This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (August 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Incheon" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. If a travel guide is intended, use of Wikivoyage is strongly suggested. (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Incheon Metropolitan City
Korean name transcription(s)
 • Hangul
 • Hanja
 • Revised RomanizationIncheon Gwang-yeoksi
 • McCune-ReischauerInch'ŏn Kwang'yŏkshi
Incheon International Airport
Incheon Port
Incheon Soccer Stadium
Icheon bridge.jpg
Flag of Incheon
Official logo of Incheon
Incheon-gwangyeoksi in South Korea.svg
Incheon is located in South Korea
Incheon is located in Asia
Coordinates: 37°29′N 126°38′E / 37.483°N 126.633°E / 37.483; 126.633Coordinates: 37°29′N 126°38′E / 37.483°N 126.633°E / 37.483; 126.633
Country South Korea
RegionSeoul Capital
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • MayorYoo Jeong-bok (People Power)
 • BodyIncheon Metropolitan Council
 • Total1,062.63 km2 (410.28 sq mi)
 (February 2020)[1]
 • Total2,954,955
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Korea Standard Time)
TreeTulip tree
WebsiteOfficial website (English)

Incheon (Korean인천; Hanja仁川; Korean pronunciation: [intɕʰʌ̹n]; or Inch'ŏn; literally "kind river"), formerly Jemulpo or Chemulp'o (제물포) until the period after 1910, officially the Incheon Metropolitan City (인천광역시, 仁川廣域市), is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the Neolithic, Incheon was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. Today, about 3 million people live in the city, making it South Korea's third-most-populous city after Seoul and Busan.[citation needed]

The city's growth has been assured in modern times with the development of its port due to its natural advantages as a coastal city and its proximity to the South Korean capital. It is part of the Seoul Capital Area, along with Seoul itself and Gyeonggi Province, forming the world's fourth-largest metropolitan area by population.

Incheon has since led the economic development of South Korea by opening its port to the outside world, ushering in the modernization of South Korea as a center of industrialization. In 2003, the city was designated as South Korea's first free economic zone.[citation needed] Since then, large local companies and global enterprises have increasingly invested in the Incheon Free Economic Zone, including Samsung which chose Songdo International City as its new investment destination for its bio industry.[citation needed]

As an international city, Incheon has held numerous large scale international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair & Festival in 2009. The 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was also held in Incheon on 19 September 2014. Incheon has established itself[clarification needed] as a major transportation hub in northeast Asia with the Incheon International Airport and Incheon Port.[citation needed]


The first historical record of the Incheon area dates back to 475 CE, during the reign of King Jangsu of Goguryeo, by the name of Michuhol, which is supposed to be located on today's Munhak Hill (문학산). The area underwent several name changes with successive kingdoms and dynasties. In Goryeo era, Incheon was called Gyeongwon (경원) or Inju (인주). The current name was turned to Incheon in 1413.[citation needed] Later, Incheon County became Incheon Metropolitan Prefecture (dohobu, 도호부). Old Incheon consisted of today's southern Incheon (i.e. Jung-gu, Dong-gu, Nam-gu, Yeonsu-gu, and Namdong-gu) and the northern part of Siheung City. The city center was Gwangyo-dong, where the prefecture office (도호부청사) and the local academy (hyanggyo, 향교) were located. The "original" two remaining buildings of the Incheon prefecture office are located in Munhak Elementary School, while the newly built (in 2001) prefecture office buildings are right across from Munhak Baseball Stadium.

Modern history

Jemulpo in 1890
Jemulpo in 1890

Another historical name of the city, Jemulpo (alternatively Romanized as Chemulpo), was not widely used until the opening of the port in 1883. It was frequently used until the Japanese annexation.[2][3] After the opening of the Incheon port, the city center moved from Gwangyo to Jemulpo. Today, either Jemulpo or Gwangyo-dong is considered "Original Incheon" (원인천). It was internationally known as Jinsen during Japanese rule, based on the Japanese pronunciation of Incheon's Chinese characters.

In 1914, the Japanese colonial government merged outer parts of old Incheon (including the former center of Gwangyo) with Bupyeong County, forming Bucheon County.[4] Between 1936 and 1940, some part of Bucheon County was recombined into Incheon City, by which some part of "old" Bupyeong was annexed into Incheon.

Incheon was originally part of Gyeonggi Province, but was granted Directly Governed (now Metropolitan) City status on 1 July 1981; the city officially separated from the province. In 1989, neighboring islands and Gyeyang township of Gimpo County[5] were ceded to Incheon and in 1995 Geomdan township of Gimpo Country and two counties of Ganghwa and Onjin were annexed to Incheon Metropolitan City.[citation needed]

Incheon was known as Inchon prior to South Korea's adoption of a new Romanization system in 2000.[citation needed]

Major events

The city was the site of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay, where the first shots of the Russo-Japanese War were fired.

During the Korean War, Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 July 1950. Incheon was the site of the Battle of Inchon when United States troops landed to relieve pressure on the Pusan Perimeter and to launch a United Nations offensive northward. The result was a decisive UN victory and it was recaptured on 19 September 1950.[6] USS Inchon was named after the tide-turning battle that ensued.

Incheon has also hosted a series of major international events. The Global Fair & Festival 2009 Incheon was held in the Songdo District in August 2009. It was open from 7 August to 25 October for a period of 80 days. It was a comprehensive international event with global institutions and corporations as participants. Various musicians and artists performed during the event.

The city hosted a meeting of the G20 Finance Ministers in February 2010.[7] Incheon was the site of the third Global Model United Nations Conference, held from 10 to 14 August 2011.

It first hosted the Incheon Women Artists' Biennale in 2004 which expanded into welcoming international artists in its subsequent 2007, 2009[8] and 2011.

Incheon hosted the Asian Games in 2014.[9] It hosted the 6th OECD World Forum in 2018.[10]

Incheon was designated as the World Book Capital for the year 2015 by UNESCO.[11]


On 27 February 2007, Incheon declared itself an "English City," and inaugurated the "Incheon Free English Zone" program. The goal of the program is to make the city as proficient in English as Singapore.[12] This is for the ultimate purpose of establishing Incheon as a commercial and business hub of northeast Asia (see Free Economic Zone below). The official slogan of the program is "Smile with English."[citation needed]

Higher education

Incheon is home to a number of colleges and universities:

See also: Category:Universities and colleges in Incheon

Primary and secondary schools

International schools:


This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2021)


Incheon has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa),[14] and humid continental climate[15] (Köppen Dwa, respectively). Like other metropolitan cities, incheon has a strong urban heat island effect.[16] Incheon's climate is about average compared to the rest of Korea, with 8 locations being cooler and 10 locations being warmer, and with 9 locations being wetter and 9 locations being drier.[17]

Incheon experiences each of its four seasons, distinctly feeling the rise and fall of temperature and humidity. The temperature however, never rises to an extreme, and the climate of the city is essentially mild. Incheon is swept by the seasonal winds as the northwesterly winds strike the city in the winter and the summer in Incheon is affected by gusts of the warm southwesterly winds.[18]

Climate data for Incheon (1991–2020, extremes 1904–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.8
Average high °C (°F) 2.2
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.5
Average low °C (°F) −4.8
Record low °C (°F) −21.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.9 5.2 5.9 7.9 8.4 9.5 15.0 12.4 8.1 6.0 8.6 7.7 100.6
Average snowy days 7.1 4.4 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 6.6 22.1
Average relative humidity (%) 61.1 61.2 63.4 64.5 69.8 75.9 83.8 80.1 72.9 66.7 64.3 61.8 68.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.6 188.5 215.3 220.0 239.5 212.5 159.7 189.8 200.4 219.1 170.2 176.7 2,378.3
Percent possible sunshine 58.0 59.5 55.3 55.6 52.7 46.1 35.0 45.4 52.9 60.6 55.2 57.3 52.0
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration (percent sunshine 1981–2010)[19][20][21][22][23]


Incheon forms the heart of Capital Industrial Region. During the industrialization of South Korea, several industrial complexes were built throughout the city, and as a result, the city was largely dependent on manufacturing industry. But with the designation of Incheon Free Economic Zone in 2003, the city is now making an effort to foster new growth industries. Major industrial parks include Bupyeong industrial complex, which hosts GM Incheon plant(formerly a GM Daewoo Incheon plant), Juan industrial complex, and Namdong Industrial complex.[citation needed]

In recent years, bio industry is emerging as a new growth industry of the city.[citation needed] Currently, with the total production capacity of 330kℓ per year, the city ranks 2nd in the world by production capacity along with San Francisco, United States.[citation needed] The capacity is under expansion, and after completion in 2018, the city will rank 1st with the production capacity of 510kℓ.[24] Also, logistics industry is also experiencing a rapid growth, thanks to Incheon Airport, which was ranked fourth in the world by cargo traffic, and the expansion of Incheon Port.


Incheon is a major domestic and international transport hub for Korea.

Inside Incheon International Airport
Inside Incheon International Airport


Incheon International Airport is South Korea's primary international airport and a regional air hub. In 2015, it was the world's 22nd busiest airport by passenger traffic, with 49,412,750 passengers.[25]

There were a total of 305,446 flights (300,634 international, 4,812 domestic) to and from Incheon International Airport in 2015, an average of 837 flights (824 international, 13 domestic) daily. Korea's two main carriers, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines, serviced 50.9% of flights, while low-cost and foreign carriers serviced the remaining 49.1% of flights.[26] The airport is experiencing a rapid increase in passengers, and the opening of Terminal 2 in December 2017 spurred additional traffic.

The airport was also featured in the Korean drama series, "Air City."

Incheon International Airport ranked "5th in the world" among international airports.[27][when?][needs update]


Incheon's sea port is the second largest port in Korea after Busan Port.

The International Passenger Terminal located at the port offers ferries to five cities in China: Dalian, Qingdao, Tianjin, Dandong, and Weihai. There are also ferries to Incheon's outlying islands as well as Baengnyeong Island inside of the Northern Limit Line.


Incheon Bus Terminal, located at its eponymous subway stop, offers express bus transportation to all parts of Korea. Many city bus lines offer transportation within city limits as well as to the neighboring cities of Bucheon, Gimpo, Seoul, and Siheung.

Many intercity buses offer transportation between Seoul and Incheon.


Local service to Guro, Seoul, Cheongnyangni, Uijeongbu and Soyosan is offered by Seoul's subway Line 1. The line has 11 stations within Incheon and connects to the Incheon Subway at Bupyeong and Juan stations.

Rapid service on the same line to Yongsan Station in Seoul depart from Dongincheon station and stops at major stations.

The Airport Express (AREX) line runs from Incheon International Airport to Seoul Station via Gimpo International Airport. The Incheon-Gimpo section was opened in March 2007 and was extended to Seoul station in December 2010. Passengers can choose a high-speed service stopping only at Incheon airport and Seoul, which takes 43 minutes but departs only every half-hour; or the all-station service which takes 53 minutes but leaves every six minutes.

KTX service was introduced on the AREX line on 30 June 2014, with stops at Incheon International Airport Station and Geoman Station. There are additional plans to use the newly built Suin Line to bring KTX service to Incheon Station by 2021.[28]


Main article: Incheon Subway

The Incheon Subway has two subway lines serving the city. The first line connects to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system at Bupyeong Station (Seoul Subway Line 1), and AREX line at Gyeyang Station. It connects International Business District Station in Songdo to Gyeyang Station. The line has 28 stations on 29.4 kilometres (18.3 miles) of track. The line also has transfer stations with the Suin Line at Woninjae Station, with the Incheon Subway Line 2 at Incheon City Hall Station, and with Seoul Subway Line 7 at Bupyeong-gu Office Station. Incheon Subway Line 2 opened in July 2016 and runs from Geomdan Oryu Station to Unyeon Station. The automated line is 29.2 kilometres (18.1 miles) long, and has 27 stations, including transfer stations at Geomam station with the AREX line, Juan Station with Seoul Subway Line 1 and Incheon Subway Line 2 at Incheon City Hall Station.

The Incheon subway is operated by the Incheon Rapid Transit Corporation (IRTC).

There are additional plans for a third subway line in Incheon.

Korail has also constructed a new commuter rail line named Suin Line. The line opened in 2012 from Oido Station in Siheung to Songdo Station in Incheon. It was then extended in 2016, and now reaches Incheon Station where passengers can transfer to Seoul Subway Line 1. In 2020, the line was extended from Oido Station to Suwon Station.

SMRT (one of three operating companies of Seoul Metropolitan Subway) has extended Seoul Metropolitan Subway Line 7 to Bupyeong-gu office by 2011 and provided transfers to the Incheon Subway system. It has 3 stations within Incheon. By 2020, the line will further be extended westwards to Seoknam Station where it will be possible to transfer to Incheon Subway Line 2.

Free Economic Zone

This section contains wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. Please remove or replace such wording and instead of making proclamations about a subject's importance, use facts and attribution to demonstrate that importance. (March 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Incheon Free Economic Zone consists of the three regions of Songdo, Cheongna, and the island of Yeongjong, and has a total area of 51,739 acres (20,938 ha). The goal of IFEZ is to transform these three areas into hubs for logistics, international business, leisure, and tourism for the Northeast Asian region. The term 'Free Economic Zone' applies to the development in these three areas with the aim of improving the business environment for foreign-invested enterprises and the living conditions for foreigners. The zone is a specially designated area to create the most favorable business and living environment where foreign nationals can live and invest freely and conveniently. Incheon's Free Economic Zone, the first in Korea, was officially designated by the Korean government in August 2003. IFEZ is planned to be a self-contained living and business district featuring air and sea transportation, a logistics complex, an international business center, financial services, residences, schools and hospitals, and shopping and entertainment centres.[promotion?]

New Songdo City

Songdo International City began development in 1994 and is being built on reclaimed land. It is designated to become a center of diverse international businesses, a hub for international trade, an area for knowledge-based technologies, and a place for eco-friendly urban living. Construction is due to be completed in 2020.[promotion?]

Yeongjong Island

As of 2012, Yeongjong International City's 34,183 acres (13,833 ha) centering on the Incheon International Airport is being developed as an eco-friendly airport city scheduled to be completed by 2020. Paradise Co, a South Korean casino operator, said in October 2013 that it will build the country's largest casino on Yeongjong Island.[29]


The Cheongna district, on the mainland adjacent Yeongjong Island, will focus on entertainment and will feature a world class theme park. It will also be a residential area with sports facilities, a floriculture complex, and a business area specially designed for international finance.[promotion?]

Administrative divisions

Main article: List of districts and counties of Incheon

Administrative divisions
Administrative divisions

Incheon is divided into 8 districts (gu) and 2 counties (gun).


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.

Religion in Incheon (2015)[31]

  Not religious (57.9%)
  Protestantism (23.1%)
  Catholicism (9.5%)
  Buddhism (8.7%)
  Other (0.8%)

According to the 2015 census, 32.6% of the population follow Christianity (23.1% Protestantism and 9.5% Catholicism) and 8.7% follow Buddhism. 57.9% of the population is irreligious. 0.8% of the population follow other religions including Islam, Muism, and Confucianism.[31]


Incheon Asiad Main Stadium, main stadium of 2014 Asian Games

Incheon is home to the following professional and semi professional sports teams:

Association football: The K League 1 team Incheon United FC.
The Incheon team was known to have a popular rivalry against former Bucheon SK (now Jeju United), due to the teams' close geographical relationship.

The K4 League team FC Namdong is based in the Namdong District of Incheon.

The WK League team is named Hyundai Steel Red Angels.

Baseball: The KBO League team SSG Landers.
The first Incheon-based professional baseball team were Sammi Superstars.

Basketball: The WKBL team Incheon Shinhan Bank S-Birds is based in Incheon. Between 1997 and 2021, Incheon hosted the KBL team Incheon Electroland Elephants.

Volleyball: The V-League teams are Incheon Korean Air Jumbos (men's) and Incheon Heungkuk Life Pink Spiders (women's).

Munhak Sports Complex: The Munhak Sports Complex houses both a football stadium and a baseball stadium. The football stadium was Incheon's venue for the 2002 Football World Cup, and is also the home venue for Incheon United. The baseball stadium is the home venue for the SSG Landers.

In April 2007, Incheon was selected as the host city for the 2014 Asian Games, beating out New Delhi.[32]

Yeonhui Cricket Ground: Yeonhui Cricket Ground is a purpose-built cricket stadium in Incheon built for cricket events at the 2014 Asian Games. The 2014 Asian Games featured cricket for both the men's and the women's event and this ground was used for the scheduled cricket matches played at the games. It is the first cricket stadium in South Korea.[33][34]

Incheon Football Stadium (Sungui Arena): Incheon Football Stadium is the first football-only stadium in Incheon. It was built in 2012 with a capacity for 20,891 spectators.

Points of interest

This section may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (March 2022)

A number of Korea's western islands, including Ganghwa Island, Yeongjong Island, and Baengnyeong Island are also administered by Incheon. Baengnyeong Island is South Korea's westernmost point.

Notable people

This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please help improve this section by clarifying or removing indiscriminate details. If importance cannot be established, the section is likely to be moved to another article, pseudo-redirected, or removed.Find sources: "Incheon" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Korea

Incheon is twinned with:[35]

See also


  1. ^ 연령별 인구현황 [Population by Age]. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  2. ^ Incheon Metropolitan City Archived 7 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Ewing, Stefan (25 January 2006). "By Train from Seoul to Incheon – and Jemulpo, too". Korea Web. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  4. ^ "GAMEON'ASIA 2015, March 25-27, 2015, Ghent University, Incheon, South-Korea, Conference Venue | EUROSIS". Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  5. ^ Prior to 1973, the township belonged to Bucheon or old Bupyeong.
  6. ^ Bill Sloan, The Darkest Summer: Pusan and Inchon 1950: The Battles That Saved South Korea—and the Marines—From Extinction(2009)
  7. ^ "G20 Information Centre". Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  8. ^ Garcia, Cathy Rose A. (30 July 2009). "Spotlight on Women Artists at Incheon Biennale". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.
  9. ^ "- Olympic Council of Asia". Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  10. ^ "The 6th OECD World Forum: the Future of Well-being, 27-29 November 2018, Incheon, Korea". OECD. Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  11. ^ "Incheon (Republic of Korea) named World Book Capital 2015". UNESCO. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  12. ^ "Arirang News". 20 March 2007. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  13. ^ "Overseas Chinese primary and middle, high school, Incheon". International School Information, Government of South Korea. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016.
  14. ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  15. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  16. ^ Yeon-Hee Kim, Jong-Jin Baik, and Byoung-Cheol Choi. "MAXIMUM URBAN HEAT ISLAND INTENSITY IN LARGE CITIES OF KOREA" (PDF). University of Łódź. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ "Inchon, Korea: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
  18. ^ "AsiaRooms – LateRooms – Last Minute Hotel Deals & Cheap Hotels". Archived from the original on 13 May 2008.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  19. ^ "Climatological Normals of Korea (1991 ~ 2020)" (PDF) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. pp. II-29, II-30, II-468. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  20. ^ 우리나라 기후평년값 - 파일셋 (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  21. ^ 우리나라 기후평년값 - 그래프 (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  22. ^ 순위값 - 구역별조회 (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  23. ^ "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea Meteorological Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  24. ^ 송도국제도시 세계 최대 바이오의약품 생산기지로 뜬다 [Songdo International City becomes the world's largest biopharmaceutical production base] (in Korean). 12 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 October 2015.
  25. ^ "Year to date Passenger Traffic: December 2015". Airports Council International (ACI). Archived from the original on 29 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Incheon Airport" Airport Statistics: 인천공항 [Airport Statistics: Incheon International Airport] (in Korean). Archived from the original on 22 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  27. ^ "인천공항 국제여객 순위 '세계 5위' 기염". 기호일보 (in Korean). 9 January 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  28. ^ Bae, Joon-yong (19 April 2016). 인천역에 KTX 들어오나? [Will KTX come to Incheon station?]. Incheon Daily News (in Korean). Archived from the original on 8 August 2016.
  29. ^ Kim, Peter (22 October 2013). "New casino complex to be built near Incheon airport". The Korea Observer. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016.
  30. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects". Archived from the original on 19 January 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  31. ^ a b "2015 Census – Religion Results" (in Korean). KOSIS KOrean Statistical Information Service. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  32. ^ Yoo, Soh-jung (6 July 2010). "2014 Asian Games to promote regional harmony". The Korea Herald. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014.
  33. ^ "INCHEON PUTTING IN THE HARD YARDS". Asian Cricket Council. 4 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  34. ^ "Yeonhui Cricket Ground (Incheon Asian Games 2014)". 4 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  35. ^ "Sister Cities & Affiliated Cities". Incheon Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.