World's states coloured by systems of government:
Republic:
  Presidential republic: President heads the government and is independent of the legislature
  Parliamentary republic: President is mostly or entirely ceremonial; ministry is accountable to the legislature
  Semi-presidential republic: President has some executive powers and is independent of legislature; remaining executive power is vested in ministry accountable to the legislature
  Republic with an executive head of state either accountable to the legislature or elected by it but not accountable to it
  One-party state: Power is constitutionally linked to a single political party

Monarchy:
  Constitutional monarchy: Monarch is mostly or entirely ceremonial; ministry is accountable to the legislature
  Semi-constitutional monarchy: Monarch holds significant executive or legislative power; remaining executive power is vested in the ministry
  Absolute monarchy: Monarch heads the government

  Military junta: Committee of military leaders controls the government; constitutional provisions are suspended
  Provisional government: No constitutionally defined basis to current regime
  Dependent territories and places without governments

Note: this chart represent de jure systems of government, not the de facto degree of democracy.

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a governance structure in which only a single political party controls the ruling system.[1] All other parties are either outlawed or only enjoy limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term "de facto one-party state" is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.

Although it is predated by the 1714 to 1783 "age of the Whig oligarchy" in Great Britain,[2] the rule of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) over the Ottoman Empire following the 1913 coup d'état is often considered the first one-party state.[3]

Concept

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One-party states justify themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, being its most politically aware members, and therefore the party's right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that the existence of multiple political parties would perpetuate class struggle, so only a single party could lead a classless proletariat; it therefore made the Communist Party of the Soviet Union the only authorised political party.

Conversely, Russian historian Vadim Rogovin attributed the establishment of the one-party system to the conditions which were "imposed on Bolshevism by hostile political forces". Rogovin highlighted the fact that the Bolsheviks made strenuous efforts to preserve the Soviet parties such as the Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, and other left parties within the bounds of Soviet legality and their participation in the Soviets on the condition of abandoning armed struggle against the Bolsheviks.[4]

Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition (such as a popular front). However, these allied parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Other states outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as independents, as was the case with Taiwan's Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Still others have only a single legal party, membership of which is a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in Turkmenistan under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov or Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko.

Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.

Most one-party states have been ruled by one of the following:

  1. A party which supports the ideology of Marxism–Leninism and vanguardism (sometimes described as "communist states", such as the Soviet Union)
  2. A party which supports a nationalist or fascist ideology (such as the Kingdom of Italy under the National Fascist Party or Germany under the Nazi Party)
  3. A party that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles.

With such a small winning coalition, leaders in one-party states usually lack the incentive to care about the well-being of citizens.[5]  Rather, they give out private goods to fellow elites to ensure continued support.  One-party, compared to dominant-party dictatorships, structure themselves unlike democracies.  They also turn into democracies at a lower rate than dominant-party dictatorships.[6] While one-party states prohibit opposition parties, some allow for elections at the smallest local level. One-party states lack any legitimate competition. Therefore, they place elites and sympathetic candidates in key administrative races.[7]  For example, the Chinese Communist Party exercises political control by infiltrating village administrations.[8]  They view these positions as crucial for gathering information on the population and maintaining a presence in the far reaches of their borders.[9]  One-party states recognize the trade-off between election victory and gathering valuable data.[10]  To account for this, the regimes have been observed placing local nobility in easy-to-win races.[11]  One-party states have also been observed using elections to ensure that only the most popular elites get chosen to office.[12]  They also gather data from elections to indicate if a local official is performing poorly in the eyes of the residents.[12]  This gives locals the opportunity to monitor local officials and communicate satisfaction with the local government.[12]   Throughout the country, members of the one party hold key political positions.[6]  In doing so, the party avoids committing outright fraud and rather sustains their power at the local level with strategic appointment of elites.[9]  It is also worth noting that it is difficult to gather clear data on these regimes, given their private nature.[7] 

One-party states are usually considered to be authoritarian,[13] to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.

Current one-party states

As of 2024 the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:

Country Head of party Leader title Party Ideology Date of establishment Duration Notes
China[14]
Xi Jinping
General Secretary Chinese Communist Party Socialism with Chinese characteristics 1 October 1949 74 years, 182 days
Cuba[15]
Miguel Díaz-Canel
First Secretary Communist Party of Cuba Marxism–Leninism, Castroism, Guevarism, Left-wing nationalism 16 April 1961 62 years, 350 days
Eritrea[16]
Isaias Afwerki
Chairperson People's Front for Democracy and Justice Eritrean nationalism, Statism 24 May 1993 30 years, 312 days
Laos[17]
Thongloun Sisoulith
General Secretary Lao People's Revolutionary Party Kaysone Phomvihane Thought 2 December 1975 48 years, 120 days
North Korea[18]
Kim Jong-un
General Secretary Workers' Party of Korea Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism 9 September 1948 75 years, 204 days Leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Brahim Ghali
Secretary General Polisario Front Sahrawi nationalism, Social democracy 27 February 1976 48 years, 33 days State with limited recognition, headquartered in Algeria
Vietnam[19]
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
General Secretary Communist Party of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Thought 30 April 1975 48 years, 336 days

De facto one-party states

A de facto one-party system is one that, while not officially linking a single political party to governmental power, utilizes some means of political manipulation to ensure only one party stays in power.[20] Many different countries have been claimed to be de facto one-party states, with differing levels of agreement between scholars, although most agree that the African continent is marked by this political system.[21][22] Below are just a few examples of governments that have been claimed to have single party rule due to political manipulation.

Country Party Date of

establishment

Information
 Angola People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola 11 November 1975 The MPLA has ruled Angola since its declaration of independence from Portugal, starting as a de jure one-party state, then initiating a multiparty system in 1991.
 Cambodia Cambodian People's Party 7 January 1979 The CPP has ruled since victory in Cambodian–Vietnamese War
 Republic of the Congo Congolese Party of Labour 31 December 1968 The People's Republic of the Congo was a one-party state, until the establishment of a multiparty system in 1990 and the subsequent loss of the PCT, leading to a civil war in 1997, from which point the PCT has been the sole ruling party since.
 Equatorial Guinea Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea 11 October 1987 Despite not having any constitutional relation between the government and the PDGE, there is a link between the 1982 constitution and Theodoro Obiang, leader of the PDGE, leading Equatorial Guinea since 1979, and having won every election by at least 92% approval, with all "opposition" parties adamantly supporting Obiang, and never holding more than 32% of seats in any house.
 Singapore People's Action Party 30 May 1959 While it does not have much electoral controversy, the PAP is essentially linked to governance in Singapore.
 Japan Liberal Democratic Party 15 November 1955 After the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco, the estranged right wing parties began gaining power, and with incentives from the CIA,[23] they formed the LDP, counteracting the formation of the JSP, establishing the 1955 System (also known as the One and a Half Party System), in which the LDP has ruled in all but 4 years.
 Mozambique Liberation Front of Mozambique 25 June 1975 The FRELIMO has ruled Mozambique since its declaration of independence from Portugal, starting as a de jure one-party state, then initiating a multiparty system in 1994.
 Paraguay Colorado Party (Paraguay) 11 September 1887 Since 1947, the Colorado party has been dominant in Paraguayan politics, ruling as the only legal party between 1947 and 1962, and has controlled the presidency since 1948 notwithstanding a brief interruption between 2008 and 2013. With almost 2 million members, it is the largest political party in the country. Despite the party's grip on power, the government still sustains the defining characteristics of a procedural democracy [24]
 Rwanda Rwandan Patriotic Front In power since 1994 Although Rwanda is nominally democratic, elections are manipulated in various ways, which include banning opposition parties, arresting or assassinating critics, and electoral fraud.[25][26]

Former one-party states

Country Party Ideology Date of establishment Date of dissolution Duration Continent
Republic of Afghanistan National Revolutionary Party Pashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Republicanism, Secularism 14 February 1977[27][28] 28 April 1978 1 year, 73 days Asia
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan-Khalq Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism, Pashtun nationalism, Anti-imperialism 30 April 1978 24 December 1979 1 year, 238 days Asia
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan/Republic of Afghanistan People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan-Parcham (National Fatherland Front) Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialism 24 December 1979 28 July 1992 12 years, 217 days Asia
Albanian Kingdom Albanian Fascist Party Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, Hellenophobia 2 June 1939 27 July 1943 4 years, 55 days Europe
Albanian Kingdom Guard of Greater Albania Albanian nationalism, Fascism 27 July 1943 8 September 1943 43 days Europe
Albanian Kingdom National Front Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialism 14 September 1943 29 November 1943 76 days Europe
Democratic Government of Albania Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism 20 October 1944 5 August 1945 289 days Europe
Democratic Government of Albania Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front) 5 August 1945 11 January 1946 159 days Europe
Albania 11 January 1946 11 December 1990 44 years, 334 days Europe
 Algeria National Liberation Front Arab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism 3 July 1962 23 February 1989 26 years, 235 days Africa
Angola People's Republic of Angola People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–Leninism 11 November 1975 30 May 1991 15 years, 200 days Africa
Armenia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 2 December 1920 30 December 1922 2 years, 28 days Asia
Transcaucasia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 12 March 1922 30 December 1922 293 days Asia
Federal State of Austria Fatherland Front Clerical fascism 1 May 1934 13 March 1938 3 years, 316 days Europe
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 30 April 1920 30 December 1922 2 years, 244 days Asia
Transcaucasia Azerbaijan Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 12 March 1922 30 December 1922 293 days Asia
 Bangladesh Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League Mujibism, Bengali nationalism, Socialism 24 January 1975 15 August 1975 203 days Asia
 Bangladesh Jatiya Party Bangladeshi nationalism, Conservatism, Authoritarianism, Militarism 11 March 1988 6 December 1990 2 years, 270 days Asia
Dahomey Dahomeyan Democratic Party African nationalism 15 December 1963 4 December 1965 1 year, 354 days Africa
Benin Benin People's Revolutionary Party of Benin Communism, Marxism–Leninism (nominally) 30 November 1975 1 March 1990 14 years, 91 days Africa
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia National Partnership Collaborationism, Nazism 6 April 1939 9 May 1945 6 years, 33 days Europe
Bulgaria Bulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 15 September 1946 15 January 1990 43 years, 122 days Europe
State of Burma Dobama Sinyetha Asi Ayon[29] 1943 1944 1 year, 0 days Asia
State of Burma Maha Bama Asi Ayon[30] 1944 1945 1 year, 0 days Asia
Myanmar Burma Burma Socialist Programme Party Burmese Way to Socialism 2 March 1962 18 September 1988 26 years, 200 days Asia
Republic of Burundi Union for National Progress Burundian nationalism, Tutsi interests 11 July 1974 13 March 1992 17 years, 246 days Africa
Byelorussia Communist Party of Byelorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 31 July 1920 30 December 1922 2 years, 152 days Europe
 Cambodia (Sangkum era) Sangkum Khmer nationalism, National conservatism, Royalism, Statism, Buddhist socialism, Economic nationalism 22 March 1955 18 March 1970 14 years, 361 days Asia
Kampuchea Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Revisionism, Left-wing nationalism 7 January 1979 1 May 1989 10 years, 114 days Asia
Republic of Cameroon Cameroonian National Union Big tent 1 September 1966[31] 24 March 1985 18 years, 204 days Africa
 Cameroon Cameroon People's Democratic Movement Big tent, Nationalism, Francophilia 1975 1990 15 years, 0 days Africa
 Cape Verde African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1 July 1975 20 January 1981 5 years, 203 days Africa
 Cape Verde African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 20 January 1981 28 September 1990 9 years, 251 days Africa
Carpatho-Ukraine Ukrainian National Union [uk][32] Nationalism[33] 18 January 1939[34] March 1939 60 days Europe
 Central African Republic Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa African nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism 1962 1980 18 years, 0 days Africa
 Central African Republic Central African Democratic Union African nationalism, Republicanism 1 March 1980 2 September 1981 1 year, 185 days Africa
 Central African Republic Central African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, Republicanism 6 February 1987 22 April 1991[35] 4 years, 75 days Africa
Chad Chadian Progressive Party African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism 16 April 1962 6 April 1973 10 years, 355 days Africa
 Chad National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism 6 April 1973 13 April 1975 2 years, 7 days Africa
 Chad National Union for Independence and Revolution Nationalism 24 June 1984 3 December 1990 6 years, 162 days Africa
Guangzhou Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1927 Asia
Hunan Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1927 Asia
Jinggang Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1928 1 year, 0 days Asia
Southwest Jiangxi Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1930 1931 1 year, 0 days Asia
Chinese Soviet Republic Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 7 November 1931 22 September 1937 5 years, 319 days Asia
Xinjiang People's Anti-Imperialist Association Six Great Policies 1 August 1935 1 April 1942 6 years, 243 days Asia
 Republic of China[note 1]/Taiwan Kuomintang Tridemism 1 July 1925 15 July 1987 62 years, 14 days Asia
Yan'an Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1937 1949 12 years, 0 days Asia
 Comoros Comorian Union for Progress Nationalism 1982 1990 8 years, 0 days Africa
Republic of the Congo People's Republic of the Congo Congolese Party of Labour Communism, Marxism–Leninism 31 January 1969 18 March 1992 23 years, 47 days Africa
Tinoquista Costa Rica Peliquista Party Nationalism, Personalism, Authoritarianism 27 January 1917 12 August 1919 2 years, 197 days North America
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Czechoslovakia Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Husakism 25 February 1948 30 November 1989 41 years, 278 days Europe
Dahomey Dahomeyan Unity Party African nationalism, Republicanism 11 April 1961 13 November 1963 2 years, 216 days Africa
Danzig Nazi Party Nazism 21 October 1937[36][37] 1 September 1939 1 year, 315 days Europe
 Djibouti People's Rally for Progress Issa interests 1 October 1981 4 September 1992 10 years, 339 days Africa
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Dominican Party Trujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism, Antihaitianismo 2 August 1931 28 December 1961 30 years, 148 days North America
East Germany East Germany Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 7 October 1949 30 March 1950 174 days Europe
East Germany East Germany Socialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 30 March 1950 1 December 1989 39 years, 246 days Europe
 Egypt Liberation Rally Egyptian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Socialism 10 February 1953 1957 4 years, 0 days Africa
 Egypt National Union Nasserism, Pan-Arabism, Socialism 1957 1962 5 years, 0 days Africa
 Egypt Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 1961 1976 15 years, 0 days Africa
 Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Big-Tent, Neo-liberalism 1976 2011 35 years, 0 days Africa
El Salvador El Salvador National Pro Patria Party Fascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy 1933 1944 11 years, 0 days Central America
 Equatorial Guinea United National Workers' Party African nationalism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism, Totalitarianism 7 July 1970 25 August 1979 9 years, 49 days Africa
 Equatorial Guinea Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea African nationalism, Militarism 11 October 1987 16 November 1991 4 years, 36 days Africa
 Eritrea Eritrean People's Liberation Front Left-wing nationalism 1991 (Provisional government)

1993 (Recognized state)

16 February 1994 3 years, 0 days Africa
Estonia Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution) Estonian nationalism, Personalism 9 March 1935 21 July 1940 5 years, 134 days Europe
Estonia Communist Party of Estonia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 21 July 1940 9 August 1940 19 days Europe
Ethiopia Commission for Organizing the Party of the Working People of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 12 September 1984 22 February 1987 2 years, 163 days Africa
Ethiopia Workers' Party of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 22 February 1987 28 April 1991 4 years, 65 days Africa
 Gabon Gabonese Democratic Party Conservatism 12 March 1968 22 May 1990 22 years, 71 days Africa
Georgia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 25 February 1921 30 December 1922 1 year, 308 days Asia
Transcaucasia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 12 March 1922 30 December 1922 293 days Asia
Nazi Germany National Socialist German Workers' Party Nazism 14 July 1933 23 May 1945 11 years, 313 days Europe
Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands Collaborationism, Dutch irredentism, Dutch nationalism and Nazism 14 December 1941 6 May 1945 3 years, 143 days Europe
 Ghana Convention People's Party Nkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 31 January 1964 24 February 1966 2 years, 24 days Africa
Grenada Grenada New Jewel Movement Communism, Marxism–Leninism 13 March 1979 25 October 1983 4 years, 226 days North America
Guatemala Guatemala Progressive Liberal Party Ubicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism 1931 1944 Central America
 Guinea Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1984 Africa
 Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1974 1991 Africa
Haiti Haiti National Unity Party Black nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism 14 June 1957 22 July 1985 28 years, 38 days North America
Hawaii Reform Party Americanisation, Annexationism 4 July 1894 12 August 1898 4 years, 39 days North America
Government of National Unity Arrow Cross Party Hungarism, Fascism, Collaborationism, Agrarianism 16 October 1944 7 May 1945 203 days Europe
Hungary Hungarian Working People's Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism 20 August 1949 31 October 1956 7 years, 72 days Europe
Hungary Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Kádárism 31 October 1956 16 October 1989 32 years, 350 days Europe
 Indonesia Indonesian National Party Nationalism, Marhaenism 17 August 1945 3 November 1945 78 days Asia
Iran Imperial State of Iran Rastakhiz Party Monarchism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position 2 March 1975 1 November 1978 3 years, 244 days Asia
 Iran Islamic Republican Party Velyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment 1981 1987 Asia
Iraq Iraqi Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 1964 1968 Asia
Iraq Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Saddamist Ba'athism 1968 2003 Asia
Kingdom of Italy National Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism 17 May 1928[38]
  • 9 January 1939
27 July 1943 Europe
  • Africa
Italian Social Republic Republican Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism, Antisemitism, Collaborationism 13 September 1943 28 April 1945 Europe
 Ivory Coast Democratic Party of Ivory Coast – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1990 Africa
Empire of Japan Imperial Rule Assistance Association Shōwa statism 1940 1945 Asia
Philippine Executive Commission Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Japanophilia, collaborationism 8 December 1942 14 October 1943 Asia
Kampuchea Communist Party of Kampuchea Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, Ultranationalism 17 April 1975 22 June 1982 Asia
 Kenya Kenya African National Union Kenyan nationalism, Conservatism 1982 1991 Africa
Independent State of Croatia Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement Croatian irredentism, Croatian ultranationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communism 10 April 1941 8 May 1945 Europe
Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 17 December 1918 13 January 1920 Europe
Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 21 July 1940 5 August 1940 Europe
Libya Libya Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism 1971 1977 Africa
Lithuania–Byelorussia Communist Party of Lithuania and Belorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 17 February 1919 17 July 1919 Europe
Lithuania Lithuania Lithuanian Nationalist Union Lithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism 1936[39] 1940 Europe
Lithuania Communist Party of Lithuania Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 21 July 1940 3 August 1940 Europe
Madagascar Democratic Republic of Madagascar National Front for the Defense of the Revolution Left-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism 1976 1989 Africa
 Malawi Malawi Congress Party Ubuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism 1964 1993 Africa
 Mali Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism 1960 1968 Africa
 Mali Democratic Union of the Malian People African socialism, Democratic centralism 1976 1991 Africa
Manchukuo Concordia Association Fascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, Personalism, collaborationism 1 April 1932[40] 1 May 1945[40] Asia
 Mauritania Mauritanian People's Party Nationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism 1961 1978 Africa
 Mexico Institutional Revolutionary Party Revolutionary nationalism, Big tent 4 March 1929 2 July 2000 71 years, 120 days North America
Mongolia Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1921 29 July 1990 Asia
Mozambique FRELIMO Marxism–Leninism 25 June 1975 1 December 1990 Africa
 Niger Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1974 Africa
 Niger National Movement for the Development of Society Conservatism 1989 1991 Africa
 Vietnam (partially) Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought 2 September 1945 1946[citation needed] Asia
 North Vietnam Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought 1955 2 July 1976 Asia
 North Yemen General People's Congress Yemeni nationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent 1982 1988 Asia
Norway National Government National Rally Fascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, Collaborationism 25 September 1940 8 May 1945 Europe
 Ottoman Empire Union and Progress Party[41] İttihadism 11 June 1913 1918 Asia/Europe
Paraguay Paraguay Colorado Party Conservatism, national conservatism 1947 1962 South America
Persia Communist Party of Persia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1920 1921 Asia
Republic of the Philippines Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Japanophilia, collaborationism 14 October 1943 17 August 1945 Asia
Poland Polish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 5 February 1947 July 1982 Europe
Poland Polish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 1982 24 August 1989 Europe
Portugal Portugal National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 30 July 1930[42] 8 October 1945[42] Europe
Portugal Portugal National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 31 January 1948[43] September 1969[note 2] Europe
Portugal Portugal People's National Action (formerly National Union) Corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 1970 25 April 1974 Europe
Romania Romania Party of the Nation Big tent, Romanian nationalism, Monarchism 16 December 1938 6 September 1940 Europe
Romania National Legionary State Iron Guard Legionarism, clerical fascism, Christian nationalism 6 September 1940 23 January 1941 Europe
Romania Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism 5 February 1948 1968 Europe
Romania Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1968 1980 Europe
Romania Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1980 29 December 1989 Europe
 Rwanda Parmehutu Hutu Power 1965 1973 Africa
 Rwanda National Revolutionary Movement for Development Hutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism 1978 1991 Africa
San Marino San Marino Sammarinese Fascist Party Italian fascism, Corporatism 1926 1943 Europe
 San Marino Republican Fascist Party of San Marino Italian fascism 1943 1944 Europe
 Senegal Socialist Party of Senegal African nationalism, African socialism 1966 1974 Africa
 Seychelles Seychelles People's Progressive Front Communism, Marxism-Leninism 1977 1991 Africa
 Sierra Leone All People's Congress African nationalism, Democratic socialism 1978 1991 Africa
Slovak Republic Hlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National Unity Clerical fascism, Slovak nationalism 14 March 1939 8 May 1945 Europe
Somalia Somalia Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Islamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism

Scientific socialism, Somali nationalism

July 1976 26 January 1991 Africa
 South Yemen National Liberation Front Arab nationalism, Arab socialism 30 November 1967 31 October 1978 Asia
 South Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 31 October 1978 22 May 1990 Asia
Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 21 May 1994 7 July 1994 Asia
Estonia Russian Communist Party (Central Committee of the Estonian Sections) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 29 November 1918 5 June 1919 188 days Europe
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 8 March 1918[44] 30 December 1922 4 years, 297 days Europe/Asia
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 19 January 1918 8 March 1918[44] 48 days Europe/Asia
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 30 December 1922 31 December 1925[44] 3 years, 1 day Europe/Asia
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics All-Union Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Stalinism 31 December 1925[44] 13 October 1952[44] 26 years, 287 days Europe/Asia
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Communist Party of the Soviet Union Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 13 October 1952[44] 9 October 1990[45] 37 years, 361 days Europe/Asia
Kingdom of Spain Patriotic Union Spanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism 1924 1930 Europe
Spanish State FET y de las JONS Francoism, Falangism, Spanish nationalism, traditionalism, National Catholicism, anti-liberalism, corporatism 1 April 1939 6 July 1976[46] Europe
Sudan Democratic Republic of the Sudan Sudanese Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism 1971 1985 Africa
 Sudan National Congress Party Islamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism 1989 2005 Africa
Syrian Republic Arab Liberation Movement Pan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western 1953 1954 Asia
 Syria Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Neo-Ba'athism 1963 27 February 2012[47][48] Asia
 São Tomé and Príncipe Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe – Social Democratic Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1975 1990 Africa
 Tanganyika Tanganyika African National Union African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa 1961 1977 Africa
 Tanzania Chama Cha Mapinduzi Ujamaa, African socialism 1977 1992 Africa
 Togo Party of Togolese Unity African nationalism 1962 1963 Africa
 Togo Rally of the Togolese People African nationalism, Right-wing populism 1969 1991 Africa
 Tunisia Neo Destour Tunisian nationalism, Bourguibism 1963 1964 Africa
 Tunisia Socialist Destourian Party Tunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism 1964 1981 Africa
 Turkey (one-party period) Republican People's Party Kemalism 1923 1945 Asia/Europe
 Turkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan Turkmen nationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party 1992 2008 Asia
Tuva Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 14 August 1921 11 October 1944 Asia
 Uganda Uganda People's Congress Social democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1969 1971 Africa
Ukraine Communist Party of Ukraine Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 10 March 1919 30 December 1922 Europe
 United Arab Republic National Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism 1958 1961 Africa
Republic of Upper Volta Upper Volta Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1966 Africa
Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy Royalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism 1929 1931 Europe
Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia) Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, Yugoslavism 29 November 1945 22 January 1990 Europe
Zaire Zaire Popular Movement of the Revolution Mobutism, Zairean nationalism, Authenticité 1970 1990 Africa
 Zambia United National Independence Party African socialism, African nationalism 1972 1990 Africa
 Zanzibar Afro-Shirazi Party African nationalism, Marxism–Leninism 1964 1977 Africa

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Republic of China controlled the mainland from 1912 to 1949 and the island of Taiwan since 1945, in which the ROC currently administers the Free area. This government served China in the United Nations from 1945 to 1971. See Political status of Taiwan and the One-China policy for various viewpoints.
  2. ^ Following the appointment of Marcelo Caetano as Prime Minister in 1968, the opposition was allowed to run to the 1969 Portuguese legislative election, before being banned.

Further reading

References

  1. ^ Clark, William Roberts; Golder, Matt; Golder, Sona Nadenichek (23 March 2012). Principles of Comparative Politics. SAGE. p. 611. ISBN 9781608716791.
  2. ^ Holmes, Geoffrey; and Szechi, D. (2014). The Age of Oligarchy: Pre-Industrial Britain 1722–1783. Routledge. p. xi. ISBN 131789426X. ISBN 978-1317894261.
  3. ^ Bozarslan, Hamit (2019). "Afterword: Talaat's Empire: A Backward Country, but a State Well Ahead of Its Time". End of the Ottomans - The Genocide of 1915 and the Politics of Turkish Nationalism. I. B. Tauris. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-7867-3604-8.
  4. ^ Rogovin, Vadim Zakharovich (2021). Was There an Alternative? Trotskyism: a Look Back Through the Years. Mehring Books. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-893638-97-6.
  5. ^ Hanson, Stephen E. (2009), "The Contribution of Area Studies", The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics, 1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 159–174, doi:10.4135/9780857021083.n10, ISBN 9781412919760, S2CID 184118662, retrieved 4 March 2023((citation)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  6. ^ a b Magaloni, Beatriz; Kricheli, Ruth (1 May 2010). "Political Order and One-Party Rule". Annual Review of Political Science. 13 (1): 123–143. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.031908.220529. ISSN 1094-2939.
  7. ^ a b Creak, Simon; Barney, Keith (10 August 2018). "Conceptualising Party-State Governance and Rule in Laos". Journal of Contemporary Asia. 48 (5): 693–716. doi:10.1080/00472336.2018.1494849. ISSN 0047-2336. S2CID 158403649.
  8. ^ Hassan, Mai; Mattingly, Daniel; Nugent, Elizabeth R. (12 May 2022). "Political Control". Annual Review of Political Science. 25 (1): 155–174. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-051120-013321. ISSN 1094-2939. S2CID 241393914.
  9. ^ a b MALESKY, EDMUND; SCHULER, PAUL (26 October 2011). "The Single-Party Dictator's Dilemma: Information in Elections without Opposition". Legislative Studies Quarterly. 36 (4): 491–530. doi:10.1111/j.1939-9162.2011.00025.x. ISSN 0362-9805.
  10. ^ Frantz, Erica. Authoritarianism : what everyone needs to know. ISBN 978-0-19-756964-1. OCLC 1202872902.
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