Monarch of Vietnam
Heirloom seal of the Nguyễn Dynasty.svg
Heirloom seal of the Nguyễn Dynasty
Bảo Đại au pouvoir.jpg
Last to reign
Bảo Đại

8 January 1926 – 25 August 1945
Details
First monarchKinh Dương Vương (as king)
Đinh Tiên Hoàng (as emperor)
Last monarchBảo Đại (as emperor)
Formation2879 BC
AbolitionAugust 25, 1945
ResidenceCổ Loa Citadel (257 BC – 967)
Imperial Citadel of Hoa Lư (968–1009)
Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long (1010–1400; 1428–1789)
Citadel of the Hồ Dynasty (1400–1407)
Imperial City, Huế (1802–1945)
Pretender(s)Guy Georges Vĩnh San (son of Emperor Duy Tân)

This article lists the monarchs of Vietnam. Under the emperor at home, king abroad system used by later dynasties, Vietnamese monarchs would use the title of emperor (皇帝, or other equivalents) domestically, and the more common term king (vương), sovereign (vua), or his Majesty (Bệ hạ).[1][2]

Overview

Some Vietnamese monarchs declared themselves kings (vương) or emperors (hoàng đế).[1][2] Imperial titles were used for both domestic and foreign affairs, except for diplomatic missions to China where Vietnamese monarchs were regarded as kingship or prince. Many of the Later Lê monarchs were figurehead rulers, with the real powers resting on feudal lords and princes who were technically their servants. Most Vietnamese monarchs are known through their posthumous names or temple names, while the Nguyễn dynasty, the last reigning house is known through their era names.

Titles

Vietnamese titles

Vietnamese monarchs used and were referred to by many titles, depending on each ruler's prestige and favor. Except for legendary rulers and the Sinitic-speaking Zhao dynasty and the Early Ly dynasty, the most popular and common Vietnamese designation for ruler, vua  (lit. sovereign, chieftain), according to Liam C. Kelley, is "largely based on a pure semantic association based on the benevolent feature associated to the 'father' (but, on the other hand, the image of the father may also be terrifying, strict, or even mean)." Because there is no elaborated Chinese character or any attempt to standardize the Sino-Vietnamese Chữ Nôm script to render vua, the title was rendered in different ways. Vua in Ancient Vietnamese (10th–15th centuries) is attested in the 14th-century Buddhist literature Việt Điện U Linh Tập as bùgài (布蓋) in Chinese or vua cái (great sovereign in Vietnamese),[3] in 15th-century Buddhist scripture Phật thuyết đại báo phụ mẫu ân trọng kinh as sībù (司布); in Middle Vietnamese (16th–17th centuries) as ꞗua or bua;[4] becoming vua in Early Modern Vietnamese (18-19th centuries) such as recorded by Alexis-Marie de Rochon's A Voyage to Madagascar and the East Indies.[5] Vua is not found in any Vietnamese dynastic records which all were written in the lingua franca Chữ Hán through.[citation needed]

According to Mark Alves, Vietnamese vua was seemingly a loan word borrowed from the Old Chinese form of title Wáng (王, king), *‍ɢʷaŋ, to Proto-Viet-Muong. Frédéric Pain, however, insists that vua is from a completely indigenous Vietic lexicon, derived from sesquisyllabic proto-Vietic *k.bɔ.[6] While the monarch was commonly referred vernacularly as vua, Vietnamese royal records and official ceremonial titles kept bearing hoàng đế (emperor) or vương (king), which are Vietnamese renditions of Chinese royal titles Huángdì and Wáng. They were employed to show the Vietnamese monarchs' credence, and the latter was used in tributary relations with the Chinese empires without being considered a Chinese subject.[6]

Buddhism exerted influence on a number of Vietnamese royal titles, such as when the late 12th-century devout Buddhist king Ly Cao Tong (r. 1176–1210) demanded his courtiers to refer him as phật (Buddha).[7] His great-grandfather and predecessor Lý Nhân Tông (r. 1072–1127), a great patronizer of the Buddhist sangha, in his stelae inscription erected in 1121, compared himself and his accomplishments with ancient rulers of the Indian subcontinent near the time of Gautama Buddha, particularly king Udayana and emperor Aśoka.[8]

Cham titles

Cham rulers of the former kingdom of Champa in present-day Central and Southern Vietnam used many titles, mostly derived from Hindu Sanskrit titles. There were prefix titles, among them, Jaya and Śrī, which Śrī (His glorious, His Majesty) was used more commonly before each ruler's name, and sometimes Śrī and Jaya were combined into Śrī Jaya[monarch name]. Royal titles were used to indicate the power and prestige of rulers: raja-di-raja (king of kings), maharajadhiraja (great king of kings), arddharaja (vice king/junior king).[9] After the fall of Vijaya Champa and the Simhavarmanid dynasty in 1471, all Sanskrit titles disappeared from Cham records, due to southern Panduranga rulers styled themselves as Po (native Cham title, which also means "King, His Majesty, Her Majesty"), and Islam gradually replaced Hinduism in post-1471 Champa.

Ancient period

Hồng Bàng period

According to tradition there were eighteen of the Hùng kings of the Hồng Bàng period, known then as Văn Lang at that time, from around 2879 BC to around 258 BC. Following is the list of 18 lines of Hùng kings as recorded in the book Việt Nam sử lược by Trần Trọng Kim.[10] There has been some archeologists proof of the existence of these legendary figures.

King Given name Reign
Kinh Dương Vương (涇陽王) Lộc Tục (祿續) 2879 BC? – 2794 BC?
Lạc Long Quân (貉龍君) Sùng Lãm (崇纜) 2793 BC? – 2524 BC?
Hùng King I Lân Lang 2524 BC? – ?
Hùng King II unknown ? – ?
Hùng King III unknown ? – ?
Hùng King IV unknown ? – ?
Hùng King V unknown ? – ?
Hùng King VI unknown ? – ?
Hùng King VII unknown ? – ?
Hùng King VIII unknown ? – ?
Hùng King IX unknown ? – ?
Hùng King X unknown ? – ?
Hùng King XI Tuấn Lang 968 BC? – ?
Hùng King XII Chân Nhân Lang 853 BC? – ?
Hùng King XIII Cảnh Chiêu Lang 754 BC? – ?
Hùng King XIV Đức Quân Lang 660 BC? – ?
Hùng King XV unknown ? – ?
Hùng King XVI unknown ? – ?

Âu Lạc (257–207 BC or 207–179 BC)

King Images Given name Reign
An Dương Vương (安陽王)
AnDuongVuong, crop.jpg
Thục Phán (蜀泮) 257–207 BC
or 207–179 BC

Kingdom of Nanyue (207–111 BC)

See also: Triệu dynasty

There is still a debate about the status of the Triệu dynasty (Zhao dynasty): traditional Vietnamese historians considered the Triệu dynasty as a local Vietnamese dynasty while modern Vietnamese historians typically consider the Triệu dynasty as a Chinese dynasty.[11]

Emperor or king image Given name Reign
Triệu Vũ Đế
(趙武帝)
A statue of Zhao Tuo.jpg
Triệu Đà
(趙佗)
207–137 BC
Triệu Văn Đế
(趙文帝)
Si lü yu yi.JPG
Triệu Mạt
(趙眜)
137–125 BC
Triệu Minh Vương
(趙明王)
Seal of Nanyue (Zhao Mo).svg
Triệu Anh Tề
(趙嬰齊)
125–113 BC
Triệu Ai Vương
(趙哀王)
Seal of Nanyue (Zhao Mo).svg
Triệu Hưng
(趙興)
113–112 BC
Triệu Dương Vương
(趙術陽王)
Seal of Nanyue (Zhao Mo).svg
Triệu Kiến Đức
(趙建德)
112–111 BC

1st, 2nd, 3th Chinese domination period (111 BC - 938 AD)

    Trưng Sisters Lady Triệu     Mai Hắc Đế      
Triệu dynasty           Early Lý dynasty       Phùng Hưng   Autonomy Independent time
111 BCE 40 43 246   249 544 602 722   766 789 906 938


Trưng Sisters (40–43)

Queen Full name Reign
Trưng Nữ Vương (徵女王) Trưng Trắc (徵側) 40–43

Mai rebellions (713–723)

King Full name Reign
Mai Hắc Đế (梅黑帝) Mai Thúc Loan (梅叔鸞) 713–723
Mai Thiếu Đế (梅少帝) Mai Thúc Huy (梅叔輝) 722–723
Mai Bạch Đầu Đế (梅白頭帝) Mai Kỳ Sơn (梅奇山) 723 -724

Phùng rebellions (779–791)

King Full name Reign
Bố Cái Đại Vương (布蓋大王) Phùng Hưng (馮興) 779–791
Phùng An (馮安) Phùng An (馮安) 791–791

Early Lý dynasty (544–602)

Early Lý dynasty (544–602)
         
111 BC 544 602 938  
Emperor Full name Reign
Lý Nam Đế (李南帝) Lý Bôn (李賁) 544–548
Triệu Việt Vương (趙越王) Triệu Quang Phục (趙光復) 548–571
Đào Lang Vương (桃郎王) Lý Thiên Bảo (李天寶) 549–555
Hậu Lý Nam Đế (後李南帝) Lý Phật Tử (李佛子) 571–603

Đào Lang Vương is not officially considered as king of Early Lý dynasty as he was a self-claimed king.

Autonomous period (866–938) & Independent period (938–1407)

                Ming domination       Nam–Bắc triều * Bắc HàNam Hà     French Indochina  
Chinese domination Ngô   Đinh Early Lê Trần Hồ Later Trần   Mạc Revival Lê Tây Sơn Nguyễn Modern time
                                 
                          Trịnh lords        
                          Nguyễn lords        
939       1009 1225 1400     1427 1527 1592 1788 1858 1945


Tĩnh Hải quân (866–938)

See also: Khúc clan

Khúc Family (905–938)
       
111 BC 905 938  
Jiedushi Full name Reign
Khúc Tiên Chủ (曲先主) Khúc Thừa Dụ (曲承裕) 905–907
Khúc Trung Chủ (曲中主) Khúc Hạo (曲顥) 907–917
Khúc Hậu Chủ (曲後主) Khúc Thừa Mỹ (曲承美) 917–930
Dương Đình Nghệ (楊廷藝) Dương Đình Nghệ (楊廷藝) 930–937
Kiều Công Tiễn (矯公羡) Kiều Công Tiễn (矯公羡)[1] 937–938

At this time, the Khúc leaders still held the title of Jiedushi, hence they are not official kings of Vietnam.

Ngô dynasty (939–967)

Ngô dynasty (939–965)
       
939 965 1945  
King Image Era name Full name Reign
Tiền Ngô Vương (前吳王)
Tượng Ngô Quyền.jpg
none Ngô Quyền (吳權) 939–944
Dương Bình Vương (楊平王)[2] no image none Dương Tam Kha (楊三哥) 944–950
Hậu Ngô Vương (後吳王)[3] no image none Ngô Xương Ngập (吳昌岌) and
Ngô Xương Văn (吳昌文)
951–954
950–965
  • ^ Dương Tam Kha came from the Dương family.[12]
  • ^ Hậu Ngô Vương was the title of both Ngô Xương Ngập and Ngô Xương Văn who co-ruled the country.[13]

Interregnum (944-968)

Warring states period

See also: Anarchy of the 12 Warlords

The throne of Ngô dynasty was upsurged by Dương Tam Kha ,the brother-in-law of Ngô Quyền and this led to anger among those who were loyal to Ngô dynasty. The local warlords decided to make the rebellions to claim the throne.

Anarchy of the 12 Warlords (944–968)
       
944 968 1945  
Warlord Lifespan Real name Description
Ngô Sứ Quân (吳使君) ?–968 Ngô Xương Xí (吳昌熾) + Grandson of Ngô Quyền and son of Ngô Xương Ngập and the legitimate heir of throne
+ Surrendered and pardoned in 968
End of Ngô dynasty
Ngô Lãm công (吳覽公) or Ngô An vương (吳安王) ? - 979 Ngô Nhật Khánh (吳日慶) + Grandson of Ngô Quyền and son of Ngô Xương Văn + Surrendered and pardoned in 968
Deserted to Champa at the end of Đinh dynasty and died in 979
Đỗ Cảnh Công (杜景公) 912 - 967 Đỗ Cảnh Thạc (杜景碩) + Chinese ancestry from Jiangsu
+ General of Ngô Quyền and served in Battle of Bạch Đằng (938)
+ Injured by arrow-shooting and died in 967
Phạm Phòng Át (范防遏) 910 - 972 Phạm Bạch Hổ ( 范白虎) + General of Ngô Quyền and served in Battle of Bạch Đằng (938)
+ Surrendered and pardoned in 966 and promoted as general by Đinh Bộ Lĩnh
Long Kiều vương (隆橋王) ?-967 Kiều Công Hãn (矯公罕) + Grandson of Kiều Công Tiễn and served in Battle of Bạch Đằng (938)
+ Defeated and fled to Ngô Xương Xí's side and killed in 967 .
Kiều Lệnh Công (隆令公) ?-? Kiều Thuận (矯順) + Grandson of Kiều Công Tiễn and younger brother of Kiều Công Hãn
+ Defeated and killed .
Nguyễn Thái Bình (阮太平) 906 - 967 Nguyễn Khoan (阮寬) + Chinese ancestry
+ Oldest brother of Nguyễn Thủ Tiệp & Nguyễn Siêu
+ Surrendered and pardoned in 967 then become the monk .
Nguyễn Lệnh công (阮令公) or Vũ Ninh vương (武宁王) 908 - 967 Nguyễn Thủ Tiệp ( 阮守捷) + Chinese ancestry
+ Middle brother of Nguyễn Khoan & Nguyễn Siêu
+ Defeated and killed
Nguyễn Hữu Công (阮右公) 924 - 967 Nguyễn Siêu ( 阮超) + Chinese ancestry
+ Youngest brother of Nguyễn Khoan & Nguyễn Thủ Tiệp
+ Defeated and killed
Lý Lãng công (李郞公) ? - 968 Lý Khuê (李奎) + Defeated and killed
Trần Minh Công (陳明公) 888 - 967 Trần Lãm (陳覧) + Chinese ancestry from Guangdong
+ Later alliance with Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and adopted him as his son
+ After he died, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh inherited the army of Lãm and fight the unification war with the other warlord
Lữ Tá công (呂佐公) 927 - 968 Lã Đường ( 呂唐) + Defeated and killed

State of Đại Cồ Việt (968–1054) & State of Đại Việt (1054–1400, 1427–1804)

Đinh dynasty (968–980)

See also: Đinh dynasty

Đinh dynasty (968–980)
         
939 968 980 1945  
Emperor Image Era name Full name Reign
Đinh Tiên Hoàng (丁先皇)
VuaDinhTienHoang.jpg
Thái Bình (太平) Đinh Bộ Lĩnh (Đinh Hoàn)
(丁部領 / 丁環)
968–979
Đinh Phế Đế (丁廢帝)
Dinhtoan.jpg
Thái Bình (太平)[4] Đinh Toàn (Đinh Tuệ)
(丁璿 / 丁穗)
979–980
  • ^ Đinh Phế Đế continued to use his father's era name.[14]

Early Lê dynasty (980–1009)

Early Lê dynasty (980–1009)
         
939 980 1009 1945  
Emperor Image Era name Full name Reign
Lê Đại Hành (黎大行)
Ledaihanh.jpg
Thiên Phúc (天福)
Hưng Thống (興統) (989–993)
Ứng Thiên (應天) (994–1005)
Lê Hoàn (黎桓) 980–1005
Lê Trung Tông (黎中宗) No image none Lê Long Việt (黎龍鉞) 1005
(3 days)
Lê Ngoạ Triều (黎臥朝)
Lelongdinh.jpg
Cảnh Thụy (景瑞) (1008–1009) Lê Long Đĩnh (黎龍鋌) 1005–1009

Later Lý dynasty (1009–1225)

Later Lý dynasty (1009–1225)
         
939 1010 1225 1945  
Emperor image Era name Full name Reign
Lý Thái Tổ (李太祖)
Tượng Lý Thái Tổ 2.jpg
Thuận Thiên (順天) Lý Công Uẩn (李公蘊) 1010–1028
Lý Thái Tông (李太宗)
LýTháiTông.jpg
Thiên Thành (天成) (1028–1033)
Thông Thụy (通瑞) (1034–1038)
Càn Phù Hữu Đạo (乾符有道) (1039–1041)
Minh Đạo (明道) (1042–1043)
Thiên Cảm Thánh Võ (天感聖武) (1044–1048)
Sùng Hưng Đại Bảo (崇興大寶) (1049–1054)
Lý Phật Mã (李佛瑪) 1028–1054
Lý Thánh Tông (李聖宗)
Lý Thánh Tông.JPG
Long Thụy Thái Bình (龍瑞太平) (1054–1058)
Chương Thánh Gia Khánh (彰聖嘉慶) (1059–1065)
Long Chương Thiên Tự (龍彰天嗣) (1066–1067)
Thiên Huống Bảo Tượng (天貺寶象) (1068–1069)
Thần Võ (神武) (1069–1072)
Lý Nhật Tôn (李日尊) 1054–1072
Lý Nhân Tông (李仁宗)
Lý Nhân Tông.JPG
Thái Ninh (太寧) (1072–1075)
Anh Võ Chiêu Thắng (英武昭勝) (1076–1084)
Quảng Hữu (廣祐) (1085–1091)
Hội Phong (會豐) (1092–1100)
Long Phù (龍符) (1101–1109)
Hội Tường Đại Khánh (會祥大慶) (1110–1119)
Thiên Phù Duệ Võ (天符睿武) (1120–1126)
Thiên Phù Khánh Thọ (天符慶壽) (1127)
Lý Càn Đức (李乾德) 1072–1127
Lý Thần Tông (李神宗)
Toda No. 5 順天大寶.gif
Thiên Thuận (天順) (1128–1132)
Thiên Chương Bảo Tự (天彰寶嗣) (1133–1137)
Lý Dương Hoán (李陽煥) 1128–1138
Lý Anh Tông (李英宗)
Đại Định Thông Bảo 大定通寶, Coins of Lý dynasty(1009-1225) at room 4 Ly Dynasty (11th - 13th c.) of the Museum of Vietnamese History.jpg
Thiệu Minh (紹明) (1138–1139)
Đại Định (大定) (1140–1162)
Chính Long Bảo Ứng (政隆寶應) (1163–1173)
Thiên Cảm Chí Bảo (天感至寶) (1174–1175)
Lý Thiên Tộ (李天祚) 1138–1175
Lý Cao Tông (李高宗)
Trị Bình Nguyên Báo 治平元寶, (Coins of Lý dynasty(1009-1225) at room 4 Ly Dynasty (11th - 13th c.) of the Museum of Vietnamese History3.jpg
Trinh Phù (貞符) (1176–1185)
Thiên Tư Gia Thụy (天資嘉瑞) (1186–1201)
Thiên Gia Bảo Hữu (天嘉寶祐) (1202–1204)
Trị Bình Long Ứng (治平龍應) (1205–1210)
Lý Long Trát (Lý Long Cán) (李龍翰) 1176–1210
Lý Thẩm (李忱) no image none Lý Thẩm (李忱) 1209–1209
Lý Huệ Tông (李惠宗) no image Kiến Gia (建嘉) Lý Sảm (李旵) 1211–1224
Lý Nguyên Vương (李元王) no image Càn Ninh (乾寧) Lý Nguyên Vương (李元王) 1214–1216
Lý Chiêu Hoàng (李昭皇)
Toda No. 16 元豐通寶.png
Thiên Chương Hữu Đạo (天彰有道)[5] Lý Phật Kim (Nguyễn Thiên Hinh) (李佛金) 1224–1225
  • ^ The only empress in the history of Vietnam.[15]
    Lý Thẩm and Lý Nguyên Vương were acceded and disposed shortly during chaos periods, hence not considered as official emperors of Later Lý dynasty.

Trần dynasty (1225–1400)

Trần dynasty (1225–1400)
         
939 1225 1400 1945  
Emperor Image Era name Full name Reign
Trần Thái Tông (陳太宗)
Lăng Trần Thái Tông.jpg
Kiến Trung (建中) (1225–1237)
Thiên Ứng Chính Bình (天應政平) (1238–1350)
Nguyên Phong (元豐) (1251–1258)
Trần Cảnh (陳煚) 1225–1258
Trần Thánh Tông (陳聖宗)
Lăng Trần Thánh Tông.jpg
Thiệu Long (紹隆) (1258–1272)
Bảo Phù (寶符) (1273–1278)
Trần Hoảng (陳晃) 1258–1278
Trần Nhân Tông (陳仁宗)
Trần Nhân Tông TLĐSXSCĐ.png
Thiệu Bảo (紹寶) (1279–1284)
Trùng Hưng (重興) (1285–1293)
Trầm Khâm (陳昑) 1279–1293
Trần Anh Tông (陳英宗)
Trần Anh Tông TLĐSXSĐ.jpg
Hưng Long (興隆) Trần Thuyên (陳烇) 1293–1314
Trần Minh Tông (陳明宗)
CDVTranMinhTongjpg1333297930.jpg
Đại Khánh (大慶) (1314–1323)
Khai Thái (開泰) (1324–1329)
Trần Mạnh (陳奣) 1314–1329
Trần Hiến Tông (陳憲宗)
Tượng Trần Hiến Tông.png
Khai Hữu (開祐) Trần Vượng (陳旺) 1329–1341
Trần Dụ Tông (陳裕宗)
Statue of emperor Trần Dụ Tông.jpg
Thiệu Phong (紹豐) (1341–1357)
Đại Trị (大治) (1358–1369)
Trần Hạo (陳暭) 1341–1369
Hôn Đức Công (昏德公) no image Đại Định (大定) Dương Nhật Lễ (楊日禮) 1369–1370
Trần Nghệ Tông (陳藝宗)
Trần Nghệ Tông.png
Thiệu Khánh (紹慶) Trần Phủ (陳暊) 1370–1372
Trần Duệ Tông (陳睿宗)
Trần Duệ Tông.jpg
Long Khánh (隆慶) Trần Kính (陳曔) 1372–1377
Trần Phế Đế (陳廢帝) no image Xương Phù (昌符) Trần Hiện (陳晛) 1377–1388
Trần Thuận Tông (陳順宗) no image Quang Thái (光泰) Trần Ngung (陳顒) 1388–1398
Trần Thiếu Đế (陳少帝) no image Kiến Tân (建新) Trần Án (陳
安火缺字.svg
)
1398–1400

State of Đại Ngu (1400–1407)

Hồ dynasty (1400–1407)

Hồ dynasty (1400–1407)
         
939 1400 1407 1945  
Emperor Era name Full name Reign
Hồ Quý Ly (胡季犛) Thánh Nguyên (聖元) Hồ Quý Ly (胡季犛) 1400
Hồ Hán Thương (胡漢蒼) Thiệu Thành (紹成) (1401–1402)
Khai Đại (開大) (1403–1407)
Hồ Hán Thương (胡漢蒼) 1401–1407

Fourth Chinese domination period (1407–1427)

Later Trần dynasty (1407–1414)

Later Trần dynasty (1407–1414)
         
939 1407 1413 1945  
Emperor Era name Full name Reign
Giản Định Đế (簡定帝) Hưng Khánh (興慶) Trần Ngỗi (陳頠) 1407–1409
Trùng Quang Đế (重光帝) Trùng Quang (重光) Trần Quý Khoáng (陳季擴) 1409–1414
Thiên Khánh Đế (天慶帝) Thiên Khánh (天慶) Trần Cảo (陳暠) 1426–1428
  • ^ Trần Cảo was a peasant who was a puppet emperor established by Lê Lợi – leader of Lam Son uprising, hence not considered as an official emperor of Later Trần dynasty.

Second independent period (1427–1883)

Later Lê dynasty – Early period (1428–1527)

Later Lê dynasty – Early period (1428–1527)
         
939 1428 1527 1945  
Emperor Image Era name Full name Reign
Lê Thái Tổ (黎太祖)
Lang vua Le Lọi.jpg
Thuận Thiên (順天) Lê Lợi (黎利) 1428–1433
Lê Thái Tông (黎太宗)
An9 Le Thai Tong Thieu Binh 1ar (12027836095).jpg
Thiệu Bình (紹平) (1434–1440)
Đại Bảo (大寶) (1440–1442)
Lê Nguyên Long (黎元龍) 1433–1442
Lê Nhân Tông (黎仁宗)
An9 Le Nhan Tong Dien Ninh 1ar (12030823993).jpg
Đại Hòa/Thái Hòa (大和 / 太和) (1443–1453)
Diên Ninh (延寧) (1454–1459)
Lê Bang Cơ (黎邦基) 1442–1459
Lệ Đức Hầu (厲德侯)
Ảnh đồng tiền Thiên Hưng thông bảo.jpg
Thiên Hưng (天興) (1459–1460) Lê Nghi Dân (黎宜民) 1459–1460
Lê Thánh Tông (黎聖宗)
Lê Thánh Tông.jpg
Quang Thuận (光順) (1460–1469)
Hồng Đức (洪德) (1470–1497)
Lê Tư Thành (Lê Hạo)
(黎思誠 / 黎灝)
1460–1497
Lê Hiến Tông (黎憲宗) no image Cảnh Thống (景統) Lê Tranh (黎鏳) 1497–1504
Lê Túc Tông (黎肅宗) no image Thái Trinh (泰貞) Lê Thuần (黎㵮) 1504–1504
Lê Uy Mục (黎威穆)
Đoan khánh thông bảo.jpg
Đoan Khánh (端慶) Lê Tuấn (黎濬) 1505–1509
Lê Tương Dực (黎襄翼) no image Hồng Thuận (洪順) Lê Oanh (黎瀠) 1510–1516
Lê Quang Trị (黎光治) no image none Lê Quang Trị (黎光治) 1516–1516
Lê Chiêu Tông (黎昭宗)
An53 Chieu Tong Quang Thieu (15979672256).jpg
Quang Thiệu (光紹) Lê Y (黎椅) 1516–1522
Lê Bảng (黎榜) no image Đại Đức (大德) Lê Bảng (黎榜) 1518–1519
Lê Do (黎槱) no image Thiên Hiến (天宪) Lê Do (黎槱) 1519–1519
Lê Cung Hoàng (黎恭皇)
Toda No. 63 統元通寶.gif
Thống Nguyên (統元) Lê Xuân (黎椿) 1522–1527
  • ^ Lê Quang Trị, Lê Bảng and Lê Do were acceded and disposed shortly in chaos periods, hence not considered as official emperors of Later Lê dynasty

Northern and Southern dynasty (1533–1592)

Northern dynasty – Mạc dynasty (1527–1592)

Mạc dynasty (1527–1592)
         
939 1527 1592 1945  
Emperor Era name Full name Reign
Mạc Thái Tổ (莫太祖) Minh Đức (明德) Mạc Đăng Dung (莫登庸) 1527–1529
Mạc Thái Tông (莫太宗) Đại Chính (大正) Mạc Đăng Doanh (莫登瀛) 1530–1540
Mạc Hiến Tông (莫憲宗) Quãng Hòa (廣和) Mạc Phúc Hải (莫福海) 1541–1546
Mạc Chính Trung (莫正中) none Mạc Chính Trung (莫正中) 1546–1547
Mạc Tuyên Tông (莫宣宗) Vĩnh Định (永定) (1547)
Cảnh Lịch (景曆) (1548–1553)
Quang Bảo (光宝) (1554–1561)
Mạc Phúc Nguyên (莫福源) 1546–1561
Mạc Mậu Hợp (莫茂洽) Thuần Phúc (淳福) (1562–1565)
Sùng Khang (崇康) (1566–1577)
Diên Thành (延成) (1578–1585)
Đoan Thái (端泰) (1586–1587)
Hưng Trị (興治) (1588–1590)
Hồng Ninh (洪寧) (1591–1592)
Mạc Mậu Hợp (莫茂洽) 1562–1592
Mạc Toàn (莫全) Vũ An (武安) (1592–1592) Mạc Toàn (莫全) 1592

Mạc Chính Trung claimed himself as emperor of Mạc dynasty, however Mạc dynasty never considered him as official emperor. After internal fighting with his brothers, he fled to the Ming dynasty of China.

After Mạc Toàn, Mạc family was defeated by Later Lê forces and fled to Cao Bằng. Mac family continued to rule there until 1677:

Southern dynasty – Revival Lê dynasty – Warlord period (1533–1789)

Later Lê dynasty – Warlord period (1533–1788)
         
939 1533 1789 1945  
Emperor Era name Full name Reign
Lê Trang Tông (黎莊宗) Nguyên Hòa (元和) Lê Ninh (黎寧) 1533–1548
Lê Trung Tông (黎中宗) Thuận Bình (順平) Lê Huyên (黎暄) 1548–1556
Lê Anh Tông (黎英宗) Thiên Hữu (天祐) (1557)
Chính Trị (正治) (1558–1571)
Hồng Phúc (洪福) (1572–1573)
Lê Duy Bang (黎維邦) 1556–1573
Lê Thế Tông (黎世宗) Gia Thái (嘉泰) (1573–1577)
Quang Hưng (光興) (1578–1599)
Lê Duy Đàm (黎維潭) 1573–1599
Restoration – Conflict between the Trịnh and Nguyễn lords

During this time, emperors of the Lê dynasty only ruled in name, it was the Trịnh Lords in Northern Vietnam and Nguyễn lords in Southern Vietnam who held the real power.

Lê Kính Tông (黎敬宗) Thận Đức (慎德) (1600)
Hoằng Định (弘定) (1601–1619)
Lê Duy Tân (黎維新) 1600–1619
Lê Thần Tông (黎神宗) (first reign) Vĩnh Tộ (永祚) (1620–1628)
Đức Long (德隆) (1629–1643)
Dương Hòa (陽和) (1635–1643)
Lê Duy Kỳ (黎維祺) 1619–1643
Lê Chân Tông (黎真宗) Phúc Thái (福泰) Lê Duy Hựu (黎維祐) 1643–1649
Lê Thần Tông (黎神宗) (second reign) Khánh Đức (慶德) (1649–1652)
Thịnh Đức (盛德) (1653–1657)
Vĩnh Thọ (永壽) (1658–1661)
Vạn Khánh (萬慶) (1662)
Lê Duy Kỳ (黎維祺) 1649–1662
Lê Huyền Tông (黎玄宗) Cảnh Trị (景治) Lê Duy Vũ (黎維禑) 1663–1671
Lê Gia Tông (黎嘉宗) Dương Đức (陽德) (1672–1773)
Đức Nguyên (德元) (1674–1675)
Lê Duy Cối (黎維禬) 1672–1675
Lê Hy Tông (黎熙宗) Vĩnh Trị (永治) (1678–1680)
Chính Hòa (正和) (1680–1705)
Lê Duy Hợp (黎維祫) 1676–1704
Lê Dụ Tông (黎裕宗) Vĩnh Thịnh (永盛) (1706–1719)
Bảo Thái (保泰) (1720–1729)
Lê Duy Đường (黎維禟) 1705–1728
Lê Duy Phường (黎維祊) Vĩnh Khánh (永慶) Lê Duy Phường (黎維祊) 1729–1732
Lê Thuần Tông (黎純宗) Long Đức (龍德) Lê Duy Tường (黎維祥) 1732–1735
Lê Ý Tông (黎懿宗) Vĩnh Hữu (永佑) Lê Duy Thận (黎維祳) 1735–1740
Lê Hiển Tông (黎顯宗) Cảnh Hưng (景興) Lê Duy Diêu (黎維祧) 1740–1786
Lê Chiêu Thống (黎昭統) Chiêu Thống (昭統) Lê Duy Khiêm (Lê Duy Kỳ)
(黎維
Nom Character ⿰礻兼 (2).svg
/ 黎維祁)
1787–1789

Tonkin – Trịnh lords (1545–1787)

Trịnh Lords (1545–1787)
         
939 1545 1787 1945  
Lord Given name Reign
Trịnh Kiểm (鄭檢) Trịnh Kiểm (鄭檢) 1545–1570
Bình An Vương (平安王) Trịnh Tùng (鄭松) 1570–1623
Thanh Đô Vương (清都王) Trịnh Tráng (鄭梉) 1623–1652
Tây Định Vương (西定王) Trịnh Tạc (鄭柞) 1653–1682
Định Nam Vương (定南王) Trịnh Căn (鄭根) 1682–1709
An Đô Vương (安都王) Trịnh Cương (鄭棡) 1709–1729
Uy Nam Vương (威南王) Trịnh Giang (鄭杠) 1729–1740
Minh Đô Vương (明都王) Trịnh Doanh (鄭楹) 1740–1767
Tĩnh Đô Vương (靖都王) Trịnh Sâm (鄭森) 1767–1782
Điện Đô Vương (奠都王) Trịnh Cán (鄭檊) 1782 (2 months)
Đoan Nam Vương (端南王) Trịnh Khải (鄭楷) 1782–1786
Án Đô Vương (晏都王) Trịnh Bồng (鄭槰) 1786–1787

Trịnh Kiểm never declared himself as Lord during his rule, his titles were posthumously given by his descendants. Hence he is not considered as an official Trịnh Lord.

Cochinchina – Nguyễn lords (1558–1777)

Nguyễn Lords (1558–1777)
         
939 1558 1802 1945  
Lord Full name Reign
Chúa Tiên (主僊) Nguyễn Hoàng (阮潢) 1558–1613
Chúa Sãi (主仕) Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên (阮福源) 1613–1635
Chúa Thượng (主上) Nguyễn Phúc Lan (阮福瀾) 1635–1648
Chúa Hiền (主賢) Nguyễn Phúc Tần (阮福瀕) 1648–1687
Chúa Nghĩa (主義) Nguyễn Phúc Thái (阮福溙) 1687–1691
Chúa Minh (主明) Nguyễn Phúc Chu (阮福淍) 1691–1725
Chúa Ninh (主寧) Nguyễn Phúc Trú (阮福澍) 1725–1738
Võ Vương (武王) Nguyễn Phúc Khoát (阮福濶) 1738–1765
Định Vương (定王) Nguyễn Phúc Thuần (阮福淳) 1765–1777
Tân Chính Vương (新政王) Nguyễn Phúc Dương (阮福暘) 1776–1777

Nguyễn Phúc Dương was established by Tây Sơn leaders (Nguyễn Nhạc, Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Lữ) as a puppet Nguyễn Lord for their political purpose during Tây Sơn uprising. Hence he is sometimes not considered as an official Nguyễn lord.

Tây Sơn dynasty (1778–1802)

Tây Sơn dynasty (1778–1802)
         
939 1778 1802 1945  
Emperor Era name Full name Reign
Thái Đức (泰德) Thái Đức (泰德) Nguyễn Nhạc (阮岳) 1778–1788
Quang Trung (光中) Quang Trung (光中) Nguyễn Huệ (阮惠) 1788–1792
Cảnh Thịnh (景盛) Cảnh Thịnh (景盛)
Bảo Hưng (寶興)
Nguyễn Quang Toản (阮光纘) 1792–1802

Nguyễn Nhạc dropped his emperor title in 1788 after his younger brother – Nguyễn Huệ – declared himself as Emperor.

Empire of Great Vietnam (1802–1883), Annam and Tonkin Protectorates (1883–1945), and Empire of Vietnam (1945)

Nguyễn dynasty (1802–1945)

Nguyễn dynasty (1802–1945)
       
939 1802 1945  
Emperor Image Temple name Full name Reign
Gia Long (嘉隆)
Emperor Gia Long.jpg
Thế Tổ (世祖) Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (阮福暎) 1802–1820
Minh Mạng (明命)
Minh Mang.gif
Thánh Tổ (聖祖) Nguyễn Phúc Đảm (阮福膽) 1820–1841
Thiệu Trị (紹治)
Gold lang Thieu Tri CdM.jpg
Hiến Tổ (憲祖) Nguyễn Phúc Miên Tông (阮福綿宗) 1841–1847
Tự Đức (嗣德)
Vua Tự Đức.jpg
Dực Tông (翼宗) Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm (阮福洪任) 1847–1883
Dục Đức (育德)
An lang.jpg
Cung Tông (恭宗) Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Ái
(Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Chân)
(阮福膺𩡤 / 阮福膺禛)
1883
(3 days)
Hiệp Hòa (協和)
Hiep Hoa.jpg
none Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Dật (阮福洪佚) 1883–1883
Kiến Phúc (建福)
Kien Phuc.jpg
Giản Tông (簡宗) Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đăng (阮福膺登) 1883–1884
Hàm Nghi (咸宜)
Ham Nghi.jpg
none Nguyễn Phúc Minh (阮福明) 1884–1885
Đồng Khánh (同慶)
Intronisation du roi Dong Khanh.jpg
Cảnh Tông (景宗) Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (阮福膺祺) 1885–1889
Thành Thái (成泰)
Emperor Thanh Thai in court costume (colored).jpg
none Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Lân (阮福寶嶙) 1889–1907
Duy Tân (維新)
Vua Duy Tan nho.jpg
none Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San (阮福永珊) 1907–1916
Khải Định (啓定)
Khải Định, empereur d
Hoằng Tông (弘宗) Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo (阮福寶嶹) 1916–1925
Bảo Đại (保大)
Baodai.jpg
none Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy (阮福永瑞) 1925–1945

Non-Vietnamese nations

Champa (192–1832)

Dynasty King Real name Reign
I Dynasty Sri Mara Ch'ű-lien[16]: 44  192–?
?
?
Fan Hsiung[16]: 44  fl. 270
Fan Yi[16]: 44  c. 284–336
II Dynasty Fan Wen[16]: 44–45  336–349
Fan Fo[16]: 47  349–?
Bhadravarman I[16]: 48  Fan Hu Ta[16]: 56  380–413[16]: 56 
Gangaraja[16]: 57  Fan Ti Chen[16]: 56 
Manorathavarman[16]: 57 
Fan Diwen died c. 420
III Dynasty Fan Yang Mai I Fan Yangmai c. 420–421[16]: 57 
Fan Yang Mai II[16]: 57  Fan Duo c. 431 – c. 455
Fan Shencheng[16]: 57  c. 455 – c. 484
Fan Danggenchun[16]: 58  c. 484 – c. 492
Fan Zhunong c. 492 – c. 498[16]: 59 
Fan Wenkuan
[16]: 59 

or Fan Wenzan

c. 502 – c. 510
Devavarman[16]: 59  Fan Tiankai c. 510 – c. 526
Vijayavarman[16]: 59  c. 526/9
IV Dynasty Rudravarman I[16]: 70  c. 529 ?
Sambhuvarman[16]: 70  Fan Fanzhi 572 – 629
Kandarpadharma[16]: 71  Fan Touli 629 –
Prabhasadharma Fan Zhenlong – 645[16]: 71 
Bhadresvaravarman[16]: 71  645–?
Isanavarman (FEMALE)[16]: 71  died 653
Vikrantavarman I Zhuge Di 653–c. 686[16]: 72 
Vikrantavarman II[16]: 72  c. 686 – c. 731
Rudravarman II[16]: 94  c. 731/58
V Dynasty (of Panduranga) Prithindravarman[16]: 95  ? 758–?
Satyavarman[16]: 95  c. 770/87
Indravarman I[16]: 103  c. 787/803
Harivarman I[16]: 103  c. 803/17 > ?
Vikrantavarman III[16]: 104  ? -c. 854
VI Dynasty (of Bhrigu) Indravarman II[16]: 123  c. 854/98
Jaya Sinhavarman I[16]: 123  c. 898/903
Jaya Saktivarman[16]: 123 
Bhadravarman II[16]: 123  fl. 910
Indravarman III[16]: 123  c. 918–959
Jaya Indravarman I[16]: 124  959– < 965
Paramesvaravarman I[16]: 124  Bo-mei-mei-shui Yang Bu-yin-cha (波美美稅楊布印茶)[17] < 965–982
Indravarman IV[16]: 125  982–986's
Liu Ji-zong[16]: 125  Lưu Kế Tông (劉継宗)[18][19][17] c. 986–989
VII Dynasty Harivarman II[16]: 125  Yang Tuo Pai (楊陀排)[18][19][17][20] c. 989–997
Yang Bo Zhan, of Fan[16]: 125  Yang Bozhan (楊波占)[18][19][17][21] ?
Yang Pu Ku Vijaya[16]: 139  Yan Pu Ku Vijaya Sri (楊甫恭毘施離)[18][19][17] c. 998–1007
Harivarman III[16]: 139  Yang Pu Ju-bi-cha-she-li (楊普俱毘茶室離) [18][19][17] fl. 1010
Paramesvaravarman II[16]: 139  Yang Pu Ju-bi-cha-she-li (楊普俱毘茶室離) [18][19][17] fl. 1018
Vikrantavarman IV[16]: 139  Yang Bu Ju-shi-li (楊卜俱室離) [18][19][17] ?–1030
Jaya Sinhavarman II[16]: 139  1030–1044
VIII Dynasty (of the South) Jaya Paramesvaravarman I[16]: 140  Ku Sri Paramesvarmadeva Yang Pu (倶舍波微收羅婆麻提楊卜)[18][19][17] 1044–?
Bhadravarman III[16]: 140  ?–1061
Rudravarman III[16]: 140  1061–1074
IX Dynasty Harivarman IV[16]: 154  1074–1080
Jaya Indravarman II[16]: 154  1080–1081, 1086–1114
Paramabhodhisatva[16]: 154  1081–1086
Harivarman V[16]: 164  Yang Bu Ma-die (楊卜麻 曡)[17] 1114–1139
X Dynasty Jaya Indravarman III[16]: 164  1139/45
XI Dynasty Rudravarman IV (Khmer vassal) 1145–1147[16]: 164 
Jaya Harivarman I[16]: 164  1147–1167
Jaya Harivarman II[16]: 165  1167
Jaya Indravarman IV[16]: 165–166  1167–1190, died 1192
XII Dynasty Suryajayavarmadeva (Khmer vassal in Vijaya)[16]: 171  1190–1191
Suryavarmadeva (Khmer vassal in Pandurang)[16]: 170–171  1190–1203
Jaya Indravarman V (in Vijaya)[16]: 171  1191
Champa under Cambodian rules 1203–1220
Jaya Paramesvaravarman II[16]: 171  1220–c.1252
Jaya Indravarman VI[16]: 182  c.1252–1257
Indravarman V[16]: 192  1257–1288
Jaya Sinhavarman III 1288–1307
Jaya Sinhavarman IV 1307–1312
Chế Nang (Vietnamese Vassal) 1312–1318
XIII Dynasty Chế A Nan 1318–1342
Trà Hoa Bồ Đề 1342–1360
Chế Bồng Nga (Red king-strongest king) 1360–1390
XIV Dynasty Ko Cheng 1390–1400
Jaya Simhavarman V 1400–1441
Maija Vijaya 1441–1446
Moho Kouei-Lai 1446–1449
Moho Kouei-Yeou 1449–1458
XV Dynasty Moho P'an-Lo-Yue 1458–1460
Tra-Toan 1460–1471
Dynasty of the South Po Ro Me 1627–1651
Po Niga 1652–1660
Po Saut 1660–1692
Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih, vassal Cham rulers under the Nguyễn lords Po Saktirai da putih 1695–1728
Po Ganvuh da putih 1728–1730
Po Thuttirai 1731–1732
vacant 1732–1735
Po Rattirai 1735–1763
Po Tathun da moh-rai 1763–1765
Po Tithuntirai da paguh 1765–1780
Po Tithuntirai da parang 1780–1781
vacant 1781–1783
Chei Krei Brei 1783–1786
Po Tithun da parang 1786–1793
Po Lathun da paguh 1793–1799
Po Chong Chan 1799–1822

Funan (68–550)

King Reign
Soma (fem.) latter 1st century
Kaundinya I (Hun-t'ien) latter 1st century
?
?
Hun P’an-h’uang second half of 2nd century
P’an-P’an early 3rd century
Fan Shih-Man c. 205–225
Fan Chin-Sheng c. 225
Fan Chan c. 225 – c. 240
Fan Hsun c. 240–287
Fan Ch’ang c. 245
Fan Hsiung 270 ?–285
?
?
Chandan (Chu Chan-t’an) 357[16]: 46 
?
?
Kaundinya II (Chiao Chen-ju) ?–434
Sresthavarman ? or Sri Indravarman (Che-li-pa-mo or Shih-li-t’o-pa-mo) 434–438[16]: 56 
?
?
Kaundinya Jayavarman (She-yeh-pa-mo) 484–514
Rudravarman 514–539, died 550
Sarvabhauma ? (Liu-t’o-pa-mo) ?
? c. 550–627

Chenla (550–802)

Order King Reign
1 Bhavavarman I around 550–600
2 Mahendravarman around 600–616
3 Isanavarman I 616–635
4 Bhavavarman II 639–657
5 Candravarman? ?
6 Jayavarman I around 657–690
7 Queen Jayadevi 690–713
8 Sambhuvarman 713–716
9 Pushkaraksha 716–730
10 Sambhuvarman around 730–760
11 Rajendravarman I around 760–780
12 Mahipativarman around 780–788

Ngưu Hống (11th century – 1433)

Order King Reign
1 Tạo Lò ?–?
2 Lạng Chượng around 1000–1067
3 Lò Lẹt 1292–1329
4 Con Mường 1329–1341
5 Ta Cằm 1341–1392
6 Ta Ngần 1392–1418
7 Phạ Nhù 1418–1420
8 Mứn Hằm 1420–1441

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Woodside 1988, p. 10.
  2. ^ a b IFLAI 2013, p. 259.
  3. ^ DeFrancis, John (2019), Colonialism and language policy in Viet Nam, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, p. 22, ISBN 978-90-279-7643-7
  4. ^ Baron, Samuel; Borri, Christoforo; Dror, Olga; Taylor, Keith W. (2018). Views of Seventeenth-Century Vietnam: Christoforo Borri on Cochinchina and Samuel Baron on Tonkin. Cornell University Press. pp. 182, 240, explain in pp. 20-21. ISBN 978-1-501-72090-1.
  5. ^ Rochon, Alexis-Marie de (1792). A voyage to Madagascar and the East Indies. p. 302.
  6. ^ a b Pain, Frederic (2020). ""Giao Chỉ" ("Jiāozhǐ") as a diffusion center of Chinese diachronic changes: syllabic weight contrast and phonologisation of its phonetic correlates". Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies. 40 (3): 1–57. p. 15
  7. ^ Sponberg, Alan; Hardacre, Helen (1988). Maitreya, the Future Buddha. Contributed by Reischauer Institute Professor of Japanese Religions and Society & American Academy of Religion, National Endowment for the Humanities, Princeton University. Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-52134-344-2.
  8. ^ Whitmore, John K. (2015), "Building a Buddhist monarchy in Dai Viet: Temples and texts uder Ly Nhan Tong (1072-1127)", in Lammerts, Dietrich Christian (ed.), Buddhist Dynamics in Premodern and Early Modern Southeast Asia, ISEAS Publishing, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 283–306, ISBN 978-9-814-51906-9 p. 295
  9. ^ Schweyer, Anne-Valérie (2005). "Po Nagar de Nha Trang, seconde partie : Le dossier épigraphique". Aséanie. 15: 87–120. doi:10.3406/asean.2005.1847.
  10. ^ Trần Trọng Kim 1971, p. 17
  11. ^ Yoshikai Masato, "Ancient Nam Viet in historical descriptions", Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 934.
  12. ^ Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993, p. 54
  13. ^ Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993, p. 55
  14. ^ Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993, p. 62
  15. ^ "Shrine's demise angers residents". Vietnamnet.vn. 2009-04-14. Archived from the original on 2009-04-19. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/wps/wps05_053.pdf, retrieved 16 Aug 2017
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Tran Ky Phuong, Bruce Lockhart (2011). The Cham of Vietnam: History, Society and Art. NUS Press. ISBN 997169459X, 9789971694593.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www7.plala.or.jp/seareview/newpage2History%20of%20Champa.html, retrieved 16 Aug 2017
  20. ^ http://contents.nahf.or.kr/item/item.do?levelId=jo.k_0020_0489_0010, retrieved 12 Nov 2017
  21. ^ http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/wps/wps05_053.pdf, retrieved 13 Nov 2017

Sources