Ehmetjan Qasimi
Ehmetjan Qasimi.jpg
President of Second East Turkistan Republic[1][2][3][4][5]
In office
June 12, 1946 – August 27, 1949
Preceded byElihan Tore (as President of Republic of East Turkestan's Provisional Government)
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Vice Chairman of the Xinjiang Provincial Coalition Government[1]
In office
June 1946 – February 1947
Personal details
Born15 April 1914
Ghulja, Xinjiang, China
Died27 August 1949(1949-08-27) (aged 35)
Soviet Union
ProfessionPolitician
Ehmetjan Qasim
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese阿合買提江·哈斯木
Simplified Chinese阿合买提江·哈斯木
Uyghur name
Uyghurئەخمەتجان قاسىمى

Ehmetjan Qasim[note 1] (Uighur: ئەخمەتجان قاسىمى; April 15, 1914 – August 27, 1949) was the leader of the Second East Turkestan Republic. He was a Uyghur political leader in East Turkistan. Ehmetjan was born in Ghulja in 1914. He studied at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East, Moscow in 1936 and was a member of Communist Party of Soviet Union. Ehmetjan was described as "Stalin's man" and as a "communist-minded progressive".[6] Qasim russified his surname to "Kasimov" and became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Life and political career

Ehmetjan was born in Ghulja (Yining in Chinese) in 1914. He studied at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East, Moscow in 1936 and was a member of Communist Party of Soviet Union. Ehmetjan was described as "Stalin's man" and as a "communist-minded progressive".[6] Qasim Russified his surname to "Kasimov" and became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Coalition government representatives in 1946 including Chairman Zhang Zhizhong (front row 5th from right) and Vice-chairman Ehmetjan Qasimi (front row 4th from right).
Coalition government representatives in 1946 including Chairman Zhang Zhizhong (front row 5th from right) and Vice-chairman Ehmetjan Qasimi (front row 4th from right).
Ehmetjan Qasimi and Abdulkerim Abbas with Chiang Kai-shek in Nanjing on November 22, 1946.
Ehmetjan Qasimi and Abdulkerim Abbas with Chiang Kai-shek in Nanjing on November 22, 1946.
Ehmetjan Qasimi and Abdulkerim Abbas with Sun Fo, the son of Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing on November 24, 1946.
Ehmetjan Qasimi and Abdulkerim Abbas with Sun Fo, the son of Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing on November 24, 1946.

He was a member of the governing council of the Second East Turkestan Republic, a Soviet-backed administration founded in three northwestern districts of Xinjiang during the Ili Rebellion in November 1944.[7] Qasimi himself was not involved with the planning of the rebellion.[8] The Second ETR was initially led by Elihan Tore, who favored forming a conservative Islamic government.[9] Tore was placed under house arrest in the Soviet Union in 1946, under the orders of Stalin. Qasimi was a leader of the pro-Soviet East Turkistan Turkic People's National Liberation Committee (ETTPNLC).[9]

In June 1946, Qasimi tried to reach a political agreement with the Nationalist Chinese leader Zhang Zhizhong to form a coalition provincial government in Dihua (present day Urumqi).[10] The Second ETR was to be disbanded in name but the three districts retained autonomy.[9] As a leader of the three districts, Qasimi called for unity and support for his government and rejected the coalition provincial government.[11] He explained that the people of East Turkistan had risen in rebellion only to secure their rights under the Chinese constitution.[12] He led a delegation to the Chinese National Assembly Nanjing to negotiate bi-lateral relations between ETR and the Republic of China.[12]

In the summer of 1949, as Chinese Nationalists were losing the civil war to the Chinese Communists, the Soviet Union planned for ETR leaders to switch sides. On August 22, 1949, Vasiliy Borisov, the Soviet Vice-Consul at Yining, accompanied ETR leadership in auto trip to USSR for urgent talks with Soviet officials about future of ETR, where they were told to cooperate with Communist Party of China. They were invited by Chinese Communist leader, Mao Zedong to attend the First Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Beijing to prepare for the founding of the People's Republic of China. On August 24, 1949, Ehmetjan, Abdulkerim Abbas, Ishaq Beg Munonov, Dalelkhan Sugirbayev, Luo Zhi and other top ETR representatives (11 men in all) boarded a plane in Almaty, the capital of the Kazakh SSR, for Beijing. On September 3, the Soviet Union informed Saifuddin Azizi, another leader of the ETR, who was not on the flight that the plane had crashed near Lake Baikal en route to Beijing, killing all on board.[13]

The plane Ehmetjan was killed in.
The plane Ehmetjan was killed in.

Saifuddin later secured the role of regional Chairman of Xinjiang, a job he kept from 1955 to 1978, with a brief respite during the Cultural Revolution.[14] News of plane crash and death of Ehmetjan was not publicly announced in Xinjiang until early December, after the People's Liberation Army had secured the region. The ETR was officially dissolved on December 20, 1949.

Family

Ehmetjan Qasimi was married in January 1945 to Mahinur Qasim (Maynor Kasim; ماھىنۇر قاسىم), a native of Korgas County in Ili.[15] The couple had a son and a daughter.[15] In 1952, Mahinur Qasim became the mayor of Yining and joined the Chinese Communist Party.[15] She later served as a member of Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and a vice chair of the All-China Women's Federation.[16] She has been a prominent advocate of women and children's rights.[17] Her memoir of her husband, Remembering Ehmetijan, was published in China in 2011.[15]

Legacy

In the People's Republic of China, Ehmetjan Qasimi is remembered as a fighter in the struggle against the Nationalist regime.[18] Among the Uyghurs and other Turkic inhabitants of East Turkistan he is remembered as a national hero, and fighter who gave his life defending the independence of East Turkistan. His remains were returned to China in April 1950 and later reburied in a memorial cemetery in Yining.[18] The cemetery has a stele with calligraphy by Mao Zedong, praising Qasimi and the others who died with him for their contributions to the Chinese civil war and mourning their death en route to the Inaugural Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Beijing.[18]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ also transliterated as Ehmetjan Qasimi, Exmetjan Qasimi, Ahmetjan Khasim, Ahmet Jan Kasimi, Aḥmadjān Qāsim or Ahmetcan Kasim

References

  1. ^ a b ئەشۇ يىللاردا ( مەرھۇم ئەخمەتجان قاسىمى ھەققىدە كۆرگەن – بىلگەن ۋە ئاڭلىغانلىرىمدىن ئەسلىمە) (in Uyghur). ئەرشىدىن تاتلىق.
  2. ^ 王柯 (2013-01-15). 《東突厥斯坦獨立運動: 1930年代至1940年代》. 香港中文大學出版社. p. 第331頁. ISBN 978-962-996-500-6.
  3. ^ 劉學銚,新疆史論,知書房,2013年2月,ISBN 978-986-5870-51-5,第192頁
  4. ^ 王柯,《東突厥斯坦獨立運動: 1930年代至1940年代》,香港中文大學出版社,2013年,ISBN 978-962-996-500-6,第158頁
  5. ^ 杜榮坤、紀大椿、任一飛、劉文遠,新疆三區革命史鑑,中國社會科學出版社,第161頁
  6. ^ a b Forbes 1986, p. 174
  7. ^ Benson 1990:138
  8. ^ Benson 1990:140
  9. ^ a b c Mark Dickens, "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911-1949" Last Accessed 2010-11-14
  10. ^ Benson 1990:63, 70
  11. ^ Benson 1990:84, 101
  12. ^ a b Benson 1990:86
  13. ^ Donald H. McMillen, Chinese Communist Power and Policy in Xinjiang, 1949–1977 (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979), p. 30.
  14. ^ Dillon, Michael (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim far northwest. Routledge. p. 79.
  15. ^ a b c d (Chinese) 回忆阿合买提江(上下)
  16. ^ (Chinese) 第七届全国妇联领导机构主要成员
  17. ^ (Chinese) 自治区领导会见玛依努尔·哈斯木祝贺她荣获中国内藤国际育儿奖 2002-12-18
  18. ^ a b c (Chinese) "三区革命烈士陵园(三区革命历史纪念馆):伊宁市" 人民网 Archived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine 2008-10-18

Bibliography