KBO League
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2024 KBO League season
Founded1982; 42 years ago (1982)
No. of teams10
CountrySouth Korea
Most recent
LG Twins (3rd title)
Most titlesKia Tigers (11 titles)
TV partner(s)Korea
Outside Korea
TSN (Canada)
Fox Sports (Asia-Pacific)
Official websiteKoreaBaseball.com

The KBO League (KoreanKBO 리그), officially the Shinhan Bank SOL KBO League, is the highest level league of baseball in South Korea. The KBO League was founded with six franchises in 1982 and is the most popular sports league in South Korea.[1] The Kia Tigers are the most successful team, having won 11 of the 42 championships.

In comparison with American Major League Baseball, ESPN reports that the KBO level of play "appears to be somewhere between Double-A and Triple-A, on average, though the best players are more likely to be MLB-quality than your typical Double-A league."[2] Historically, the KBO is known for its vocal and exuberant fan base,[3][4] as well as the widespread practice of bat flips (ppa-dun (Korean: 빠던), a portmanteau of the "first syllables of the words for 'bat' and 'throw'")[5][6] by hitters after stroking what they think will be a home run.[5][6] In the KBO, the bat flipping tradition dates to the 1990s.[6]

League structure

Regular season

Since the 2015 season, each team plays 144 games in the regular season, an increase from 128 games, along with the introduction of the KT Wiz to the league. Each team plays every other team 16 times.[7][8] In general, Korean teams play six games a week, with every Monday off.

KBO All-Star Game

In mid-July of every season, the best players participate in the KBO All-Star Game. The franchises participating are divided into two sets of teams: "Dream All-Stars" (Doosan, KT, Lotte, Samsung, and SSG) and "Nanum All-Stars" (Kia, Hanwha, LG, NC and Kiwoom).


The KBO League's season culminates in its championship series, known as the KBO Korean Series. Currently, the top five teams qualify for the post-season based on win–loss records. The lowest-qualifying teams face off in a step-ladder playoff system, where each winner then faces the next-highest team, culminating in the Korean Series against the top-ranked team.[8]

Fourth-place team starts the series with a 1–0 lead and advances with one win or a tie, while the fifth-place team must win twice to advance.
Best of five series.
Best of five series.
Best of seven series.

Any playoff games ending in an official tie are replayed, thereby raising the possibility of a close series containing more than the scheduled five or seven games.


The KBO League rules are essentially those of the Major League Baseball (MLB). The designated hitter rule is universal in KBO.[4]

Traditionally, South Korean professional baseball games have a maximum number of extra innings before a game is declared an official tie. The KBO abolished this limit for the 2008 season, but it was reinstated in 2009, with a 12-inning limit imposed during the regular season,[4] and a 15-inning limit for playoff games.[9]


See also: List of KBO League seasons

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The first game was played on March 27, 1982, between the Samsung Lions and the MBC Chungyong at Dongdaemun Baseball Stadium, Seoul. Then-president Chun Doo-hwan threw out the ceremonial first pitch.[10]

The 1982 charter teams of its first season were:

The first Korean Series featured the Bears versus the Lions, with OB winning the championship 4-games-to-1, with a tie.

The 1980s

The Haitai Tigers dominated the 1980s, winning the Korean Series five times — in 1983, 1986, and 1987 through 1989. They were led by pitcher Sun Dong-yol and infielders Kim Seong-han and Han Dae-hwa. Other KBO stars whose careers took off in the 1980s were sluggers Chang Jong-hoon and Lee Man-soo.

From 1982 to 1988, the regular season was divided into two (a spring season and a fall season), with a first-half pennant winner and a latter-half pennant winner. The two pennant winners then played each other for the Korean Series championship.[11] The 1982 campaign featured an 80-game (in total) season, which expanded to 100 games from 1983 to 1984. Rosters for each team were small (sometimes as few as 14 players), and many players in the league both pitched and batted. Bang Soo-won of the Haitai Tigers pitched the first no-hitter in Korean professional baseball history, in 1984 against the Sammi Superstars.[12]

Mid-season 1985, the Sammi Superstars were sold and became known as the Chungbo Pintos, and the full season expanded to 110 games. Because the Samsung Lions won both half-season pennants (with a still single-season record .706 winning percentage), the Lions won the title outright so no Korean Series was played that year.[11]

Because of the lack of a postseason in 1985, the next year saw some major changes, with the adoption of a playoff system, in which the top two teams from each half-season played for the right to get to the Korean Series.[11] 1986 also saw the OB Bears moving from Daejeon to share Jamsil Baseball Stadium with MBC Chungyong in Seoul. A new franchise, the Binggrae Eagles, joined the league, replacing the vacancy in Daejeon made by OB's move, and expanding the league to seven teams. From 1986 to 1988, the regular season shrunk to a total of 108 games.

1988 saw the Cheongbo Pintos change ownership again, becoming the Pacific Dolphins. In 1989 the KBO eliminated the two half-season pennants, moving to a single season of 120 games.[11]

The 1990s

In the 1990s the Tigers were again dominant, winning the championship four times in the decade — 1991, 1993, 1996, and 1997. The Tigers were led by hitting-machine Lee Jong-beom and slugger Lee Ho-joon. Other KBO players who starred in the 1990s were Eagles' pitcher Song Jin-woo, who eventually became the all-time KBO leader in wins, strikeouts, and innings pitched; slugging catcher Park Kyung-oan, the first catcher in KBO history to hit 300 home runs; and stolen base king Jeon Jun-ho. But probably the most notable hitters to emerge from the 1990s were the Lions' Lee Seung-yuop and Yang Joon-hyuk, who between them now hold most of the KBO's career offensive records.

In 1990, MBC Chungyong became the LG Twins and an eighth franchise was added, the Ssangbangwool Raiders, who represented the Jeollabuk-do region.

From 1991 to 1998, the season increased to 126 games. The Lotte Giants won the Korean Series championship in 1992; the team has not won it since. There was little other change during this period except for a few major sponsors: in 1993 the Binggrae Eagles became the Hanwha Eagles, in 1996 the Pacific Dolphins became the Hyundai Unicorns, and in 1999 the OB Bears became the Doosan Bears.

The 1998 Korean Series was won by the Hyundai Unicorns for the franchise's first championship in 16 years of existence. (The team would go on to win the championship in 2000, 2003, and 2004.)

In 1999 the season was expanded to 132 games, and the KBO separated into two divisions — the Dream League and the Magic League.[11][13][14] The 1999 Dream League consisted of the Doosan Bears, the Lotte Giants, the Haitai Tigers, and the Hyundai Unicorns; the 1999 Magic League consisted of the Hanwha Eagles, the LG Twins, the Samsung Lions, and the Ssangbangwool Raiders. That year the Eagles — in their 14th season — won their franchise's first (and only) Korean Series championship, after 14 years in the KBO.

The 2000s

Bigger changes were made in 2000 when the Hyundai Unicorns moved from Incheon to Suwon, and a new franchise, the SK Wyverns, took their place in Incheon. The Ssangbangwool Raiders became defunct. The league's two-division structure slightly shifted as well, with SK taking Ssangbangwool's place in the Magic Division, and Lotte and Samsung switching divisions.[15] Thus, the 2000 Dream League was composed of Doosan, Haitai, Hyundai, and Samsung; while the 2000 Magic League was composed of Hanwha, LG, Lotte, and SK.

Parity ruled the 2000s, with the Unicorns and Lions each winning three titles, and the upstart Wyverns winning two. The hard-luck Doosan Bears appeared in the Korean Series five times in the decade but only won it once, in 2001. Stars who emerged in the 2000s include all-time KBO hit king Park Yong-taik, the Giants' first-baseman Dae-ho Lee, and the Eagles' first-baseman Kim Tae-kyun. Other notable players from the era include slugging third-basemen Lee Bum-ho and Choi Jeong, the Bears' designated hitter Hong Sung-heon, and the Twins' long-time outfielder Lee Byung-kyu.

In 2001, the KBO returned to a single-division format.[11] The Haitai Tigers became the Kia Tigers. From 2000 to 2012, the length of the regular season fluctuated between 126 and 133 games.

Despite its string of championships in the early 2000s, the Hyundai Unicorns franchise was disbanded in 2008. It was re-founded as the Woori Heroes and moved to Mok-dong in Seoul. In 2010, the team's naming rights were sold to Nexen Tire and the team was renamed the Nexen Heroes until the end of the 2018 season, when its naming rights were sold to Kiwoom Securities.

The 2010s

The Samsung Lions were a powerful team in the 2010s, winning the championship four times during six straight appearances in the Korean Series (from 2010 to 2015). The Doosan Bears were also a powerhouse, appearing in the Korean Series six times in the decade (including five straight appearances from 2015 to 2019), winning it three times.

Expansion resumed in the 2010s, with the addition of the NC Dinos, located in Changwon, which joined the league in 2013. It is the first team located in Changwon, the city having previously been the second home of the nearby Lotte Giants. The KBO played 128-game seasons in 2013–2014.

In 2015, the KT Wiz became the league's tenth franchise. They play their home games in Suwon, which had not had a team since the Hyundai Unicorns' disbandment. Since 2015 the KBO has played a 144-game season each year, and has added a fifth team to the playoffs, with the introduction of the Wild Card game. In 2015 the league also increased the active roster size of each team, from 26 to 27 (of those, 25 may play in any one game).[16]

After a number of seasons of inflated offensive production, the KBO introduced a new "dejuiced" baseball before the 2019 season. The results showed in a significant decrease in runs per game and home runs per game.[17][8]

The 2020s

The 2020 season was delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but finally started play on May 5, 2020, with no fans in attendance.[8] In response to the lack of live sports programming due to the pandemic, ESPN and the KBO League entered into an agreement to broadcast six games weekly. The Opening Day game between the NC Dinos and Samsung Lions was broadcast as the first game under the agreement that night. Karl Ravech, Jason Benetti, Boog Sciambi, Eduardo Perez, and Jessica Mendoza, along with various guests, broadcast the game remotely via Internet from their homes.[18]

Expatriate baseball players in the KBO

As with Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), the KBO league places a cap on the number of foreign players allowed on club rosters. The foreign player limit is set at three (no more than two of them being pitchers),[8][4] increased from two players from 2014. Foreign players can only sign single-season contracts, and they are restricted by a salary cap.[3] Since 2019, the total compensation for a foreign player has been capped at $1 million.[19][20] The foreign hitters on each team are expected to provide power in the middle of the order, while the foreign pitchers are expected to anchor the starting rotation.[21] As with foreign players in the NPB, many of the most celebrated foreign players came to Korea after not finding success in the Major Leagues.

The KBO first began allowing foreign players in 1998,[21][22] when each team was allowed to sign up to two imports. Traditionally, teams chose one hitter and one pitcher, although there were exceptions. (In 2001 and 2002, KBO teams were allowed three foreign-born players, but only two of them could be on the field at the same time.)[22] By 2012, teams were using all their foreign-player allotments on pitchers, and there were no more foreign hitters in the KBO. After this happened again in 2013, the following season the KBO League raised the foreign-player limit to three for each team, but mandated that at least one foreign player had to be a hitter (again, with only two such players on the field at a time).[22]

American Tyrone Woods was the first notable import. Debuting with the Doosan Bears in 1998, Woods was the first foreign player to hit a home run (as well as the first to be ejected from a game by an umpire).[citation needed] In his first year Woods set a then-KBO record with 42 homers and won the MVP award (becoming the first foreign player to win the award).[citation needed] In five years in Korea, Woods hit 174 homers, drove in 510 runs, and batted .294. (He later found additional success in Nippon Professional Baseball.) Woods left Korea with the longest career of any foreign player in KBO history, a record later eclipsed by hitter Jay Davis and pitcher Dustin Nippert. Davis played seven seasons for Hanwha (1999–2002, 2004–2006), compiling a .313 batting average, 167 home runs, and 591 RBI during that span.[23]

Foreign pitchers with extended careers in the KBO include Dustin Nippert, who compiled a win–loss record of 102–51 and 1,082 strikeouts in eight seasons (a foreign player record); and Danny Rios, who in six seasons was 90–59 with 807 strikeouts and an ERA of 3.01, which is the lowest career ERA of any foreign pitcher in the KBO. Josh Lindblom pitched in the KBO for five seasons, compiling a 63–34 record and 750 strikeouts. Rios was given the 2008 KBO League Most Valuable Player Award, Nippert was KBO MVP in 2016, and Lindblom won the award in 2019.

American Jerry Royster was the first-ever non-Korean to take the helm of one of South Korea's professional baseball clubs when he was signed as manager of the Lotte Giants in 2007.[24] (Royster served as the Giants' manager through the 2010 season.)

Over the league's history, more than 200 Americans have played in the KBO; other countries which have produced many current and former KBO players include the Dominican Republic (with more than 80 players), and Venezuela (with more than 20 players).

KBO players in Japan and the U.S.

Main article: List of Major League Baseball players from South Korea

Several KBO players have had successful careers in Japan's Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB). Baek In-chun played professionally in Japan from 1963 to 1981, compiling 209 home runs, 776 RBI, and 1,831 hits in the NPB. (He returned to Korea for his final three seasons as a player.) Lee Seung-yuop, who holds the KBO records for career home runs, runs scored, RBIs, total bases, slugging percentage and OPS, also played eight seasons in the NPB, accumulating an additional 159 home runs and 439 RBI. Other KBO hitters who had some success in the NPB include Kim Tae-kyun and Dae-ho Lee. Korean pitchers who have had an impact in the NPB include Sun Dong-yol, Lim Chang-yong, and Seung-hwan Oh (who led the NPB in saves in both 2014 and 2015).

Several Korean players have also successfully transitioned from the KBO to American Major League Baseball, starting in 1994 with pitcher Chan Ho Park. (Prior to Park, the South Korea-born Mexican pitcher Ernesto Carlos [born as Lee Won-Kuk] was signed to an American minor league contract with the San Francisco Giants' organization in 1968 after having found success in the NPB.[citation needed] Similarly, pitcher Park Chul-soon signed a minor league deal with the Milwaukee Brewers organization in 1980.[citation needed] Neither Ernesto Carlos nor Park Chul-soon, however, made it to the Major Leagues.) Other Korean born players who have had lengthy MLB careers include outfielder Shin-Soo Choo and pitcher Byung-hyun Kim. In 2013, Hanwha Eagles ace Hyun-jin Ryu became the first player from the KBO to join an MLB team through the posting system. Altogether, 23 South Korean players have made it to the MLB as of 2020.[25]


KBO League is located in South Korea
Team City Stadium Capacity Founded Joined
Doosan Bears Seoul Jamsil Baseball Stadium 25,000 1982
Hanwha Eagles Daejeon Hanwha Life Eagles Park 13,000 1985 1986
Kia Tigers Gwangju Gwangju-Kia Champions Field 20,500 1982
Kiwoom Heroes Seoul Gocheok Sky Dome 16,744 2008
KT Wiz Suwon Suwon kt wiz Park 20,000 2013 2015
LG Twins Seoul Jamsil Baseball Stadium 25,000 1982
Lotte Giants Busan Sajik Baseball Stadium 24,500 1975 1982
NC Dinos Changwon Changwon NC Park 22,112 2011 2013
Samsung Lions Daegu Daegu Samsung Lions Park 24,000 1982
SSG Landers Incheon Incheon SSG Landers Field 23,000 2000
Defunct clubs
Team City Stadium Founded Joined Ceased
Hyundai Unicorns Suwon Suwon Baseball Stadium 1982 2008
Ssangbangwool Raiders Jeonju Jeonju Baseball Stadium 1990 1991 1999

League sponsorship

Season Sponsor League name
1982–1999 No sponsor Korea Professional Baseball
2000–2001 Samsung Securities Samsung Fn.com Cup Professional Baseball
2002–2004 Samsung Securities Cup Professional Baseball
2005–2008 Samsung Electronics Samsung PAVV Professional Baseball
2009–2010 CJ Internet CJ Magumagu Professional Baseball
2011 Lotte Card Lotte Card Professional Baseball
2012 Paldo Paldo Professional Baseball
2013–2014 Korea Yakult Korea Yakult 7even Professional Baseball
2015–2017 Tirebank Tirebank KBO League
2018–2019 Shinhan Bank Shinhan Bank MY CAR KBO League
2020–present Shinhan Bank SOL KBO League


Most of the games are currently aired by KBS2, KBS N Sports, MBC, MBC Sports+, SBS, SBS Sports, and SPOTV.

Amid the disruption of international sport due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the league reached a U.S. broadcast deal with ESPN for the 2020 season; games were called remotely by ESPN Major League Baseball personalities such as Karl Ravech and Eduardo Pérez.[26][27][28]


See also: List of baseball stadiums in South Korea

Doosan Bears LG Twins Hanwha Eagles Kia Tigers Kiwoom Heroes
Jamsil Baseball Stadium Hanwha Life Eagles Park Gwangju-Kia Champions Field Gocheok Sky Dome
Capacity: 25,000 Capacity: 13,000 Capacity: 20,500 Capacity: 16,744
KT Wiz Lotte Giants NC Dinos Samsung Lions SSG Landers
Suwon kt wiz Park Sajik Baseball Stadium Changwon NC Park Daegu Samsung Lions Park Incheon SSG Landers Field
Capacity: 20,000 Capacity: 24,500 Capacity: 22,112 Capacity: 24,000 Capacity: 23,000

In addition to these ballparks, the Lotte Giants play some games at Ulsan Munsu Baseball Stadium, the Samsung Lions at Pohang Baseball Stadium and the Hanwha Eagles at Cheongju Baseball Stadium.

Attendance figures

The league has recently enjoyed a surge in popularity, with increased attendance every year.

In 2016 season, a new national record of over 8 million attendance figures was set. There was massive increase of 1 million compared with previous season.[29]

The record was smashed again in 2017 season with over 8.4 million fans to their games during the regular season. Bears, Twins, Giants and Tigers all attracted over 1 million fans. The average game attendance was above 11,600 fans.[30]

This increase in popularity has been accompanied by the building of larger and more modern ballparks to further enhance the fan experience and their expenditures during games, such as Gwangju-Kia Champions Field (2014), Gocheok Sky Dome (2016), Daegu Samsung Lions Park (2016), and Changwon NC Park (2019).


KBO League players and coaches have formed a number of associations:[31]


Korean Series champions

Main article: Korean Series

Club Champions Runners-up Seasons won Seasons runners-up
Kia Tigers 11 0 1983, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2009, 2017
Samsung Lions 8 10 1985, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 1982, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1993, 2001, 2004, 2010, 2015
Doosan Bears 6 9 1982, 1995, 2001, 2015, 2016, 2019 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2013, 2017, 2018, 2020, 2021
SSG Landers 5 4 2007, 2008, 2010, 2018, 2022 2003, 2009, 2011, 2012
Hyundai Unicorns (defunct) 4 2 1998, 2000, 2003, 2004 1994, 1996
LG Twins 3 4 1990, 1994, 2023 1983, 1997, 1998, 2002
Lotte Giants 2 3 1984, 1992 1985, 1995, 1999
Hanwha Eagles 1 5 1999 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 2006
NC Dinos 1 1 2020 2016
KT Wiz 1 1 2021 2023
Kiwoom Heroes 0 3 2014, 2019, 2022

Postseason results

Teams 1982 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Total
Samsung 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd PO SPO 2nd PO SPO 2nd PO PO PO PO 2nd 1st SPO 2nd 1st 1st SPO PO 2nd 1st 1st 1st 1st 2nd PO 29
Doosan 1st PO PO SPO 1st SPO PO 2nd 1st PO 2nd 2nd 2nd PO PO SPO 2nd 1st 1st 2nd 2nd 1st 2nd 2nd WC 25
Kia 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st PO 1st PO 1st SPO 1st 1st PO PO SPO SPO 1st SPO WC 1st WC WC 22
LG 2nd 1st PO 1st PO 2nd 2nd PO 2nd PO PO PO SPO SPO SPO PO 1st 17
SSG DNP 2nd SPO 1st 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 2nd WC WC 1st PO 1st SPO 14
Hanwha DNP 2nd 2nd SPO 2nd 2nd PO SPO 1st SPO PO 2nd PO SPO 13
Lotte 1st SPO 1st 2nd 2nd SPO SPO SPO SPO PO PO SPO 12
Hyundai PO 2nd 2nd 1st 1st PO SPO 1st 1st PO DNP 10
Kiwoom DNP SPO 2nd SPO SPO PO 2nd WC WC 2nd 9
NC DNP SPO PO 2nd PO WC 1st PO 7
KT DNP PO 1st SPO 2nd 4
Ssangbangwool DNP PO SPO DNP 2


See footnote and Baseball awards#South Korea





See also: No-hitter

Date Pitcher Club Score Opponent Ballpark Notes
May 5, 1984 Bang Soo-won Haitai Tigers 5–0 Sammi Superstars Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium
June, 5, 1986 Kim Jeong-haeng Lotte Giants 8–0 Binggrae Eagles Sajik Baseball Stadium
April 2, 1988 Jang Ho-yeon OB Bears 4–0 Lotte Giants Sajik Baseball Stadium Opening day of the season
April 17, 1988 Lee Dong-seok Binggrae Eagles 1–0 Haitai Tigers Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium
July, 6, 1989 Sun Dong-yol Haitai Tigers 10–0 Samsung Lions Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium
August 8, 1990 Lee Tae-il Samsung Lions 8–0 Lotte Giants Sajik Baseball Stadium
April, 30, 1993 Kim Won-hyeong Ssangbangwool Raiders 3–0 OB Bears Jeonju Baseball Stadium At age 20, Kim was the youngest KBO pitcher to ever throw a no-hitter
September 9, 1993 Kim Tae-won LG Twins 9–0 Ssangbangwool Raiders Jamsil Baseball Stadium
October 20, 1996 Jeong Myeong-won Hyundai Unicorns 4–0 Haitai Tigers Sungui Stadium Game 4 of the Korean Series
May 23, 1997[32] Jung Min-cheul Hanwha Eagles 8–0 OB Bears Jeonju Baseball Stadium
May 18, 2000 Song Jin-woo Hanwha Eagles 6–0 Haitai Tigers Gwangju Mudeung Baseball Stadium At age 34, Song was the oldest KBO pitcher to throw a no-hitter
June 25, 2014 Charlie Shirek NC Dinos 6–0 LG Twins Jamsil Baseball Stadium First foreign player to throw a KBO League no-hitter
April 9, 2015 Yunesky Maya Doosan Bears 1–0 Nexen Heroes Jamsil Baseball Stadium
June 30, 2016 Michael Bowden Doosan Bears 4–0 NC Dinos Jamsil Baseball Stadium
April 21, 2019 Deck McGuire Samsung Lions 16–0 Hanwha Eagles Hanwha Life Insurance Eagles Park

Sources: [12][33]

See also


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  2. ^ Szymborski, Dan. "How good would Mike Trout be in the KBO? We have the numbers," ESPN (May 13, 2020).
  3. ^ a b Kim Young-jin (3 July 2013). "The 'mercenaries'". The Korea Times. Seoul. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d Roscher, Liz. "A KBO primer: Here's what you need to know to enjoy the return of baseball in South Korea," Yahoo! Sports (May 1, 2020).
  5. ^ a b Keh, Andrew (September 2, 2015). "Bat flipping draws shrugs in South Korea but scorn in America". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 1, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Kimes, Mina (October 4, 2016). "The Art of Letting Go: The great Korean bat flip mystery". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  7. ^ Korea Baseball Organization (2015). 2015 달라지는 점 Archived 2015-04-05 at the Wayback Machine (Korean). Accessed on April 14, 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e Reuter, Joel. "KBO for Dummies: An MLB Fan's Guide to the Korean Baseball League," Bleacher Report (May 5, 2020).
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  10. ^ Kim, Jinsung. "More than Sports: Politics in the Origins of the Professional Baseball League in South Korea," Asia Pacific Memo (April 5, 2017).
  11. ^ a b c d e f Young Hoon Lee, Rodney Fort, editors. The Sports Business in The Pacific Rim: Economics and Policy (Springer, Oct 31, 2014) p. 178.
  12. ^ a b Kim Tae-jong. "No-hitter records in KBO history," The Korea Times (2014-06-25).
  13. ^ Costello, Rory. Dae-Sung Koo entry, Society for American Baseball Research website. Footnote 11: "For the 1999 and 2000 seasons, Korea operated two leagues, the Dream League and Magic League. Hanwha was in the Magic League." Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  14. ^ "A Miraculous Comeback in the Making?", The Dong-a Ilbo (October. 17, 2007).
  15. ^ Zang, Hwansoo."Law of Jungle Also Exists in Pro Baseball". The Dong-a Ilbo. July 10, 2000.
  16. ^ "Wild-card game, speed-up rules among changes for 2015 KBO season," Yonhap News Agency (March 24, 2015).
  17. ^ Kim, Sung Min. "Let’s Check in on the KBO’s De-Juiced Baseballs," FanGraphs (August 16, 2019).
  18. ^ ESPN News Services (4 May 2020). "ESPN to televise Korea Baseball Organization games". ESPN.com. ESPN. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  19. ^ "KBO's final foreign player signed". Korea JoongAng Daily. 28 December 2018. Retrieved 2019-12-23.
  20. ^ "KBO Establishes Salary Ceiling On Foreign Players". MLB Trade Rumors. Retrieved 2019-12-23.
  21. ^ a b Lee, Seung Chan. "Foreign Players in the KBO: What the Future Holds," The Hardball Times (January 15, 2020).
  22. ^ a b c "KBO clubs snatch up new foreign players following rule change," Yonhap News Agency (December 16, 2013).
  23. ^ "Jay Davis," Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  24. ^ Herman, Ken (June 26, 2008). "Ex-Brave Royster now managing in Korea". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  25. ^ "MLB players by birthplace: South Korea". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved 2020-06-10.
  26. ^ "ESPN shows interest in Korean baseball rights". SportBusiness. 2020-04-15. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  27. ^ Hayes, Dade (2020-05-04). "ESPN Goes Outside Its Usual Strike Zone, Setting South Korean Baseball Rights Deal". Deadline. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  28. ^ "KBO tenders international media rights for 2020-23". SportBusiness. 2020-03-11. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  29. ^ "Korea pro baseball league KBO breaks nation's attendance record, surpasses 8 million". WBSC. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  30. ^ "KBO postseason opens in Korea, following 8.4 million regular-season attendance". WBSC. 7 October 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  31. ^ S. Korea baseball community denounces abrupt recruitment halt at police club," The Korea Times (November 14, 2018).
  32. ^ Lammers, Dirk. "Dropped 3rd strike makes Korean no-no imperfect, 22 years ago today," No-hitters.com (May 23, 2019).
  33. ^ "Korea Baseball Organization no-hitters," No-hitters.com. Retrieved July 1, 2020.