Sandiganbayan
Seal of the Sandiganbayan
Flag of the Sandiganbayan
LocationCentennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Diliman, Quezon City
Composition methodPresidential appointment from the shortlist submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council
Authorized byConstitution of the Philippines
Appeals toSupreme Court of the Philippines
Appeals fromRegional Trial Court
Number of positions21
Annual budget₱1.37 billion (2020)[1]
Websitesb.judiciary.gov.ph
Presiding Justice
CurrentlyHon. Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang
SinceOctober 7, 2013
Facade in 2023

The Sandiganbayan (lit.'Support of the nation'[2]) is a special appellate collegial court in the Philippines that has jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices and other offenses committed by public officers and employees, including those in government-owned and controlled corporations. The special court was established by Presidential Decree No. 1486. It was subsequently modified by Presidential Decree No. 1606 and by Republic Acts 7975, 8249 and 10660.[3][4][5][6][7] It is equal in rank to the Court of Appeals, and consists of fourteen Associate Justices and one Presiding Justice.[8] The Office of the Ombudsman owns exclusive authority to bring cases to the Sandiganbayan.[9]

The Sandiganbayan is housed in the Centennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Diliman, Quezon City, Metro Manila.

History

Sandiganbayan

The Sandiganbayan was established under the administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos on June 11, 1978, by Presidential Decree No. 1486 in the 1973 Constitution. The court was equal in rank to the Regional Trial Courts (then known as the Courts of First Instance). On December 10, 1978, Presidential Decree No. 1606 elevated the ranking of the Sandiganbayan to match that of the Court of Appeals, the second-highest judicial court in the Philippines. The Sandiganbayan began operations on February 12, 1979.[10]

Amendments were introduced in Republic Acts No. 7975 and No. 8249, after the EDSA Revolution in 1986, which limited the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to "cases involving public officials occupying positions classified as salary grade 27 and higher."[10]

The Sandiganbayan currently sits in seven divisions of three justices each, as per R.A. No. 10660, amending P.D. No. 1606.[11]

Martial law

When the Sandiganbayan began operations in 1979, it was composed of only one division (with Hon. Manuel R. Pamaran as Presiding Justice and two Associate Justices) and a 15-membered skeleton crew. In 1981, a second division was launched. A third division was formed on August 4, 1982.[10]

Aquino investigation

Main article: Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

In the wake of the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. in August 1983, Ferdinand Marcos submitted the case for an immediate trial to the Sandiganbayan. Marcos' critics, who included business leaders and church leaders, claimed that the Sandiganbayan had no experience in trying a murder and demanded an appointment of an imperial prosecutor and independent judicial body instead.[12]

In 1984, the 26 people accused in the assassination of Aquino were acquitted by the Sandiganbayan in a 90-page verdict. The verdict disregarded all findings of the Agrava Commission, which was appointed to investigate the assassination.[13]

On June 13, 1985, the Sandiganbayan, with the aid of the commission, threw out the case against General Fabian Ver, the chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, together with seven other military men. The Sandiganbayan voted for the exclusion of their testimonies in that they were self-incriminatory and inadmissible as evidence. The Supreme Court upheld this decision by a vote of 10–3 in August. Ver was soon reinstated as chief of staff by Marcos on December 2.[14]

Post-martial law

1987 Constitution

Main article: 1987 Constitution

Corazon Aquino inauguration

On February 2, 1987, a new constitution was ratified under President Corazon Aquino. The 1987 Constitution dictated the separation of powers and a system of checks and balances between the executive, legislature, and judiciary branches.[15]

The 1987 Constitution expanded the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to include cases investigated by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) involving only on ill-gotten wealth, dictated by Executive Orders No. 14 and No. 14-A (main SB site & EO 14). In April 1994, Imelda Marcos and three former officials of the Ministry of Human Settlements (MHS) were indicted for the misappropriation of Php 97.9 million in MHS funds in 1985. At the same time, however, the Sandiganbayan dismissed charges against Imelda Marcos in connection with the sale of $125.9 million in Central Bank Treasury notes in the 1980s.[16]

Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the Ombudsman Act of 1989, the Office of the Ombudsman independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption.

Laws on graft and corruption in the Philippines

Laws on graft and corruption have been in effect as early as the 1950s, before the creation of the Sandiganbayan. Graft and corruption laws govern both public officers and natural persons.[17] The collection of these laws is overseen by the Office of the Ombudsman.

Republic Act Nos. 3019 and 1379

The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act is a law that stipulates that the Philippine Government shall repress certain acts of both public officers and the natural persons that may constitute graft or corruption. Acts that are subject under these laws include graft, divulging otherwise private information, negligence in warranted requests, undue injury by a public officer to any party – private or government – in the form of unwarranted benefits or disadvantages.[17]

In the case of unexplained accrual of wealth, R.A. No. 1379 states that a petition may be filed against any public officer who has acquired property unlawfully, be it through graft or any form of corruption. This petition should come from the Solicitor General of the Republic of the Philippines as per complaint by a taxpayer.

Republic Act No. 7080

Any public officer who amasses a certain amount of ill-gotten wealth (at least fifty-million pesos) through means of criminal acts – be it by himself or in connivance with other, shall be subject to reclusion perpetua, a form of imprisonment for life. Any accomplice shall be sentenced with the same.[18]

Republic Act. No. 9184

Under the Government Procurement Reform Act, public officers who commits any of the following who colludes with private individuals performs the following illegal acts in RA 9184 will suffer an imprisonment of not less than six years and one day, but not more than fifteen years.

Jurisdiction

Position of the Sandiganbayan in the Philippine judicial system as presented by the Department of Budget and Management.[19]

To determine whether the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction, lawyers look into two criteria, namely: the nature of the offense and the salary grade of the public official.[20]

The Sandiganbayan shall have original exclusive jurisdiction over:

Provided that the accused belongs to a salary grade of 27 or higher, the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction over:

Private individuals can also be sued in cases before the Sandiganbayan if they are alleged to be in conspiracy with the public officer.[20]

The Sandiganbayan is vested with appellate jurisdiction over final judgments, resolutions or orders of the Regional Trial Court whether in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdiction over crimes and civil cases falling within the original exclusive jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan but which were committed by public officers below Salary Grade 27.[20]

Composition

The Sandiganbayan has a total of fifteen departments (two head offices, twelve divisions, and one Legal Research and Technical Staff) and a total of 385 authorized positions. 335 of 385 of these positions are filled.[21]

Electoral procedure

According to the Presidential Decree No. 1606, Section 1, the Presiding Justice and all Associate Justices shall be appointed by the president, as amended by Republic Act 8249.[22]

Appointment of the Court Officials and other employees, however, is not dependent on the president. According to Rule II, Section 7 of the Revised Internal Rules of the Sandiganbayan, "The Supreme Court shall appoint the Clerk of Court, the Division Clerks of Court and all other personnel of the Sandiganbayan upon recommendation of the Sandiganbayan en banc chosen from a list of qualified applicants prepared in accordance with the Civil Service Law, rules and regulations."[23]

Qualifications

Presidential Decree No. 1606 further states that "No person shall be appointed Presiding Justice or Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan; unless he is natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at least 40 years of age and for at least ten years has been a judge of a court of record or been engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines or has held office requiring admission to the bar as a pre-requisite for a like period.[22]

Justices

Division and roles

The Sandiganbayan originally had three divisions that assisted the Office of the Presiding Justice, according to the Article XIII of the 1973 Constitution. The number of divisions was raised to five divisions in 1995. In 2015, through the Republic Act 10660, under the Aquino Administration, the number of divisions was expanded to seven divisions.[24] Currently, the Sandiganbayan has Office of the Presiding Justice, Office of the Clerk of Court, Legal Research and Technical Staff, seven divisions (Office of the Deputy Clerk of Court), and five other divisions namely Judicial Records Division, Administrative Division, Budget and Finance Division, Management Information System Division, Security and Sheriff Services Division. The functions and roles of these offices and divisions are:[22][25]

Cases

Procedures

The Sandiganbayan holds regular sessions in its principal office in Metro Manila. Sessions may be held outside of Metro Manila when authorized by the Presiding Justice. Cases are heard either en banc or more commonly, by divisions.[26]

Cases are distributed among the divisions through a raffle system. The assignment of a case to a division is permanent, regardless of changes in constitution. Justices may inhibit (i.e., recuse) themselves from a case if they served as Ponente, the Member to whom the Court, after its deliberation on the merits of a case, assigns the writing of its decision or resolution in the case[27]. in the appealed decision of the lower court, or if they or their family members are personally related with the case, or for any other compelling reason. In case of inhibition (recusal) or disqualification, the case will remain with the same division, but the recused justice will be replaced.[26]

Cases may reach the Sandiganbayan either through an appeal from a Regional Trial Court or by original petition filed with the Sandiganbayan.[26] After a case is raffled to a Division, the accused party must be arraigned within thirty days. A pre-trial conference is then held to reach an agreement and issue a pre-trial order. The case is then taken to trial.[28] Following the Speedy Trial Act of 1998, no trial may exceed six months from its starting date. However, the act also allows for certain delays that are excluded from the computed time of trial, including delays caused by other related proceedings involving the accused, absence of the accused or essential witness, and mental or physical incompetence of the accused to stand trial.[29]

Adjudication

Cases are deemed submitted for decision after the last brief, pleading, or memorandum is filed, or after the deadline for doing so has passed. All adjudicatory action is exercised through the divisions of the Sandiganbayan. The rendition of judgment or final order is based on the unanimous vote of the three Justices in the deciding division. When the Sandiganbayan sits en banc to resolve motions and other incidents, at least eight justices must vote in order to adopt a resolution.[26]

In a joint trial involving multiple cases, a joint or separate judgment may be rendered by the division. In cases involving multiple accused, the division may also render judgment for one or more of the accused by a unanimous vote.[26]

If a unanimous vote cannot be reached in any case, a special division of five will be formed to decide the case by majority vote. Promulgation is done by reading the judgment aloud with the accused present along with any Justice from the deciding division. Decisions are published in the Official Gazette or the official website of the Sandiganbayan.[26]

Appeals

In general, a party sentenced to any penalty lower than death, life imprisonment, or reclusion perpetua may appeal by filing a motion for reconsideration or a motion for new trial within fifteen days of promulgation of judgment. If a new trial is granted, the previous judgment will be overruled and the new judgment rendered. New trials must also not exceed six months in duration, albeit allowing for certain delays as specified in the Speedy Trial Act.[29] For civil cases, the accused party may file for a petition for a writ of certiorari with the Supreme Court. If the party files an appeal to the Supreme Court, any motion of reconsideration filed to the Sandiganbayan will be deemed abandoned.[26]

If the accused party wishes to appeal from a sentence of life imprisonment or reclusion perpetua, a notice of appeal is filed with the Sandiganbayan and presented to the adverse party. In cases where the Sandiganbayan sentences the accused to death penalty, an automatic appeal follows where the Supreme Court will conduct a review of judgment before the final decision is rendered.[26]

Notable cases

Jinggoy Estrada vs. Sandiganbayan

In June 2014, plunder charges against former Philippine senator Jinggoy Estrada and several other members of Congress allegedly involved in the pork barrel scam run by Janet Lim-Napoles were filed by the Ombudsman before the Sandiganbayan. Estrada was accused of plundering ₱183 million from the Priority Development Assistance Fund.[30]

Withdrawal of justices

In December 2014, all three justices of the Sandiganbayan Fifth Division (Associate Justices Roland Jurado, Alexander Gesmundo and Ma. Theresa Gómez-Estoesta) assigned to the case against Estrada recused themselves from the case for "personal reasons". This marked the first time in the court's history that an entire division withdrew from hearing a case. Though the justices refused to elaborate on their reasons for recusal, the withdrawal was said to have been due to "pressure" from the public to deny Estrada's petition for bail.[31]

Imelda Marcos vs. Sandiganbayan

In 1991, ten counts of graft were filed against former first lady Imelda Marcos before the Sandiganbayan. Marcos was accused of creating private Swiss foundations during her time as governor of Metro Manila, between 1978 and 1984. She was also accused of violating the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act by holding financial interests in multiple private enterprises. The government has since uncovered Marcos Swiss deposits amounting to $658 million.[32]

Another corruption case against Marcos involving "unlawfully acquired" art collections amounting to $24 million has been brought to the Sandiganbayan by appeals from the Presidential Commission on Good Government and the Office of the Solicitor General. The case is being handled by the Special First Division of the Sandiganbayan.[32]

Delays in court proceedings

The case against Imelda Marcos has been ongoing for over 26 years due to multiple causes of delay in court proceedings. In 2017, Marcos was absent from what was scheduled to be her last day of trial for the graft case. In the same year, the trial was reset by the Fifth Division due to the failure of the defense to present their last evidence in the case.[32]

Membership

This list contains the current membership of the Sandiganbayan as of 00:41, Monday, January 22, 2024 (UTC).

Incumbent justices

The Sandiganbayan consists of a Presiding justice and twenty associate justices. Among the current members of the Court, Efren De la Cruz is the longest-serving justice, with a tenure of 7,408 days (20 years, 103 days) as of January 22, 2024; the most recent justice to enter the court is Juliet M. Manalo-San Gaspar, whose tenure began on September 26, 2023.

Office Justice
(Date of Birth)
Date Appointed
Length of service[33]
Appointed by Date of Retirement
(70 years old)[34]
Replacing
Presiding Justice Amparo Cabotaje-Tang
(1954-11-08) November 8, 1954 (age 69)
October 7, 2013 Aquino III Nov 8, 2024 Villaruz, Jr
Senior Associate Justice Efren de la Cruz
(1954-06-18) June 18, 1954 (age 69)
October 11, 2003 Macapagal-Arroyo June 18, 2024 Badoy Jr.
Associate Justice
Rafael Lagos
(1954-12-22) December 22, 1954 (age 69)
May 17, 2013 Aquino III December 22, 2024 Geraldez
Oscar Herrera Jr.
(1954-05-23) May 23, 1954 (age 69)
December 6, 2016 May 23, 2024 Sandoval
Maria Theresa Dolores Gomez-Estoesta
(1967-03-17) March 17, 1967 (age 56)
January 20, 2014 March 17, 2037 Cabotaje-Tang
Sarah Jane Fernandez
(1969-05-14) May 14, 1969 (age 54)
May 5, 2015 May 14, 2039 Ong
Michael Frederick Musñgi
Michael Frederick L. Musñgi
(1965-04-14) April 14, 1965 (age 58)
January 20, 2016 April 14, 2035 New Seat
Maria Geraldine Faith Abtacia-Econg
(1965-08-06) August 6, 1965 (age 58)
January 20, 2016 August 6, 2035
Maria Theresa Mendoza-Arcega
(1965-12-18) December 18, 1965 (age 58)
January 20, 2016 December 18, 2035
Karl Miranda
(1957-10-09) October 9, 1957 (age 66)
January 20, 2016 October 9, 2027
Zaldy Trespeses
(1972-12-30) December 30, 1972 (age 51)
January 20, 2016 December 30, 2042
Bernelito Fernandez
(1955-06-09) June 9, 1955 (age 68)
October 28, 2016 Duterte June 9, 2025 Diaz-Baldos
Lorifel Lacap-Pahimna
(1961-02-10) February 10, 1961 (age 62)
Mar 1, 2017 February 10, 2031 Inoturan
Edgardo Caldona
(1970-02-12) February 12, 1970 (age 53)
Mar 10, 2017 February 12, 2040 Hernandez
Bayani Jacinto
(1969-04-30) April 30, 1969 (age 54)
May 29, 2017 April 30, 2039 Jurado
Kevin Narce Vivero
(1960-01-02) January 2, 1960 (age 64)
November 28, 2017 January 2, 2030 Martires
Maryann Corpus-Mañalac
(1966-07-27) July 27, 1966 (age 57)
December 8, 2017 July 27, 2036 Cornejo
Georgina Dumpit-Hidalgo
(1964-04-14) April 14, 1964 (age 59)
January 18, 2018 Apr 14, 2034 Ponferrada
Ronald Moreno

(1970-01-23) January 23, 1970 (age 53)

Jun 8, 2018
(5 years, 218 days)
Jan 23, 2040 Gesmundo
Arthur Malabagio
(1965-01-10) January 10, 1965 (age 59)
Mar 4, 2022 Jan 10, 2035 Cruz
Juliet Manalo-San Gaspar
(1971-07-02) July 2, 1971 (age 52)
September 26, 2023 Marcos Jr. July 2, 2041 Quiroz

Divisions

First Division Second Division Third Division Fourth Division
Chairperson E. Dela Cruz Chairperson O. Herrera, Jr. Chairperson A. Cabotaje-Tang Chairperson M. Musñgi
Members
    • G. Econg

"" J. Manalo-San Gaspar

Members
    • E. Caldona
    • A. Malabaguio
Members
    • B. Fernandez
    • R. Moreno
Members
    • L. Pahimna
    • B. Jacinto
Fifth Division Sixth Division Seventh Division
Chairperson R. Lagos Chairperson M. Gomez-Estoesta Chairperson S. Fernandez
Members
    • M. Mendoza-Arcega
    • M. Corpus-Mañalac
Members
    • K. Miranda
    • K. Vivero
Members
    • Z. Trespeses
    • G. Hidalgo

Demographics

By appointing President

President Total Percentage Justices
Aquino III 10 47.62%
  • A. Cabotaje-Tang
    Presiding Justice
  • R. Lagos
  • O. Herrera, Jr.
  • M. Gomez-Estoesta
  • G. Econg
  • S. Fernandez
  • M. Mendoza-Arcega
  • K. Miranda
  • M. Musñgi
  • Z. Trespeses
Duterte 9 42.86%
  • E. Caldona
  • M. Corpus-Mañalac
  • B. Fernandez
  • G. Hidalgo
  • B. Jacinto
  • L. Lacap-Pahimna
  • A Malabaguio
  • R. Moreno
  • K. Vivero
Macapagal Arroyo 1 4.76% E. De la Cruz
Senior Associate Justice
Bongbong Marcos 1 4.76% J. Manalo-San Gaspar

By gender

Gender Total Percentage Justices
Male 11 57.14%
  • C. Caldona
  • E. De la Cruz
    Senior Associate Justice
  • O. Herrera, Jr.
  • B. Fernandez
  • B. Jacinto
  • A. Malabaguio
  • K. Miranda
  • R. Moreno
  • M. Musñgi
  • Z. Trespeses
  • K. Viviero
Female 9 42.86%
  • A. Cabotaje-Tang
    Presiding Justice
  • M. Corpus-Mañalac
  • G. Econg
  • S. Fernandez
  • G. Hidalgo
  • M. Gomez-Estoesta
  • L. Lacap-Pahimna
  • J. Manalo-San Gaspar
  • M. Mendoza-Arcega

By tenure

Year Total Retiring Justices
2024 4
  • O. Herrera, Jr.
  • E. de la Cruz
    Senior Associate Justice
  • A. Cabotaje-Tang
    Senior Associate Justice
  • R. Lagos
2025 1 B. Fernandez
2027 1 K. Miranda
2030 1 K. Viviero
2031 1 L. Pahimna
2034 1 G. Hidalgo
2035 3
  • M. Musñgi
  • M. Mendoza-Arcega
  • A. Malabaguio
2036 1 M. Corpuz-Mañalac
2037 3
  • M. Gomez-Estoesta
  • S. Fernandez
  • G. Econg
2039 2 B. Jacinto
J. Manalo-San Gaspar
2040 2
  • R. Moreno
  • E. Caldona
2041 1
  • J. Manalo-San Gaspar
2042 1
  • Z. Trespreses

Roll of Sandignbayan Justices (1978–present)

No. Name of Sandiganbayan justices Start of term Position Appointed by Replacing Presiding Justice(s) End of term Reason for Termination
1 Manuel Pamaran June 11, 1978[i] Presiding Justice Marcos, Sr. New Seat First Presiding Justice March 31, 1986 Resigned
1 Bernardo Fernandez Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran June 11, 1981 Retired
2 Romeo Escareal Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran March 5, 1996
3 Buenaventura Guerrero December 8, 1980 Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Fernandez Pamaran May 16, 1986 Resigned
4 Conrado Molina Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. New Seat Pamaran July 18, 1992 Retired
5 Moises Kallos Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran December 15, 1983 Retired
6 Ramon Jabson November 20, 1981 bAssociate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran May 18, 1988 Retired
7 Fidel Purisima Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran March 10, 1984 Resigned
8 Francisco Consolacion Associate Justice Marcos, Sr.
9 Romulo Quimbo Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran May 16, 1986 Resigned
10 Augusto Amores October 7, 1984 Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Kallos Pamaran July 5, 1995 Retired
11 Amante Alconcel Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran May 16, 1986 Resigned
12 Bienvenido Vera Cruz Associate Justice Marcos, Sr. Pamaran
2 Francis Garchitorena April 18, 1986 Presiding Justice C. Aquino Pamaran Escareal (acting) January 16, 2002 Retired
13 Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. May 16, 1986 Associate Justice C. Aquino Purisima Garchitorena July 18, 1995 Appointed Supreme Court Associate Justice
14 Luciano Joson May 21, 1986 Associate Justice C. Aquino Consolacion Garchitorena March 17, 1990 Retired
15 Cipriano del Rosario May 22, 1986 Associate Justice C. Aquino Guerrero Garchitorena March 15, 2001 Retired
16 Jose Balajadia May 30, 1986 Associate Justice C. Aquino Quimbo Garchitorena February 14, 1998 Resigned
17 Nathanael Grospe December 2, 1988 Associate Justice C. Aquino Jabson Garchitorena January 16, 1993 Retired
18 Sabino de Leon Jr. March 13, 1990 Associate Justice C. Aquino Alconel Garchitorena October 11, 1999 Appointed Supreme Court Associate Justice
19 Narciso Atienza September 14, 1992 Associate Justice Ramos Vera Cruz Garchitorena December 17, 1993 Retirement
20 Minita Chico-Nazario May 10, 1993 Associate Justice Ramos Joson Garchitorena February 28, 2003 Appointed Presiding Justice
21 Roberto Lagman November 28, 1994 Associate Justice Ramos Molina Garchitorena February 14, 1998 Resigned
22 Harriet Demetriou August 28, 1995 Associate Justice Ramos Grospe Garchitorena Resigned
23 Edilberto Sandoval March 11, 1996[ii] Associate Justice Ramos Atienza Garchitorena September 17, 2010 Appointed Presiding Justice
24 Leonardo Cruz Associate Justice Ramos Amores Garchitorena March 11, 1997 Resigned
25 Teresita De Castro September 8, 1997 Associate Justice Ramos Hermosisima Jr. Garchitorena December 15, 2004 Appointed Presiding Justice
26 Narciso Nario Sr. Associate Justice Ramos Escareal Garchitorena January 15, 2002 Earl5 Retirement
27 Anaclet Badoy Jr. Associate Justice Ramos L. Cruz Garchitorena March 11, 2002 Retired
28 Catalino Castañeda Jr. Associate Justice Ramos New Seat Garchitorena January 15, 2002 Retired
29 German Lee Jr. Associate Justice Ramos New Seat Garchitorena December 17, 1998 Retired
30 Godofredo Legaspi Associate Justice Ramos Garchitorena September 8, 2006 Retired
31 Alfredo Gustillo October 5, 1998 [a] Associate Justice Estrada Ballajadia Garchitorena March 3, 1999 Retired
32 Gregory S. Ong Associate Justice Estrada Lagman Garchitorena September 23, 2014 Resigned
33 Ricardo Ilarde October 7, 1998 Associate Justice Estrada Demetriou Garchitorena March 3, 2001 Retied
34 Rodolfo Palattao October 9, 1998 Associate Justice Estrada New Seat Garchitorena March 3, 2003 Retirement
35 Maria Cristina Cortez-Estrada October 19, 1998 Associate Justice Estrada Lee, Jr. Garchitorena July 2, 2009 Appointed Presiding Justice
36 Raoul Victorino January 31, 2000 Associate Justice Estrada Gustillo Garchitorena February 15, 2005 Retirement
37 Nicodemo Ferrer Associate Justice Estrada de León, Jr. Garchitorena February 15, 2002 Early Retirement
38 Francisco Villaruz Jr. October 2, 2001 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Ilarde Garchitorena October 5, 2011 Retired
3 Minita Chico-Nazario February 26, 2003
acting since
January 16, 2002
Presiding Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Garchitorena Sandoval (acting) February 10, 2004 Appointed SC Associate Justice
39 Diosdado Peralta June 14, 2002 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo del Rosario Chico-Nazario March 28, 2008 Appointed Presiding Justice
40 Norberto Geraldez January 21, 2003 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Nario, Sr. Chico-Nazario February 28, 2010
41 Roland Jurado October 3, 2003 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Castañeda, Jr. Chico-Nazario February 1, 2017 Retirement
42 Efren de la Cruz October 10, 2003 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Chico-Nazario Chico-Nazario Incumbent
43 Teresita Diaz-Baldos October 17, 2003 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Ferrer Chico-Nazario July 22, 2016 Retirement
44 Jose Hernandez March 9, 2004 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Bádoy, Jr. Chico-Nazario November 22, 2016 Retirement
45 Rodolfo Ponferrada August 23, 2004 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Palattao Chico-Nazario September 13, 2017 Retirement
4 Teresita de Castro December 15, 2004 Presiding Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Chico-Nazario Sandoval (acting) December 3, 2007 Appointed SC Associate Justice
46 Alexander Gesmundo October 15, 2005 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Leonardo-de Castro Leonardo-de Castro August 14, 2017 Appointed SC Associate Justice
47 Samuel Martires Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Victorino Leonardo-de Castro March 2, 2017 Appointed SC Associate Justice
5 Diosdado Peralta March 28, 2008 Presiding Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Leonardo-de Castro Sandoval (acting) January 14, 2009 Appointed SC Associate Justice
48 Napoleon Inoturan April 4, 2008 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Legaspí Peralta August 1, 2016 Retired
49 Alex Quiroz December 11, 2008 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Peralta Peralta July 28, 2022 Early Retirement
6 Maria Cristina Cortez-Estrada July 2, 2009 Presiding Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Peralta Villaruz Jr. (acting) November 30, 2009 Retirement
7 Norberto Geraldez February 28, 2010 Presiding Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Cortéz-Estrada Villaruz Jr. (acting) April 4, 2010 Died in Office
8 Edilberto Sandoval September 17, 2010 Presiding Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Geraldez Villaruz Jr. (acting) October 4, 2011 Retired
50 Maria Cristina Cornejo May 1, 2010 Associate Justice Macapagal-Arroyo Cortéz-Estrada Sandoval March 1, 2017 Early Retirement
51 Rafael Lagos December 9, 2010 Associate Justice B. Aquino III Geraldez Sandoval Incumbent
9 Francisco Villaruz Jr. October 5, 2011 Presiding Justice B. Aquino III Sandoval G. Ong (acting) June 8, 2013 Retirement
52 Oscar Herrera Jr. April 26, 2011 Associate Justice B. Aquino III Sandóval Villaruz, Jr. Incumbent
53 Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang June 11, 2012 B. Aquino III Villaruz, Jr. Villaruz, Jr. October 7, 2013 Appointed Presiding Justice
10 October 7, 2013 Presiding Justice B. Aquino III Villaruz, Jr. G. Ong (acting) Incumbent
54 Maria Theresa Dolores Gomez-Estoesta June 20, 2014 Associate Justice B. Aquino III Cabotaje-Tang Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
55 Sarah Jane Fernandez May 5, 2015 Associate Justice B. Aquino III G. Ong Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
56 Michael Frederick Musñgi January 20, 2016 Associate Justice B. Aquino III New Seat Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
57 Reynaldo Cruz Associate Justice B. Aquino III Cabotaje-Tang February 21, 2020 Died in Office
58 Geraldine Faith Econg Associate Justice B. Aquino III Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
59 Maria Theresa Mendoza-Arcega Associate Justice B. Aquino III Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
60 Karl Miranda Associate Justice B. Aquino III Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
61 Zaldy Trespeses Associate Justice B. Aquino III Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
62 Bernelito Fernandez October 28, 2016 Associate Justice Duterte Díaz-Baldos Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
63 Lorifel Pahimna March 1, 2017 Associate Justice Duterte Inoturan Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
64 Edgardo Caldona March 10, 2017 Associate Justice Duterte Hernández Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
65 Bayani Jacinto May 29, 2017 Associate Justice Duterte Jurado Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
66 Kevin Narce Vivero November 28, 2017 Associate Justice Duterte Martires Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
67 Maryann Corpus-Mañalac December 8, 2017 Associate Justice Duterte Cornejo Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
68 Georgina Hidalgo January 18, 2018 Associate Justice Duterte Ponferrada Cabotaje-Tang incumbent
'69 Ronald Moreno June 8, 2018 Associate Justice Duterte Gesmundo Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
70 Arthur Malabaguio May 24, 2021 Associate Justice Duterte Cruz Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent
71 Juliet Manalo-San Gaspar September 26, 2023 Associate Justice Marcos, Jr. Quiroz Cabotaje-Tang Incumbent


The rule of seniority

The Associate Justices of the Court are usually ordered according to the date of their appointment. There are no official ramifications as to this ranking, although the order determines the seating arrangement on the bench and is duly considered in all matters of protocol. Within the discretion of the Court, the ranking may also factor into the composition of the divisions of the Court.

The incumbent Justice with the earliest date of appointment is deemed the Senior Associate Justice. The Senior Associate Justice has no constitutional or statutory duties, but usually acts as Acting Presiding Justice during the absence of the Presiding Justice. The Senior Associate Justice is not usually designated as the chairperson of the second division of the Court.

The following became Senior Associate Justices in their tenure in the Sandiganbayan:

* Appointed as Supreme Court Associate Justice
* Appointed as Presiding Justice of the Sandiganbayan
No. Senior Associate Justice Year Appointed Tenure
1 Bernardo Fernandez 1978 1978–1981
2 Romeo Escareal 1978 1981–1996
3 Cipriano Del Rosario 1986 1996–2001
4 Minita Chico-Nazario 1993 2001-2002*
5 Edilberto Sandoval 1996 2002–2010
6 Gregory S. Ong 1998 2010-2014[iii]
7 Efren de la Cruz 2003 2014-incumbent
  1. ^ Justice Escareal became the acting presiding Justice upon the retirement of Presiding Justice Pamaran on March 31, 1986 until April 18, 1986
  2. ^ Justice Sandoval the acting Preising Justice from February 10, 2004 to December 15, 2004, from December 4, 2007 until March 27, 2008, from erbruart 27 to 28 2010 and from April 4–5, 2010
  3. ^ resigned on September 23, 2014

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Assoc. Justice Ong became acting PJ after the retirement of PJ Sandoval and PJ Villaruz's appointment and again between the retirement of PJ Villaruz and the Appointment of PJ Cabotaje-Tang

References

  1. ^ Aika Rey (January 8, 2020). "Where will the money go?". Rappler. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  2. ^ "C. Sandiganbayan" (PDF). dbm.gov.ph. Department of Budget and Management. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  3. ^ "PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1486 : CREATING A SPECIAL COURT TO BE KNOWN AS "SANDIGANBAYAN" AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES". lawphil.net. June 11, 1978.
  4. ^ "P.D. No. 1606". www.lawphil.net.
  5. ^ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7975 : AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN, AMENDING FOR THAT PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, AS AMENDED, March 30, 1995.
  6. ^ Republic Act No. 8249 : AN ACT FURTHER DEFINING THE JURISDICTION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, AS AMENDED, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES., February 5, 1997.
  7. ^ "Republic Act No. 10660". lawphil.net. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  8. ^ "PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, as amended by R.A. NO. 7975* and R.A. NO. 8249*" (PDF).
  9. ^ Stephenson, Matthew (July 2016). "Specialised anti-corruption courts: Philippines". U4 Brief. 3: 4 – via U4.
  10. ^ a b c "Sandiganbayan". sb.judiciary.gov.ph. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  11. ^ Gutierrez, Natashya (April 21, 2015). "Aquino signs law expanding Sandiganbayan to 7 divisions". Rappler. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  12. ^ Malin, Herbert (February 1985). "The Philippines in 1984: Grappling with Crisis". Asian Survey. 25 (2): 198–205. doi:10.2307/2644303. JSTOR 2644303.
  13. ^ Manning, Robert (Winter 1984). "The Philippines in Crisis". Foreign Affairs. 63 (2): 392–410. doi:10.2307/20042190. JSTOR 20042190.
  14. ^ Villegas, Bernardo (February 1986). "The Philippines in 1985: Rolling with the Political Punches". Asian Survey. 26 (2): 127–140. doi:10.2307/2644448. JSTOR 2644448.
  15. ^ Hernandez, Carolina (February 1988). "The Philippines in 1987: Challenges of Redemocratization". Asian Survey. 28 (2): 229–241. doi:10.2307/2644824. JSTOR 2644824.
  16. ^ Reidinger, Jeffrey (February 1995). "The Philippines in 1994: Renewed Growth and Contested Reforms". Asian Survey. 35 (2): 209–216. doi:10.2307/2645032. JSTOR 2645032.
  17. ^ a b "[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1379] AN ACT DECLARING FORFEITURE IN FAVOR OF THE STATE ANY PROPERTY FOUND TO HAVE BEEN UNLAWFULLY ACQUIRED BY ANY PUBLIC OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE AND PROVIDING FOR THE PROCEEDINGS THEREFOR" (PDF). napolcom. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  18. ^ "AN ACT DEFINING AND PENALIZING THE CRIME OF PLUNDER". The LawPhil Project. July 12, 1991. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  19. ^ "Sandiganbayan" (PDF).
  20. ^ a b c "JURISDICTION OF SANDIGANBAYAN". Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  21. ^ "The Judiciary : Sandiganbayan" (PDF).
  22. ^ a b c "Presidential decree" (PDF). www.ombudsman.gov.ph. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  23. ^ "Internal rules" (PDF). www.ombudsman.gov.ph. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  24. ^ "Aquino signs law expanding Sandiganbayan to 7 divisions". April 21, 2015.
  25. ^ "About".
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Supreme Court of the Philippines. "Revised Internal Rules of the Sandiganbayan." Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  27. ^ "Internal Rules of the Supreme Court".
  28. ^ "Plunder and graft trials: How do cases proceed in the courts?". Rappler. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Speedy Trial Act of 1998". February 12, 1998. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  30. ^ Merez, Arianne. "TIMELINE: Jinggoy Estrada's pork barrel scam case". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  31. ^ Ramos, Marlon. "3 Sandiganbayan justices quit cases vs Jinggoy Estrada". Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  32. ^ a b c "Imelda Marcos snubs last day of trial for 1991 graft case". Rappler. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  33. ^ "SANDIGANBAYAN INCUMBENT JUSTICES". sb.judiciary.gov.ph. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  34. ^ "Article VIII, Sec. 11 of the Constitution of the Philippines". Retrieved August 6, 2021.

Sources