Manchu chess board and starting setup. The red chariot can also be placed on i1.[1]

Manchu chess[2] (Chinese: 满洲棋; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuqí[3]), also known as Yitong[4] or Yitong chess (Chinese: 一统棋; pinyin: Yìtǒngqí[5]), is a variant of xiangqi. It was created during the Qing dynasty by the Bannermen and was one of the most popular board games among them.[6]


Main article: Xiangqi § Pieces

Black's pieces are set up and move the same as in xiangqi, but horses, cannons, and one of the chariots are absent for Red.[2][3] The remaining chariot has the combined powers of the chariot, horse, and cannon.[2][3] Although Black appears to have the advantage, the lethality of the red chariot can easily lead to a losing endgame if Black does not play cautiously.[3] The red chariot is believed to be the representation of Solon soldiers who were brave and battle-hardened during the Manchu conquest of China.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Wei 1990, p. 237
  2. ^ a b c Finkel 2007, p. 126
  3. ^ a b c d Xu 1984, p. 4173
  4. ^ Cazaux & Knowlton 2017, p. 105
  5. ^ Wei 1990, p. 236
  6. ^ "Manchu Chess (满洲棋)". Liaoning Antique Archaeology Institute. Retrieved 2017-11-26.(in Chinese)
  7. ^ Xu 1984, pp. 4173–4174