Tarlac
Province of Tarlac
Flag of Tarlac
Official seal of Tarlac
Nickname: 
Melting Pot of Central Luzon
Anthem: Awit ng Tarlac
Location within the Philippines
Location within the Philippines
OpenStreetMap
Map
Coordinates: 15°30′N 120°30′E / 15.5°N 120.5°E / 15.5; 120.5
CountryPhilippines
RegionCentral Luzon
Founded28 May 1873
Capital
and largest city
Tarlac City
Government
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorSusan Y. Sulit (NPC)
 • Vice GovernorCarlito S. David (NPC)
 • LegislatureTarlac Provincial Board
Area
 • Total3,053.60 km2 (1,179.00 sq mi)
 • Rank45th out of 81
Highest elevation1,655 m (5,430 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[2]
 • Total1,503,456
 • Rank18th out of 81
 • Density490/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
  • Rank13th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays511
 • DistrictsLegislative districts of Tarlac
Demographics (2000)
 • Ethnic groups
 • Languages
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
IDD:area code+63 (0)45
ISO 3166 codePH-TAR
Websitevisit-tarlac.com

Tarlac, officially the Province of Tarlac (Kapampangan: Lalawigan ning Tarlac; Pangasinan: Luyag/Probinsia na Tarlac; Ilocano: Probinsia ti Tarlac; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Tarlac; [tɐɾˈlak]), is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is the city of Tarlac. It is bounded on the north by the province of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija on the east, Zambales on the west, and Pampanga in the south. The province comprises three congressional districts and is subdivided into 17 municipalities and one city, Tarlac City, which is the provincial capital.

The province is situated in the heartland of Luzon, in what is known as the Central Plain also spanning the neighbouring provinces of Pampanga, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, and Zambales. Tarlac covers a total land area of 3,053.45 km2 (305,345 ha).

Early in history, what came to be known as Valenzuela Ranch today was once a thickly-forested area, peopled by roving tribes of nomadic Aetas who are said to be the aboriginal settlers of the Philippines, and for a lengthy period, it was the remaining hinterland of Luzon's Central Plains. Today, Tarlac is one of the most multi-cultural provinces in the region for having a mixture of four distinct ethnic groups: the Kapampangans, the Pangasinans, the Ilocanos, and the Tagalogs. It is also known for its fine food and vast sugar and rice plantations in Central Luzon.[4]

History

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Spanish colonial era

Tarlac's name is a Hispanized derivation from a talahib weed called Malatarlak, a Pangasinan term. Tarlac was originally divided into two parts: the southern division belonging to Pampanga and the northern division belonging to Pangasinan. It was the last province in Central Luzon to be organized under the Spanish colonial administration in 1874. Its nucleus were the towns of Concepcion, Capas, Bamban, Mabalacat, Magalang, Porac, Floridablanca, Victoria, and Tarlac which constituted a military comandancia. Some of these municipalities were returned to Pampanga but the rest were incorporated into the new province of Tarlac.

Unlike other provinces in Central Luzon, Tarlac was relatively free from revolts during the Spanish regime before the late 1800s rose. Only the rebellion started by Juan de la Cruz Palaris in Pangasinan spread to the northern portion of Tarlac.

Philippine revolution

During the Philippine Revolution of 1896, Tarlac was among the first eight provinces to rise against Spain, alongside neighbouring Pampanga. It became the new seat of the first Philippine Republic in March 1899 when General Emilio Aguinaldo abandoned the former capital, Malolos, Bulacan. This lasted only for a month before the seat was moved to Nueva Ecija in Aguinaldo's attempt to elude the pursuing Americans.

American invasion era

On October 23, 1899, Gregorio Aglipay, military vicar general of the revolutionary forces, called the Filipino clergy to a conference in Paniqui. There, they drafted the constitution of the Philippine Independent Church. They called for the Filipinization of the clergy, which eventually led to a separation from the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines.

Tarlac was captured by American forces in November 1899. A civil government was established in the province in 1901.

Japanese occupation era

During World War II, Camp O'Donnell in Capas became the terminal point of the infamous Bataan Death March of Filipino and American soldiers who surrendered at Bataan on April 9, 1942. Many prisoners died of hunger, disease and/or execution. The general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was established from January 3, 1942, to June 30, 1946, and the 3rd Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was founding again from October 28, 1944, to June 30, 1946, and military stationed in the province of Tarlac and some parts in Central Luzon due to Japanese Occupation.[further explanation needed] Local troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army units has sending the clearing military operations in the province of Tarlac and Central Luzon from 1942 to 1945 and aided them by the recognized guerrilla groups including Hukbalahap Communist fighters and attacking Japanese Imperial forces.[incomprehensible] But in the aftermath, some local guerrilla resistance fighters and Hukbahalap groups are became retreating Imperial Japanese troops around the province and before the liberation from the Allied forces.[incomprehensible]

In early 1945, combined American and Filipino military forces with the recognized Aringay Command guerrillas liberated Camp O'Donnell. The raid in Capas resulted in the rescue of American, Filipino and other allied Prisoners of War.

From January 20, 1945, to August 15, 1945, Tarlac was recaptured by combined Filipino and American troops together with the recognized guerrilla fighters against the Japanese Imperial forces during the liberation and beginning for the Battle of Tarlac under the Luzon Campaign.[further explanation needed]

Postwar era

After the social and economic upheavals of the war and with government institutions still in their nascent form after the recognition of Philippine Independence by the international community, the first few decades after the end of the war were marked by dissatisfaction and social tension.[5] In the largely agricultural context of Central Luzon and Tarlac those tensions tended to coalesce around the interrelated issues of land ownership, and the working conditions of agricultural workers.[6]

The Filipino communist Hukbalahap guerrilla movement formed by the farmers of Central Luzon to fight the Japanese occupation, had found themselves sidelined by the new post-independence Philippine government which had taken up the fear of communist influence which marked the beginning of the cold war in the west. So they decided to extended their fight into a rebellion against the new government, only to be put down through a series of reforms and military victories by Defense Secretary, and later President, Ramon Magsaysay.[7]

Ultimately more effective than those who took up arms were the numerous political and labor movements who kept working towards agricultural land reform and stronger labor rights, with laborers' and farmers' protests gathering enough steam that several Philippine presidents were forced to meet with them and then concede to their demands. Among the most successful of these were the Land Justice March of the political group known as the Filipino Agrarian Reform Movement (FARM), which intended to march from Tarlac to Malacañang in 1969, although President Marcos was forced to give in to their demands early, meeting them while they were still at Camp Servillano Aquino in Tarlac City itself.[6]

During the Marcos dictatorship

The beginning months of the 1970s marked a period of turmoil and change in the Philippines, as well as in Tarlac.[8][6] During his bid to be the first Philippine president to be re-elected for a second term, Ferdinand Marcos launched an unprecedented number of foreign debt-funded public works projects. This caused[9][10] the Philippine economy took a sudden downwards turn known as the 1969 Philippine balance of payments crisis, which in turn led to a period of economic difficulty and a significant rise of social unrest.[11][12] : "43" [13][14]

With only a year left in his last constitutionally allowed term as president Ferdinand Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law in September 1972 and thus retained the position for fourteen more years.[15] This period in Philippine history is remembered for the Marcos administration's record of human rights abuses,[16][17] particularly targeting political opponents, student activists, journalists, religious workers, farmers, and others who fought against the Marcos dictatorship.[18] At least two major military camps in Tarlac were used as detention centers for political detainees in Tarlac: Camp Servillano Aquino and Camp Macabulos, both in Tarlac City.[19][20]: 32  They were part of Regional Command for Detainees II (RECAD II) and administered under Camp Olivas in Pampanga.[21]

Martial Law had immediate political impacts in Tarlac, since political leaders who were critical of Marcos were immediately jailed. This included Senator and Concepcion native Ninoy Aquino, and Bamban Mayor Pedro D. Mendiola who was imprisoned in Camp Crame. Other Tarlaqueño Marcos critics who had roles in government, such as Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP) executive vice president Horacio Morales, tried to stay so they could pursue change from within, but eventually could not reconcile themselves with the idea of working within the dictatorship.[22] Ordinary Tarlaqueños also resisted the dictatorship. Former Seminarian Teresito Sison campaigned for the rights of teachers, farmers, and of laborers in Clark Air Base, but torture during two stints in Marcos' detention centers caused a decline in his health until he died in 1980.[23] Tarlaqueno activists decided to take up arms against the dicgtatorhip, including Eduardo Aquino,[24] Merardo Arce,[25] and Benedicto Pasetes[26] were killed in various encounters with Marcos' forces.

Ninoy Aquino was eventually assassinated in August 1983, igniting protests throughout the Philippines which would eventually force Marcos to announce a snap election in February 1986. Even then, those who resisted Marcos were targetted for death, such as in the case of oppositionist campaign organizer Jeremias De Jesus political organizer, who was assassinated shortly before elections [27]

Contemporary

United States and Philippine troops during a military exercise in Crow Valley, Tarlac

Military testing ground

The Philippine Army has used Crow Valley in the borders of Barangay Patling and Santa Lucia in Capas, Tarlac as a testing ground for both Philippine forces and allies. Many of the Philippine military testings were done on March 17, 2006[28] most likely as a part of Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines.

Exercise Balikatan Tarlac plays a big role in the annual joint Balikatan Exercise as it is a main exercise ground of the USA and Philippine Army.

The exercise in Tarlac conducts Combat exercise including Aviation, Artillery and Small Arms training. It is conducted in Crow Valley in Capas, Tarlac. Since 2022 with more than 10,000+ Military Personnel and increasing.

invasion scenario during the Balikatan Exercise
Live-Fire operations in Balikatan Exercise

Geography

Landscape along Tarlac City

The landlocked province is situated at the center of the central plains of Luzon, landlocked by four provinces: Pampanga on the south, Nueva Ecija on the east, Pangasinan on the north, and Zambales on the west. The province covers a total area of 3,053.60 square kilometres (1,179.00 sq mi)[29]. Approximately 75% of the province is plains while the rest is hilly to slightly mountainous.

Eastern Tarlac is a plain, while Western Tarlac is hilly to slightly mountainous. Because of this, the province includes a large portion of mountains like Mt. Telakawa (Straw Hat Mountain), located at Capas, Tarlac. Mt. Bueno, Mt. Mor-Asia and Mt. Canouman are also located in Capas as well as Mt. Dalin. The other mountains are Mt. Dueg and Mt. Maasin, found in the municipality of San Clemente. Also noted are Mt. Damas of Camiling. A portion of Mount Pinatubo (whose summit crater rests in neighbouring Zambales) also rests in Bamban and Capas. The whole of Mayantoc and San Jose are mountainous so it is suitable for the highest natural resources and forest products in the province such as coal, iron, copper, temperate-climate fruits and vegetables, fire logs, sand, rocks and forest animals such as wild boar and deer. The main water sources for agriculture include the Tarlac River at Tarlac City, the Lucong and Parua rivers in Concepcion, Sacobia-Bamban River in Bamban and the Rio Chico in La Paz.

Administrative divisions

Tarlac is subdivided into 17 municipalities and 1 component city, all encompassed by three congressional districts. There are a total of 511 barangays comprising the province.

Political map of Tarlac
City or municipality District[29] Population ±% p.a. Area[29] Density Barangay Coordinates[A]
(2020)[2] (2015)[30] km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Anao 1st 0.8% 12,208 11,528 +1.10% 23.87 9.22 510 1,300 18 15°43′45″N 120°37′41″E / 15.7293°N 120.6281°E / 15.7293; 120.6281 (Anao)
Bamban 3rd 5.2% 78,260 69,466 +2.30% 251.98 97.29 310 800 15 15°16′24″N 120°34′00″E / 15.2732°N 120.5668°E / 15.2732; 120.5668 (Bamban)
Camiling 1st 5.8% 87,319 83,248 +0.91% 140.53 54.26 620 1,600 61 15°41′19″N 120°24′50″E / 15.6887°N 120.4140°E / 15.6887; 120.4140 (Camiling)
Capas 3rd 10.4% 156,056 140,202 +2.06% 377.60 145.79 410 1,100 20 15°20′10″N 120°35′24″E / 15.3361°N 120.5899°E / 15.3361; 120.5899 (Capas)
Concepcion 3rd 11.3% 169,953 154,188 +1.87% 234.67 90.61 720 1,900 45 15°19′27″N 120°39′19″E / 15.3243°N 120.6554°E / 15.3243; 120.6554 (Concepcion)
Gerona 2nd 6.3% 94,485 87,531 +1.47% 128.89 49.76 730 1,900 44 15°36′25″N 120°35′55″E / 15.6069°N 120.5985°E / 15.6069; 120.5985 (Gerona)
La Paz 3rd 4.6% 68,952 64,017 +1.42% 114.33 44.14 600 1,600 21 15°26′28″N 120°43′44″E / 15.4411°N 120.7288°E / 15.4411; 120.7288 (La Paz)
Mayantoc 1st 2.2% 32,597 32,232 +0.21% 311.42 120.24 100 260 24 15°37′09″N 120°22′47″E / 15.6193°N 120.3798°E / 15.6193; 120.3798 (Mayantoc)
Moncada 1st 4.2% 62,819 57,787 +1.60% 85.75 33.11 730 1,900 37 15°44′01″N 120°34′21″E / 15.7336°N 120.5726°E / 15.7336; 120.5726 (Moncada)
Paniqui 1st 6.9% 103,003 92,606 +2.05% 105.16 40.60 980 2,500 35 15°40′07″N 120°35′09″E / 15.6686°N 120.5858°E / 15.6686; 120.5858 (Paniqui)
Pura 1st 1.7% 25,781 23,712 +1.61% 31.01 11.97 830 2,100 16 15°37′25″N 120°38′49″E / 15.6236°N 120.6469°E / 15.6236; 120.6469 (Pura)
Ramos 1st 1.5% 22,879 21,350 +1.33% 24.40 9.42 940 2,400 9 15°39′57″N 120°38′23″E / 15.6658°N 120.6397°E / 15.6658; 120.6397 (Ramos)
San Clemente 1st 0.9% 13,181 12,657 +0.78% 49.73 19.20 270 700 12 15°42′41″N 120°21′39″E / 15.7114°N 120.3608°E / 15.7114; 120.3608 (San Clemente)
San Jose 2nd 2.7% 41,182 36,253 +2.46% 592.81 228.89 69 180 13 15°27′28″N 120°28′06″E / 15.4578°N 120.4683°E / 15.4578; 120.4683 (San Jose)
San Manuel 1st 1.9% 28,387 25,504 +2.06% 42.10 16.25 670 1,700 15 15°47′56″N 120°36′24″E / 15.7989°N 120.6068°E / 15.7989; 120.6068 (San Manuel)
Santa Ignacia 1st 3.4% 51,626 47,538 +1.58% 146.07 56.40 350 910 24 15°36′54″N 120°26′11″E / 15.6149°N 120.4364°E / 15.6149; 120.4364 (Santa Ignacia)
Tarlac City Lone 25.6% 385,398 342,493 +2.27% 274.66 106.05 1,400 3,600 76 15°29′09″N 120°35′22″E / 15.4859°N 120.5895°E / 15.4859; 120.5895 (Tarlac City)
Victoria 2nd 4.6% 69,370 63,715 +1.63% 111.51 43.05 620 1,600 26 15°34′37″N 120°40′52″E / 15.5770°N 120.6812°E / 15.5770; 120.6812 (Victoria)
Total 1,503,456 1,366,027 +1.84% 3,046.49 1,176.26 490 1,300 511 (see GeoGroup box)
 †  Provincial capital and component city     Municipality

A. ^ Coordinates mark the city/town center, and are sortable by latitude.

Barangays

The 17 municipalities and 1 city of the province comprise a total of 511 barangays, with Cristo Rey in Capas as the most populous in 2010, and Malonzo in Bamban as the least.[31]

Further information: List of barangays in Tarlac

Climate

Like the rest of Central Luzon, the province has three distinct seasons: summer from March to June, monsoon rain from July to early October, and monsoon winter from late October to February. Summer months, especially during May bring severe thunderstorms with high winds, lightnings, and hails. It is the coldest province in the region, with a yearly average of 23 °C (73 °F). Cold spell is not common, which gradually receives unusual average temperature of 17 °C (63 °F), while the maximum daytime peaks at 27 °C (81 °F). It is also the windiest province in the region during February and March due to its widely lowland altitude and extreme climate transition. The lowest temperature ever recorded is 11.2 °C (52.2 °F) and the highest temperature is at 38.8 °C (101.8 °F). Aside air temperature, heat index is the most common calculated temperature during extreme weather observances especially dry season. The province usually experiences a maximum heat index ranging from 40 °C (104 °F) to 50 °C (122 °F) based on the forecasts reported by Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. [citation needed]

Climate data for Tarlac
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 32.1
(89.8)
32.8
(91.0)
34.4
(93.9)
36.2
(97.2)
35.3
(95.5)
34.0
(93.2)
32.8
(91.0)
32.1
(89.8)
32.4
(90.3)
32.8
(91.0)
32.7
(90.9)
32.0
(89.6)
33.3
(91.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 21.1
(70.0)
21.6
(70.9)
22.7
(72.9)
23.8
(74.8)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.2
(75.6)
24.4
(75.9)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
22.9
(73.2)
21.9
(71.4)
23.3
(73.9)
Average rainy days 1 2 2 3 13 16 22 21 20 10 8 4 122
Source: Storm247 [32]

Demographics

Population census of Tarlac
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 135,107—    
1918 171,876+1.62%
1939 264,379+2.07%
1948 327,018+2.39%
1960 426,647+2.24%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 559,708+2.75%
1975 640,899+2.75%
1980 688,457+1.44%
1990 859,708+2.25%
1995 945,810+1.80%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 1,068,783+2.65%
2007 1,243,449+2.11%
2010 1,273,240+0.87%
2015 1,366,027+1.35%
2020 1,503,456+1.90%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[30][31][31]

The population of Tarlac in the 2020 census was 1,503,456 people,[2] with a density of 490 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,300 inhabitants per square mile.

There are two predominant ethnic groups in the province: the Kapampangans that mainly predominate the province's southern portion and the Ilocanos that mainly predominate the province's northern portion. Both ethno-linguistic groups intermingle together in the provincial capital. The Tagalogs and Pangasinans constitute the rest of the provincial populace; Tagalogs arrived from Nueva Ecija and Bulacan, others from Zambales, Bataan, and Aurora, most of them live at the boundary with Nueva Ecija.

[33]

Language

Kapampangan and Ilocano are mainly used throughout the entire province, as well as Pangasinan and Tagalog. Pangasinans and Tagalogs however, speak their respective languages with a Kapampangan/Ilocano accent, as descendants of Pangasinans and Tagalogs from the first generations who lived in the province learned Kapampangan and/or Ilocano. Ethnic groups who grew up within environment of other ethnic group also speak other native languages as second languages, like Kapampangans who grew up within an Ilocano or Pangasinan population speak Ilocano or Pangasinan. As Tarlac is part of Central Luzon, Tagalog/Filipino is spoken as lingua franca between different languages. English is widely spoken and understood as well, especially in professional and educational establishments.

Languages Spoken in Tarlac
Language Percentage of Native Speakers
Kapampangan 43.1%
Ilocano 39.8%
Tagalog 12.1%
Pangasinan 0.01%
Others 2.1%

Religion

The Old St. Michael the Archangel Parish Church was burned in 1997

Spanish influence is very visible in the province as shown by religious adherence. Roman Catholicism is professed by 80%-83% of the population.[34] Protestant groups are also present such as evangelicals forming 8% of the province population.[35] The St. Michael Archangel Parish Church in Camiling was the oldest religious structure in the entire province until it burned down in 1997.

According to 2010 Census, other prominent Christian groups include the Iglesia ni Cristo (7.43%), Aglipayan Church (2.24%), Evangelicals (1.97%), Jehovah's Witnesses (0.64%) and others. Muslims, Anitists, animists, and atheists are also present in the province.

Economy

Poverty incidence of Tarlac

5
10
15
20
2006
18.15
2009
17.50
2012
16.56
2015
16.78
2018
10.46
2021
8.10

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]

Rice plantations in Gerona

The economy of Tarlac is predominantly agricultural. It is among the biggest producers of rice and sugarcane (the principal crops) in Central Luzon. Other major crops are corn and coconuts, fruits (bananas, calamansi and mangoes) and vegetables (eggplants, garlic and onions).

Because the province is landlocked, its fish production is limited to fishpens, but it has vast river systems and irrigation. On the Zambales boundary to its west, forest land provides timber for the logging industry. Mineral reserves such as manganese and iron can also be found along the western section.

Tarlac has its own rice and corn mills, sawmills and logging outfits. It has three sugar-refining centrals and hosts many sugar products in Central Luzon, especially the Muscovado sugar of the municipality of Victoria. Other firms service agricultural needs such as fertilizers. Among its cottage industries, ceramics has become available because of the abundant supply of clay. Some of the major industries here involve making chicharon (pork skin chips) and iniruban in the municipality of Camiling and Ilang-Ilang products of Anao. Tilapia production is also improving in Tarlac, with an aim to make the province the second "Tilapia Capital of Central Luzon" after its mother province, Pampanga.

Culture

Belenismo sa Tarlac

Belenismo sa Tarlac was launched by Isabel Cojuangco-Suntay, sister of former Ambassador Eduardo Cojuangco Jr., to transform the province into the Belén Capital of the Philippines. The Belen Festival began in September 2007, with the first Belen-making workshop conducted on December 16, 2007. Organizers have intended the festival to become an annual event in the province. Senator Loren Legarda led the awarding of the first Belen-making competition where Tarlac PNP Office Belen, built by at least 24 policemen, won the first prize.

Belenismo in Spanish means the art of making Belén, a representation of the Nativity scene in which the Holy Family (Joseph, Mary and the infant Jesus) is visited by the three wise men who came to the manger through the guidance of a star.[44]

Chicharon Iniruban Festival

It is a festivity that is yearly celebrated in the town of Camiling during the last week of October. It is intended as a preparation for All Saints' Day and a Thanksgiving Celebration for the good harvest and for the good quality of meat products especially the chicharon or Bagnet. It also features the exotic and delicious rice cake Iniruban, as called by Ilocanos. The festival's highlights are the street dancing competition, Miss Iniruban beauty pageant, and the municipality's agri-trade. It is the oldest cultural celebration in the province introduced in 2000.

Provincial capital

The highest seat of political power of the province is located on a hill in Barangay San Vicente, Tarlac City. The present structure was finished in 1909. During the Japanese occupation, the provincial capitol was vacated and used as the provincial headquarters of the Imperial Army. The capitol suffered great damages during the Second World War, but afterwards, in 1946, the United States of America helped rebuild and improve its structure. Because of its historical background, the picture of the capitol façade appeared in the previous version of the 500 peso bill.[45]

Notable people

National heroes and patriots

Politics and government

Historical Personalities

Arts and Sciences

Religion

Business

Entertainer[edit]

See also

References

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  3. ^ "Tarlac: Population Reached a Million Mark (Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing, NSO)". Philippine Statistics Authority. August 13, 2002. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  4. ^ "History of Tarlac". Tarlac Province Official Portal. Archived from the original on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  5. ^ Magno, Alexander R., ed. (1998). "Bandits, outlaws, and Robin Hoods". Kasaysayan, The Story of the Filipino People Volume 9:A Nation Reborn. Hong Kong: Asia Publishing Company Limited.
  6. ^ a b c https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/edsa/the-ph-protest/
  7. ^ Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.119, ISBN 0-521-62948-9, ISBN 978-0-521-62948-5
  8. ^ Robles, Raissa (2016). Marcos Martial Law: Never Again. Filipinos for a Better Philippines, Inc.
  9. ^ Balbosa, Joven Zamoras (1992). "IMF Stabilization Program and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of Philippine Development. XIX (35). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  10. ^ Balisacan, A. M.; Hill, Hal (2003). The Philippine Economy: Development, Policies, and Challenges. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195158984.
  11. ^ Cororaton, Cesar B. "Exchange Rate Movements in the Philippines". DPIDS Discussion Paper Series 97-05: 3, 19.
  12. ^ Kessler, Richard J. (1989). Rebellion and repression in the Philippines. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300044062. OCLC 19266663.
  13. ^ Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275941376.
  14. ^ Schirmer, Daniel B. (1987). The Philippines reader : a history of colonialism, neocolonialism, dictatorship, and resistance (1st ed.). Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0896082768. OCLC 14214735.
  15. ^ Magno, Alexander R., ed. (1998). "Democracy at the Crossroads". Kasaysayan, The Story of the Filipino People Volume 9:A Nation Reborn. Hong Kong: Asia Publishing Company Limited.
  16. ^ "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. September 20, 1999.
  17. ^ Abinales, P.N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State and society in the Philippines. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0742510234. OCLC 57452454.
  18. ^ "Gone too soon: 7 youth leaders killed under Martial Law". Rappler. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
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