Muslim culture. Vol. i. New York & London: Columbia University Press. p. 341.
  15. ^ Nadīm (al-), Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq (1872). Flügel, Gustav (ed.). Kitāb al-Fihrist (in Arabic). Leipzig: F.C.W. Vogel. p. 567 (p.155).
  16. ^ Murray 1913, p. 311 (bottom).

Bibliography

Further reading