The governor of Minnesota is the head of government of the U.S. state of Minnesota. The governor is the head of the executive branch of Minnesota's state government and is charged with enforcing state laws.

There have been 41 governors of the state; one, Rudy Perpich, served non-consecutive terms. Minnesota Territory had three governors appointed by the president of the United States; the first, Alexander Ramsey, would later be state governor.

The current governor is Tim Walz, a member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, who took office on January 7, 2019.

List of governors

Minnesota Territory

Minnesota Territory was organized on March 3, 1849.[1]

Governors of Minnesota Territory
No. Governor Term in office[a] Appointed by
1 Alexander Ramsey
(1815–1903)
[2][3][4]
June 1, 1849[b]

April 1, 1853
(successor appointed)
Zachary Taylor
2 Willis A. Gorman
(1816–1876)
[11][12]
April 1, 1853[c]

March 13, 1857
(successor appointed)
Franklin Pierce
3 Samuel Medary
(1801–1864)
[15][16]
March 13, 1857[d]

May 24, 1858
(statehood)
James Buchanan

State of Minnesota

Minnesota was admitted to the Union on May 11, 1858.[19]

The Minnesota Constitution of 1858 created the offices of governor and lieutenant governor, elected separately to two-year terms; these were lengthened to four years starting in 1963. As of 1974, the governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket.[20]

Governors of the State of Minnesota
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[e]
1   Henry Hastings Sibley
(1811–1891)
[21][22][23]
May 24, 1858[24]

January 2, 1860
(did not run)
Democratic[25] 1857   William Holcombe
2 Alexander Ramsey
(1815–1903)
[2][3][26][4]
January 2, 1860[27]

July 10, 1863
(resigned)[f]
Republican[28] 1859 Ignatius L. Donnelly
1861 Henry Adoniram Swift
3 Henry Adoniram Swift
(1823–1869)
[29][30][31]
July 10, 1863[32]

January 13, 1864
(did not run)[29]
Republican[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
4 Stephen Miller
(1816–1881)
[34][35][36]
January 13, 1864[g]

January 8, 1866
(did not run)[34]
Republican[33] 1863 Charles D. Sherwood
5 William Rainey Marshall
(1825–1896)
[38][39][40]
January 8, 1866[41]

January 7, 1870
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1865 Thomas H. Armstrong
1867
6 Horace Austin
(1831–1905)
[42][43][44]
January 7, 1870[45]

January 9, 1874
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1869 William H. Yale
1871
7 Cushman Kellogg Davis
(1838–1900)
[46][47][48]
January 9, 1874[49]

January 7, 1876
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1873 Alphonso Barto
8 John S. Pillsbury
(1827–1901)
[50][51][52]
January 7, 1876[53]

January 9, 1882
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1875 James Wakefield
1877
1879 Charles A. Gilman
9 Lucius Frederick Hubbard
(1836–1913)
[54][55][56]
January 9, 1882[57]

January 5, 1887
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1881
1883
10 Andrew Ryan McGill
(1840–1905)
[58][59][60]
January 5, 1887[61]

January 9, 1889
(lost nomination)[58]
Republican[33] 1886 Albert E. Rice
11 William Rush Merriam
(1849–1931)
[62][63][64]
January 9, 1889[65]

January 4, 1893
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1888
1890 Gideon S. Ives
12 Knute Nelson
(1843–1923)
[66][67][68]
January 4, 1893[69]

January 31, 1895
(resigned)[h]
Republican[33] 1892 David Marston Clough
1894
13 David Marston Clough
(1846–1924)
[70][71][72]
January 31, 1895[73]

January 2, 1899
(did not run)
Republican[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1896 John L. Gibbs
14 John Lind
(1854–1930)
[74][75][76]
January 2, 1899[77]

January 7, 1901
(lost election)
Democratic[i] 1898 Lyndon A. Smith[j]
15 Samuel Rinnah Van Sant
(1844–1936)
[79][80][81]
January 7, 1901[82]

January 4, 1905
(did not run)[79]
Republican[33] 1900
1902 Ray W. Jones[j]
16 John Albert Johnson
(1861–1909)
[83][84][85]
January 4, 1905[86]

September 21, 1909
(died in office)
Democratic[33] 1904
1906 Adolph Olson Eberhart[j]
1908
17 Adolph Olson Eberhart
(1870–1944)
[87][88][89]
September 21, 1909[90]

January 6, 1915
(lost nomination)[k]
Republican[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1910 Samuel Y. Gordon
1912 Joseph A. A. Burnquist[j]
18 Winfield Scott Hammond
(1863–1915)
[92][93][94]
January 6, 1915[95]

December 30, 1915
(died in office)
Democratic[33] 1914
19 Joseph A. A. Burnquist
(1879–1961)
[96][97][98]
December 30, 1915[99]

January 5, 1921
(did not run)
Republican[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1916 Thomas Frankson
1918
20 J. A. O. Preus
(1883–1961)
[100][101][102]
January 5, 1921[103]

January 7, 1925
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1920 Louis L. Collins
1922
21 Theodore Christianson
(1883–1948)
[104][105][106]
January 7, 1925[107]

January 7, 1931
(did not run)
Republican[33] 1924 William I. Nolan
1926
1928 Charles Edward Adams
22 Floyd B. Olson
(1891–1936)
[108][109][110]
January 7, 1931[111]

August 22, 1936
(died in office)
Farmer-Labor[33] 1930 Henry M. Arens
1932 Konrad K. Solberg
1934 Hjalmar Petersen
23 Hjalmar Petersen
(1890–1968)
[112][113][114]
August 22, 1936[115]

January 4, 1937
(did not run)[112]
Farmer-Labor[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
24 Elmer Austin Benson
(1895–1985)
[116][117][118]
January 4, 1937[119]

January 3, 1939
(lost election)
Farmer-Labor[33] 1936 Gottfrid Lindsten
25 Harold Stassen
(1907–2001)
[120][121][122]
January 3, 1939[123]

April 27, 1943
(resigned)[l]
Republican[33] 1938 C. Elmer Anderson
1940
1942 Edward John Thye
26 Edward John Thye
(1896–1969)
[124][125][126]
April 27, 1943[127]

January 8, 1947
(did not run)[m]
Republican[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1944 C. Elmer Anderson
27 Luther Youngdahl
(1896–1978)
[128][129][130]
January 8, 1947[131]

September 27, 1951
(resigned)[n]
Republican[33] 1946
1948
1950
28 C. Elmer Anderson
(1912–1998)
[132][133][134]
September 27, 1951[135]

January 5, 1955
(lost election)
Republican[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1952 Ancher Nelsen
Donald O. Wright
29 Orville Freeman
(1918–2003)
[136][137][138]
January 5, 1955[139]

January 4, 1961
(lost election)
Democratic-
Farmer-Labor
[33]
1954 Karl Rolvaag[o]
1956
1958
30 Elmer L. Andersen
(1909–2004)
[140][141][142]
January 4, 1961[143]

March 25, 1963
(lost election)[p]
Republican[33] 1960
31 Karl Rolvaag
(1913–1990)
[144][145][146]
March 25, 1963[147]

January 2, 1967
(lost election)
Democratic-
Farmer-Labor
[33]
1962 Sandy Keith
32 Harold LeVander
(1910–1992)
[148][149][150]
January 2, 1967[151]

January 4, 1971
(did not run)[148]
Republican[33] 1966 James B. Goetz
33 Wendell R. Anderson
(1933–2016)
[152][153][154]
January 4, 1971[155]

December 29, 1976
(resigned)[q]
Democratic-
Farmer-Labor
[33]
1970 Rudy Perpich
1974
34 Rudy Perpich
(1928–1995)
[156][157][158]
December 29, 1976[159]

January 1, 1979
(lost election)
Democratic-
Farmer-Labor
[158]
Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Alec G. Olson
35 Al Quie
(1923–2023)
[160][161]
January 1, 1979[162]

January 3, 1983
(did not run)
Independent-
Republican
[161]
1978 Lou Wangberg
36 Rudy Perpich
(1928–1995)
[156][157][158]
January 3, 1983[163]

January 7, 1991
(lost election)
Democratic-
Farmer-Labor
[158]
1982 Marlene Johnson
1986
37 Arne Carlson
(b. 1934)
[164][165]
January 7, 1991[166]

January 4, 1999
(did not run)
Independent-
Republican
[165]
1990 Joanell Dyrstad
1994 Joanne Benson
38 Jesse Ventura
(b. 1951)
[167][168]
January 4, 1999[169]

January 6, 2003
(did not run)
Reform/
Independence
[r]
1998 Mae Schunk
39 Tim Pawlenty
(b. 1960)
[171][172]
January 6, 2003[173]

January 3, 2011
(did not run)
Republican[172] 2002 Carol Molnau
2006
40 Mark Dayton
(b. 1947)
[174][175]
January 3, 2011[176]

January 7, 2019
(did not run)
Democratic-
Farmer-Labor
[175]
2010 Yvonne Prettner Solon
2014 Tina Smith
Michelle Fischbach[j]
41 Tim Walz
(b. 1964)
[177]
January 7, 2019[178]

Incumbent[s]
Democratic-
Farmer-Labor
[177]
2018 Peggy Flanagan
2022

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The range given is from the date the governor was confirmed by the Senate, or appointed by the President during a Senate recess, to the date the governor left office.
  2. ^ Edward W. McGaughey was nominated on March 15, 1849,[5] but was rejected by the Senate on March 19.[6] William Pennington was then nominated on March 21,[7] and confirmed by the Senate on March 22,[8] but declined the post.[2] Ramsey was appointed on April 2,[2] during a Senate recess; nominated on December 21,[9] and confirmed by the Senate on January 9, 1850.[10] He arrived in the territory on May 27, 1849.[2]
  3. ^ Gorman was nominated on March 31, 1853,[13] confirmed by the Senate on April 1,[14] and arrived in the territory on May 13.[11]
  4. ^ Medary was nominated March 12, 1857,[17] confirmed by the Senate on March 13,[18] and arrived in the territory on April 22.[15]
  5. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  6. ^ Ramsey resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[3]
  7. ^ Nearly every source says Miller took office on January 11, but the journal of the House of Representatives says it was January 13.[37]
  8. ^ Nelson resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[66]
  9. ^ Lind was also endorsed by the Populist Party.[78]
  10. ^ a b c d e Represented the Republican Party.
  11. ^ Eberhart lost the Republican nomination to William E. Lee.[91]
  12. ^ Stassen resigned to serve in the United States Naval Reserve.[120]
  13. ^ Thye was instead elected to the United States Senate.[124]
  14. ^ Youngdahl resigned, having been confirmed to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.[128]
  15. ^ Represented the Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party.
  16. ^ Andersen was initially declared the winner of the very close 1960 election, but after a recount, it was decided on March 15, 1963, that he had lost by 91 votes, and he left office on March 25.[140]
  17. ^ Anderson resigned so that his successor would appoint him to the United States Senate.[152]
  18. ^ Ventura was elected as representing the Reform Party of Minnesota.[168] The party disaffiliated from its national party and resumed using its previous name, the Independence Party of Minnesota, on March 4, 2000. Ventura had himself disaffiliated from the national party on February 11.[170]
  19. ^ Walz's second term began on January 2, 2023, and will expire on 4 January 2027.

References

General
  • "Former Minnesota Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  • "Governors, 1849-Present". Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  • McMullin, Thomas A. (1984). Biographical directory of American territorial governors. Westport, CT : Meckler. ISBN 978-0-930466-11-4. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  • Sobel, Robert (1978). Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. II. Meckler Books. ISBN 9780930466008. Retrieved March 6, 2023.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (2003). United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1776-1860: The Official Results by State and County. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1439-0.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (2014). United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1861-1911: The Official Results by State and County. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5646-8.
  • Kallenbach, Joseph Ernest (1977). American State Governors, 1776-1976. Oceana Publications. ISBN 978-0-379-00665-0. Retrieved September 23, 2023.
  • Glashan, Roy R. (1979). American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775-1978. Meckler Books. ISBN 978-0-930466-17-6.
  • "Our Campaigns - Governor of Minnesota - History". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
Specific
  1. ^ Stat. 403
  2. ^ a b c d e McMullin 1984, pp. 195–197.
  3. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, p. 774.
  4. ^ a b "Alexander Ramsey". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  5. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 31st Cong., special sess., 84, accessed March 13, 2023.
  6. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 31st Cong., special sess., 90, accessed March 13, 2023.
  7. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 31st Cong., special sess., 93, accessed March 13, 2023.
  8. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 21st Cong., special sess., 94, accessed March 13, 2023.
  9. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 31st Cong., 1st sess., 98, accessed March 13, 2023.
  10. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 31st Cong., 1st sess., 170, accessed March 13, 2023.
  11. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 197–199.
  12. ^ "Willis Arnold Gorman". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  13. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 33rd Cong., special sess., 126, accessed March 13, 2023.
  14. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 33rd Cong., special sess., 131, accessed March 13, 2023.
  15. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 199–201.
  16. ^ "Samuel Medary". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  17. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 35th Cong., special sess., 241, accessed March 13, 2023.
  18. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 35th Cong., special sess., 253, accessed March 13, 2023.
  19. ^ 11 Stat. 285
  20. ^ "Constitutional Amendments". Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  21. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 773–774.
  22. ^ "Henry Hastings Sibley". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  23. ^ "Henry Hastings Sibley". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  24. ^ Folwell, William Watts (1924). A History of Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-87351-001-1.
  25. ^ Dubin 2003, p. 125.
  26. ^ "Alexander Ramsey". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  27. ^ Minnesota Legislature. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1860 sess., 163, accessed September 27, 2023
  28. ^ Dubin 2003, p. 126.
  29. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 775.
  30. ^ "Henry Adoniram Swift". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  31. ^ "Henry Adoniram Swift". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  32. ^ "Governors, 1849-Present". Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Kallenbach 1977, pp. 312–314.
  34. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 775–776.
  35. ^ "Stephen Miller". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  36. ^ "Stephen Miller". MNopedia. Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  37. ^ Minnesota Legislature. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1864 sess., 22, accessed September 27, 2023
  38. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 776–777.
  39. ^ "William Rainey Marshall". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  40. ^ "William Rainey Marshall". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  41. ^ Minnesota Legislature. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1866 sess., 16, accessed September 27, 2023
  42. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 777.
  43. ^ "Horace Austin". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  44. ^ "Horace Austin". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  45. ^ Minnesota Legislature. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1870 sess., 19, accessed September 27, 2023
  46. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 778.
  47. ^ "Cushman Kellogg Davis". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  48. ^ "Cushman Kellogg Davis". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  49. ^ "Legislature". Star Tribune. January 10, 1874. p. 4. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  50. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 778–779.
  51. ^ "John Sargent Pillsbury". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  52. ^ "John Sargent Pillsbury". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  53. ^ Minnesota Legislature. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1870 sess., 24, accessed September 27, 2023
  54. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 779–780.
  55. ^ "Lucius Frederick Hubbard". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  56. ^ "Lucius Frederick Hubbard". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  57. ^ "Pillsbury-Hubbard". The Saint Paul Globe. January 10, 1882. p. 2. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  58. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 780–781.
  59. ^ "Andrew Ryan McGill". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  60. ^ "Andrew Ryan McGill". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  61. ^ "The Ins and Outs – Gov. Hubbard Retires From the Governorship and McGill Takes Possession". The Saint Paul Globe. January 6, 1887. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  62. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 781.
  63. ^ "William Rush Merriam". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  64. ^ "William Rush Merriam". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  65. ^ "Two Governors". The Saint Paul Globe. January 10, 1889. p. 6. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  66. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 782.
  67. ^ "Knute Nelson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  68. ^ "Knute Nelson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  69. ^ "King Knute". Minneapolis Daily Times. January 5, 1893. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  70. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 782–783.
  71. ^ "David Marston Clough". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  72. ^ "David Marston Clough". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  73. ^ "Clough is now Governor". The Minneapolis Journal. January 31, 1895. p. 10. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  74. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 783–784.
  75. ^ "John Lind". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  76. ^ "John Lind". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  77. ^ "Lind Is Sworn In". Minneapolis Daily Times. January 3, 1899. p. 6. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  78. ^ Glashan 1979, p. 160.
  79. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 784.
  80. ^ "Samuel Rinnah Van Sant". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  81. ^ "Samuel Rinnah Van Sant". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  82. ^ "Van Sant Sworn In". Star Tribune. January 8, 1901. p. 4. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  83. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 785.
  84. ^ "John Albert Johnson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  85. ^ "John Albert Johnson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  86. ^ "John A. Johnson Made Governor of Minnesota". Star Tribune. January 5, 1905. p. 8. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  87. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 785–786.
  88. ^ "Adolph Olson Eberhart". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  89. ^ "Adolph Olson Eberhart". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  90. ^ "Governor Eberhart Proclaims Thursday As Day of Mourning Throughout the State". Star Tribune. September 22, 1909. p. 2. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  91. ^ "The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota Compiled for the Legislature of 1915" (PDF). p. 185. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  92. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 786.
  93. ^ "Winfield Scott Hammond". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  94. ^ "Winfield Scott Hammond". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  95. ^ "Hammond Plans Development of Idle State Land". The Pioneer. January 7, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  96. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 786–787.
  97. ^ "Joseph Alfred Arner Burnquist". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  98. ^ "Joseph Alfred Arner Burnquist". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  99. ^ "Burnquist Is Sworn In as New Governor". Star Tribune. December 31, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  100. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 787–788.
  101. ^ "Jacob Aall Ottesen Preus". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  102. ^ "Jacob Aall Ottesen Preus". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  103. ^ Akerson, George E. (January 6, 1921). "Preus Outlines State Fight on Townleyism". Star Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  104. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 788–789.
  105. ^ "Theodore Christianson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  106. ^ "Theodore Christianson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  107. ^ "New Governor Taking Oath of Office". The Minneapolis Star. January 7, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  108. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 789.
  109. ^ "Floyd Bjornstjerne Olson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  110. ^ "Floyd B. Olson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  111. ^ "Olson Takes Oath, Delivers Address". Star Tribune. January 8, 1931. p. 6. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  112. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 789–790.
  113. ^ "Hjalmar Petersen". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  114. ^ "Hjalmar Petersen". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  115. ^ Burket, Jack (August 23, 1936). "Governor Olson Dies - Loses His Long Fight Against Stomach Cancer". Star Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  116. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 790–791.
  117. ^ "Elmer Austin Benson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  118. ^ "Elmer Austin Benson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  119. ^ "Benson Takes Over Reins as Governor of Minnesota". The Minneapolis Star. January 4, 1937. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  120. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 791.
  121. ^ "Harold Edward Stassen". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  122. ^ "Harold Edward Stassen". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  123. ^ "New 'First Family' at Ceremony". The Minneapolis Star. January 3, 1939. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  124. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 792.
  125. ^ "Edward John Thye". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  126. ^ "Edward John Thye". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  127. ^ Halloran, M. W. (April 27, 1943). "Ed Thye Becomes State's First Farmer-Governor As Stassen Starts Navy Duty". The Minneapolis Star. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  128. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 792–793.
  129. ^ "Luther Wallace Youngdahl". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  130. ^ "Luther Wallace Youngdahl". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  131. ^ Halloran, M. W. (January 8, 1947). "Youngdahl Asks State Luxury Levy". The Minneapolis Star. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  132. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 793.
  133. ^ "Clyde Elmer Anderson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  134. ^ "C. Elmer Anderson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  135. ^ "C. Elmer Anderson Takes Oath As 28th Governor". The Winona Daily News. Associated Press. September 27, 1951. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  136. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 794.
  137. ^ "Orville Lothrop Freeman". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  138. ^ "Orville L. Freeman". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  139. ^ Mitchell, Wallace (January 5, 1955). "Freeman Sworn In, Urges Teamwork, Public Support". The Minneapolis Star. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  140. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 794–795.
  141. ^ "Elmer Lee Andersen". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  142. ^ "Elmer Lee Andersen". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  143. ^ "Andersen Vows to Set 'Partisanship' Aside". St. Cloud Times. Associated Press. January 4, 1961. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  144. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 795–796.
  145. ^ "Karl Fritjof Rolvaag". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  146. ^ "Karl F. Rolvaag". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  147. ^ "Rolvaag Takes Oath As 31st Governor". The Minneapolis Star. March 25, 1963. p. 1A. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  148. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 796.
  149. ^ "Harold LeVander". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  150. ^ "Harold P. LeVander". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  151. ^ Mona, Dave (January 3, 1967). "LeVander Takes Governor's Oath". Star Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  152. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 796–797.
  153. ^ "Wendell Richard Anderson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  154. ^ "Wendell R. Anderson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  155. ^ Talle, Jim (January 4, 1971). "Anderson Becomes Governor of State". The Minneapolis Star. p. 4. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  156. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 797.
  157. ^ a b "Rudolph George Perpich". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  158. ^ a b c d "Rudy G. Perpich". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  159. ^ "Takes Office". The Winona Daily News. Associated Press. December 30, 1976. p. 3. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  160. ^ "Albert Harold Quie". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  161. ^ a b "Albert H. Quie". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  162. ^ "New Administration Receives Oath at Capitol". Star Tribune. January 2, 1979. p. 2B. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  163. ^ Sturdevant, Lori (January 4, 1983). "Perpich Takes Oath in Hibbing". Star Tribune. p. 1A. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  164. ^ "Arne Helge Carlson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  165. ^ a b "Arne H. Carlson". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  166. ^ Wilson, Betty (January 8, 1991). "37th Governor Sworn In at Capitol". Star Tribune. p. 1A. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  167. ^ "Jesse Ventura". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  168. ^ a b "Jesse Ventura". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  169. ^ Whereatt, Robert; deFiebre, Conrad (January 5, 1999). "With Expected Flair, the Unexpected Governor Promises Honesty and a Pledge To Do His Best". Star Tribune. p. A1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  170. ^ "Reform Party separates from national party, reclaims Independence Party label". The Winona Daily News. AP. March 5, 2000. p. 2. Retrieved December 31, 2023.
  171. ^ "Tim Pawlenty". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  172. ^ a b "Tim J. Pawlenty". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  173. ^ Smith, Dane (January 7, 2003). "Saluting State's Spirit, Pawlenty Takes Helm". Star Tribune. p. A1. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  174. ^ "Mark Dayton". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  175. ^ a b "Mark B. Dayton". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  176. ^ Sommerhauser, Mark (January 4, 2011). "Challenges Await New Governor". St. Cloud Times. p. 1A. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  177. ^ a b "Tim Walz". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  178. ^ Salisbury, Bill (January 8, 2019). "Tim Walz Sworn In As MN Governor; Inaugural Speech Calls for Unity". Retrieved March 15, 2023.