Negros Oriental
Sidlakang Negros
Province of Negros Oriental
(from top: left to right) Apo Island, Silliman University, Lake Balinsasayao, Negros Oriental Provincial Capitol in Dumaguete, and Mojon Chapel in Bais
Flag of Negros Oriental
Official seal of Negros Oriental
Veritas Via Vitae
("The truth is the way of life")
Anthem: Sidlakang Negros, Lalawigan Kong Mahal
(literally: Eastern Negros, the Province I love)
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 10°03′N 123°07′E / 10.05°N 123.12°E / 10.05; 123.12
RegionCentral Visayas (Region VII)
FoundedJanuary 1, 1890
and largest city
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorManuel "Chaco" L. Sagarbarria (NPC)
 • Vice GovernorJaime L. Reyes (LP)
 • LegislatureNegros Oriental Provincial Board
 • Total5,385.53 km2 (2,079.36 sq mi)
 • Rank17th out of 81
Highest elevation2,465 m (8,087 ft)
 (2020 census)[2]
 • Total1,432,990
 • Rank19th out of 81
 • Density270/km2 (690/sq mi)
  • Rank35th out of 81
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays557
 • DistrictsLegislative districts of Negros Oriental
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)35
ISO 3166 codePH-NER
Spoken languages
Highway routes
Income classification1st class

Negros Oriental (Cebuano: Sidlakang Negros; Tagalog: Silangang Negros), officially the Province of Negros Oriental (Cebuano: Lalawigan sa Sidlakang Negros; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Silangang Negros), is a province in the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. Its capital is the city of Dumaguete. It occupies the southeastern half of the large island of Negros, and borders Negros Occidental, which comprises the northwestern half. It also includes Apo Island, a popular dive site for both local and foreign tourists.

Negros Oriental faces Cebu to the east across the Tañon Strait and Siquijor to the southeast. The primary spoken language is Cebuano and the predominant religious denomination is Roman Catholicism. Dumaguete is the capital, seat of government, and most populous city of the province. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 1,432,990 people,[2] making it the second most-populous province in Central Visayas after Cebu, the fifth most-populous province in the Visayas, and the 19th most-populous province of the Philippines.


See also: Negros Revolution

The Dumaguete Church in circa 1891 with its belfry to warn townsfolk of attacks by marauding pirates.

Early history

Negros, the largest island in the Visayas, is believed to have once been part of a larger landmass that was cut off by rising waters at the end of the last ice age.[3] Among the early inhabitants of the island were the Negritos and the Austronesians, and later the Han Chinese, who are mainly merchants.[4] They called the island "Buglas", a native word which is believed to mean "cut off".[3]

Spanish colonial era

Spanish explorers on the expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi first came to the island in April 1565. Legazpi dropped anchor in Bohol and sent his men to scout the island.[4] Because of the strong currents of the Tañon Strait between Cebu and Negros, they were carried for several days and forced to land on the western side of the island. They reported seeing many dark-skinned inhabitants, and they called the island "Negros" (Negro means "black" in Spanish). The island was sparsely settled at the time, except for a few coastal settlements including Ilog and Binalbagan. In 1571, Legaspi assigned encomiendas on the island to 13 of his men.[4] Augustinian friars began the Christianization of the island the next year. The island was administered as part of the jurisdiction of Oton until 1734 when it became a military district, and Ilog became the capital of the island. The capital was transferred to Himamaylan in 1795. Negros became a politico-military province in 1865 and the capital was transferred to Bacolod.

Due to its proximity to Mindanao, the southeastern coasts of Negros were in constant threat from Moro marauders looking for slaves, so watchtowers were built to protect the Christian villages. The Moro raids and Negros Oriental's distance from the Negrense capital of Bacolod, induced 13 Recollectionist priests to petition for the division of the island in July 1876.[4] The island of Negros was then divided into the provinces of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental by a royal decree executed by Governor General Valeriano Weyler on January 1, 1890. Dumaguete was made the first and only capital of Negros Oriental. In 1892, Siquijor became a part of Negros Oriental, having previously been administered by Spain under the politico-military province of Bohol.

The Philippine Revolution reached Negros in 1898, disrupting government functions but without extreme violence and bloodshed. Revolutionary troops in the island were composed mostly of farm labourers and other prominent people of the province of Negros Oriental, who were organized and led by Don Diego de la Viña. The Spanish colonial government in Dumaguete and the rest of the island was overthrown on November 24, 1898. Later, the Negros Occidental area under the leadership of Gen. Araneta, along with the Negros Oriental area under the leadership of Don Diego de la Viña, merged to form the Cantonal Republic of Negros, a separate government from the more familiar Malolos Republic established in Luzon.[5]

American invasion era

In 1901, the Negros Oriental province was reorganized by the United States and a civil government was established with Demetrio Larena as governor. The American government made Siquijor a "sub-province" of Negros Oriental. Negros Oriental became a province under the American civil government on March 10, 1917, through Act 2711.[6] In 1934, Negros Oriental became a corregimiento, a separate military district. Under the American colonial government, transportation infrastructure was developed with improvements of roads and new bridges.[7]

Japanese occupation era

During World War II, both Negros provinces were invaded by Imperial Japanese forces, resorting many residents to flee to the inland mountains.[8] Negros Island was liberated by combined Philippine & American troops with the local Negrense guerillas attacking the Japanese on August 6, 1945. The 7th, 73rd, 74th, and 75th Infantry Divisions of the Philippine Commonwealth Army were established from January 3, 1942, to June 30, 1946, and the 7th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was active from October 28, 1944, to June 30, 1946, at the Military General Headquarters in Negros Oriental.[clarification needed] They started the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Negros from 1942 to 1945 against the Japanese Imperial forces.[further explanation needed]


Silliman University

See also: Negros Island Region and Negros Island killings

On September 17, 1971, Siquijor became an independent province by virtue of Republic Act No. 6396.[9]

On May 29, 2015, the Negros Island Region was formed when President Benigno Aquino III signed Executive Order No. 183, s. 2015.[10] Negros Oriental was separated from the Central Visayas region and transferred to the new region along with Negros Occidental and Bacolod. However, on August 9, 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte dissolved the Negros Island Region, revoking Executive Order No. 183, s. 2015 through the signing of Executive Order No. 38, citing a lack of funds to fully establish the region according to Benjamin Diokno, the Secretary of Budget and Management. This returned Negros Oriental to the Central Visayas region.[11]

In 2018, with the Duterte administration promoting federalism, the idea of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental reunified into one federal region was discussed with local provincial politicians, with some additional support from the known native Negrenses. There is also a suggestion, jointly approved by the provincial governors, that Negros Oriental along with Negros Occidental, be renamed with their pre-colonial names as "Buglas Sidlakan" and "Buglas Nakatundan" respectively, with Negros, as a federal state, be named as "Negrosanon Federated Region", due to the negative racial connotation associated with the name "Negros".[12][13][14][15]


Rock formations at Apo Island

Negros Oriental occupies the southeastern half of the island of Negros, with Negros Occidental comprising the northwestern half. It has a total land area of 5,385.53 km2 (2,079.36 sq mi). A chain of rugged mountains separates Negros Oriental from Negros Occidental. Negros Oriental faces Cebu to the east across the Tañon Strait and Siquijor to the southeast. The Sulu Sea borders it to the south to southwest. Negros is primarily volcanic, making its soil ideal for agriculture. Eighty percent of all arable land in the island region is cultivated.


Mount Talinis, located southwest of Valencia, is the second highest volcanic mountain in Negros

The province's topography is characterized by low, grooved mountain ranges, some of which lie close to the shoreline. At the southern end of the province is Mount Talinis, also known as Cuernos de Negros ("Horns of Negros"), which is a dormant complex volcano which rises to a height of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). At the northern end of the province is the active Kanlaon Volcano, the highest peak of the island region with a height of 2,465 metres (8,087 ft). There are a few flatlands and plateaus in the interior to the southwest of the province, which includes the Tablas Plateau.[16]

One of the landmarks of Dumaguete is the Dumaguete Bell Tower which stands next to the Saint Catherine of Alexandria Cathedral.[17] It was once used to warn the city of impending pirate attacks.[18]


Negros Oriental has a tropical climate. Because of the mountain range running from the north to the south, the province has two types of climatic conditions.[19] The eastern part of the province is characterized as having a modestly distinct wet season, and a short dry season lasting from one to three months. The western half of the province is characterized by a distinct wet season and dry season.[16]

Administrative divisions

Political divisions

Negros Oriental comprises 19 municipalities and 6 cities, further subdivided into 557 barangays.

Dumaguete is the provincial capital and seat of government. It is also the province's most populous city, despite having the smallest land area among all component cities and municipalities of Negros Oriental.

Political map of the province of Negros Oriental
Legislative map of Negros Oriental

For purposes of legislative representation, the cities and municipalities are grouped into three congressional districts, with each district electing a congressman to the House of Representatives of the Philippines.


Population census of Negros Oriental
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 151,338—    
1918 215,750+2.39%
1939 335,173+2.12%
1948 386,203+1.59%
1960 538,206+2.80%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 652,264+1.94%
1975 740,417+2.57%
1980 819,399+2.05%
1990 925,272+1.22%
1995 1,025,247+1.94%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 1,130,088+2.11%
2007 1,231,904+1.20%
2010 1,286,666+1.60%
2015 1,354,995+0.99%
2020 1,432,990+1.11%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[22][25][25]
Languages Spoken (2000)[26]
Language Speakers
Other Visayan languages
Not Reported

The population of Negros Oriental in the 2020 census was 1,432,990 people,[2] with a density of 250/km2 (650/sq mi). In 2010, its registered voting population was 606,634.[27] 34.5% of the population are concentrated in the six most populous component cities of Dumaguete, Bayawan, Guihulngan, Tanjay, Bais and Canlaon. Population growth per year is about 0.99% between 2010 and 2015, lower than the national average of 1.72%.[22]

Residents of Negros are generally called "Negrenses" (and less often "Negrosanons") while residents of Negros Oriental sometimes refer to themselves as "NegOrenses" to distinguish themselves from residents of Negros Occidental. Many NegOrenses are of either pure/mixed Austronesian heritage, with foreign ancestry (i.e. Chinese and/or Spanish) as minorities. Negros Oriental is predominantly a Cebuano-speaking province due to its close proximity to Cebu, with 72% of residents reporting it as a first language. Hiligaynon is spoken by the remaining 28% and is common in areas close to the border with Negros Occidental. Filipino and English, while seldom used as first languages, are generally understood and used for official, literary, and educational purposes.


Christianity is the predominant religion in the province with Roman Catholicism (75%) as the largest single denomination .[28] However, there is a strong and growing presence of mainline and evangelical Protestant which forms about 9% of the province population. The Iglesia ni Cristo,[29] the Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses and the Aglipayan Church, also known as the Philippine Independent Church, also have some presence. Adherents of Islam and Buddhism constitute a minority of the population.


A geothermal power station in Valencia

With its vast fertile land resources, Negros Oriental's other major industry is agriculture. The primary crops are sugarcane, sweetcorn, coconut and rice.[16] In the coastal areas, fishing is the main source of income. People are also involved in cattle ranches, fish ponds and rubber plantations, especially in Bayawan. There are also mineral deposits like gold, silver, and copper found throughout the inner areas of the province.

The Forest Camp Resort in Valencia

The province is already emerging as a major technological center in Visayas, with its growing business process outsourcing (BPO) that has started to penetrate the province's secondary cities and other technology-related industries. Vehicle assembly is a growing industry in Amlan. Construction of mass housing and subdivisions is very evident in the periphery of Dumaguete and is expected to spill over into the province's secondary cities and fast-growing towns.

Other industries include water bottling and warehousing, as well as cold and dry storing. Retailing has penetrated other urban areas outside Dumaguete, with the entry of supermarkets and shopping malls in cities such as Bayawan, Tanjay, and Bais. The town of Bacong, which borders Dumaguete in the south, hosts many industrial plants geared for the local and export markets, which can bolster economic growth. Negros Oriental is also a notable tourist destination in the Visayas.


A motorized tricycle in Dumaguete

Negros Oriental has a network of roads, including a national road that spans the circumference of Negros Island. National and provincial roads in the province total more than 900 kilometers, though only about half of these are paved.[37]

Many residents do not own private vehicles and rely solely on public transport. Buses and jeepneys link the cities and municipalities of the province. For short distances within a town, motorized tricycles ("tricycles" for short) are available. Moreover, motorcycle taxis, known locally as habal-habal, are the primary mode of transportation in places that cannot be reached with other types of vehicles.

Sibulan Airport terminal in 2007

Sibulan Airport, located in Sibulan, is the province's only commercial airport.[37] It is a domestic airport with multiple daily flights to and from Manila, served by Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific. The airport also serves flights to and from Cebu and Cagayan de Oro. Based on 2002 statistics, an average of 5,800 outgoing passengers and 5,700 incoming passengers pass through the airport every month. In March 2021, upgrade works were made to the current Sibulan Airport which included pavement reconstruction, expansion of the terminal building, and expansion of CAAP administrative buildings.[38] The airport is due for transfer to Bacong because of congestion in its current location and has been proposed since 2014 and is still pending final approval as of 2022.[37][39]

The primary seaport of the province is the Port of Dumaguete. Additionally, there are five other seaports in the province classified as tertiary.[40]


Negros Oriental State University

Most colleges and universities in the province are concentrated in Dumaguete, called the Center of Learning in the South, which is widely known as a university city. The following tables show a list of some universities, colleges, and other tertiary institutions located in the province of Negros Oriental.

Colleges and universities

School Location
AMA Computer College Dumaguete
Asian College Dumaguete
Colegio de Santa Catalina de Alejandria Dumaguete
Diaz College Tanjay City
Foundation University Dumaguete
La Consolacion College Bais Bais
Maxino College Dumaguete
Metro Dumaguete College Dumaguete
Negros College Inc. Ayungon
Negros Maritime College Foundation Inc. Sibulan
Negros Oriental State University Main & Bajumpandan Campuses Dumaguete
Negros Oriental State University Bais Campuses I & II Bais
Negros Oriental State University Bayawan-Sta. Catalina Campus Bayawan/Santa Catalina
Negros Oriental State University Guihulngan City Campus Guihulngan City
Negros Oriental State University Mabinay Campus Mabinay
Negros Oriental State University Pamplona Campus Pamplona
Negros Oriental State University Siaton Campus Siaton
Presbyterian Theological College Dumaguete
Saint Francis College – Guihulngan Guihulngan City
Saint Joseph College of Canlaon, Inc. Canlaon
Saint Joseph Seminary College Sibulan
STI College Dumaguete
Silliman University Dumaguete
St. Paul University Dumaguete Dumaguete
Southern Tech College Bayawan
Villaflores College Tanjay City

Public high schools

School Location
Tanjay National High School (main) Tanjay City
Tanjay Science High School Tanjay City
Bais City National Science High School Bais City
Dumaguete Science High School Dumaguete City
Taclobo High School Dumaguete City
Maria Macahig Memorial High School Siaton
Don Emilio Macias Memorial National High School Santa Catalina


Buglasan Festival at the Ninoy Aquino Memorial Freedom Park in Dumaguete

Each town in Negros Oriental celebrates an annual town fiesta, usually dedicated to a patron saint of a particular town or city. In some of the larger towns, there are particular fiestas for specific neighborhoods or barangays.

  1. Jimalalud: January 15 - Sr. Sto. Niño
  2. Canlaon: March 19 - Sr. San Jose
  3. Sibulan: June 13 - St. Anthony of Padua
  4. Tayasan: June 13 - St. Anthony of Padua
  5. Tanjay City: July 25 - St. James the Greater
  6. Bacong: August 28 - St. Augustine of Hippo
  7. Bais: September 10 - St. Nicholas of Tolentino
  8. Dauin: September 10 - St. Nicholas of Tolentino
  9. Manjuyod: October 4 - St. Francis of Assisi
  10. Valencia: October 12 - Our Lady of the Abandoned
  11. Dumaguete: November 25 - St. Catherine of Alexandria
  12. Amlan: November 30 - St. Andrew
  13. Siaton: December 6 - St. Nicholas of Bari

Additionally, the Buglasan Festival is celebrated annually in October in the provincial capital of Dumaguete and is hailed as Negros Oriental's "festival of festivals".[41] It is a week-long celebration where unique booths of each town and city in Negros Oriental feature their native products and tourist attractions. The highlights of the occasion are the float parade and street dancing competition.[42]

Landscape of a beach resort in Dauin, the province's resort capital. Tourism is one of the major industries in the province of Negros Oriental.

The province is the home of the last living remnants of the Inatá language speakers. The Cebuano language is spoken throughout the province, while the indigenous Minagahat language is spoken in the south.


There are at least seven local media publications in general circulation around the province. These publications include Dumaguete MetroPost,[43] The Negros Chronicle,[44] Dumaguete Star Informer, Times Focus, and Island News.[45] SunStar Dumaguete publishes news online bi-weekly. PLDT, Globe Telecom and their subsidiaries are major providers of network connection within the province. Major providers, in TV and radio are ABS-CBN, GMA, TV5 and CNN Philippines. Cable TV provides access to BBC, ESPN, and other international programs. The province is mainly served by one regional newscast: TV Patrol Central Visayas (shared with ABS-CBN Cebu).

See also


  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). Table B - Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province, City, and Municipality - By Region. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Files Magazine". Panay News. Archived from the original on December 18, 2005. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d WOW Philippines - Negros Oriental history Archived August 19, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Republic of Negros". World Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  6. ^ "An Act Amending the Administrative Code" (PDF). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. March 10, 1917. Retrieved April 23, 2016. The Province of Oriental Negros consists of territory in the south and eastern part of the Island of Negros, with adjacent small islands, and also includes the subprovince of Siquijor, which consists of the island of the same name. The province contains the following municipalities: Ayungon, Ayuquitan, Bacong, Bais, Dauin, Dumaguete (the capital of the province), Enrique Villanueva, Guijulñgan, Jimalalud, La Libertad, Larena, Lazi, Luzuriaga, Manjuyod, Maria, San Juan, Siaton, Sibulan, Siquijor, (Talingting), Tanjay, Tayasan, Tolong, Vallehermoso, and Zamboanguita. This province also contains the municipal district of Tambo.
  7. ^ "Major Hubs 5 Major Destinations". Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  8. ^ Mills, S.A., 2009, Stranded in the Philippines, Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, ISBN 9781591144977
  9. ^ "Republic Act No. 6398 - An Act Separating the Subprovince of Siquijor from the Province of Oriental Negros and Establishing It as an Independent Province". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. September 17, 1971. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  10. ^ "Executive Order No. 183; Creating a Negros Island Region and for Other Purposes". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Malacañan Palace, Manila, Philippines. May 29, 2015. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
  11. ^ "Duterte dissolves Negros Island Region". Rappler. August 9, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
  12. ^ Teresa D. Ellera (March 26, 2018). "2 governors push Negros Island state". Sun.Star. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  13. ^ Juancho R. Gallarde (March 27, 2018). "Governors want Negros federal state". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  14. ^ "Negros governors unite for Negros Island federal region". The Negros Daily Bulletin. March 26, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  15. ^ Nanette Guadalquiver (May 19, 2018). "Push for Negros Island as one federal region continues". The Philippine News Agency. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  16. ^ a b c "Negros Oriental Provincial Agricultural Profile" (PDF). Department of Agriculture - Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System (AFMIS). 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  17. ^ "Dumaguete Belfry - Philippines". Dumaguete Info: the Website of Gentle People. Retrieved April 6, 2008.
  18. ^ Grele, Dominique; Lily Yousry-Jouve (2004). 100 Resorts in the Philippines: Places with a Heart. Asiatype, Inc. p. 247. ISBN 978-971-91719-7-3. Retrieved April 5, 2008.
  19. ^ "Climate Condition". Agribiz Oriental. Archived from the original on January 27, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  20. ^ a b "Province: Negros Oriental". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  21. ^ Census of Population (2020). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  22. ^ a b c Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  23. ^ Gallarde, Juancho R. (August 30, 2013). "In Negros Oriental: Valencia town readies bid to become a city". The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  24. ^ Camion, Victor L. (November 21, 2013). "House to hear Valencia cityhood". Sun.Star Dumaguete. Archived from the original on November 24, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  25. ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region VII (Central Visayas)" (PDF). Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  26. ^ "Negros Oriental: More Than One-Third of the Houses Were Built in the Latter 90's (Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing, NSO); Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Negros Oriental, 2000". Philippine Statistics Authority. September 9, 2002. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  27. ^ "Region: NIR - Negros Island Region". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  28. ^ "MAP: Catholicism in the Philippines". January 18, 2015.
  29. ^ "MAP: Iglesia ni Cristo in the Philippines". July 26, 2014.
  30. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  31. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  32. ^ "2009 Official Poverty Statistics of the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. February 8, 2011.
  33. ^ "Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population, by Region and Province: 1991, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. August 27, 2016.
  34. ^ "Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population, by Region and Province: 1991, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. August 27, 2016.
  35. ^ "Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population, by Region and Province: 1991, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. August 27, 2016.
  36. ^ "Updated Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population with Measures of Precision, by Region and Province: 2015 and 2018". Philippine Statistics Authority. June 4, 2020.
  37. ^ a b c "Transportation". Agribiz Oriental. Archived from the original on May 19, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  38. ^ "THE MUCH-IMPROVED AIRPORT OF DUMAGUETE!". Department of Transportation. March 11, 2021.
  39. ^ "ALTERNATE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT: Why Bacong? pilot-legislators explain why…". Negros Chronicle. March 13, 2022.
  40. ^ "Negros Oriental". Department of Trade and Industry. Archived from the original on October 6, 2003. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  41. ^ Amarado, Romy G. (October 25, 2003). "The 'fantastic' Buglasan Festival of Dumaguete". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Dumaguete, Philippines. Inquirer News Service. Archived from the original on August 30, 2005. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  42. ^ "Buglasan Festival 2015 opens with 'Fiesta sa Nayon'". Sun.Star Dumaguete. Philippine Information Agency. August 11, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  43. ^ "Visayan News". Dumaguete MetroPost. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  44. ^ "(Home page)". The Negros Chronicle. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
  45. ^ "Negros Oriental (home page)". The Visayan Daily Star. Retrieved April 16, 2016.