Governor of Iowa
Incumbent
Kim Reynolds
since May 24, 2017
Government of Iowa
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceTerrace Hill
Term lengthFour years, no term limits
PrecursorGovernor of Iowa Territory
Inaugural holderAnsel Briggs
FormationDecember 3, 1846
(177 years ago)
 (1846-12-03)
Salary$130,000 (2013)[1]
Websitegovernor.iowa.gov

The governor of Iowa is the head of government of the U.S. state of Iowa. The governor is the head of the executive branch of the state government[2] and is charged with enforcing state laws.[3] The officeholder has the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Iowa General Assembly,[4] to convene the legislature,[5] as well as to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[6] The governor of Iowa is also the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[7]

There have been 41 individuals who held the position of Iowa governor, with two of those serving multiple distinct terms, Samuel J. Kirkwood and Terry Branstad. The current governor, Kim Reynolds, is the first woman to hold the position and was sworn in on May 24, 2017. The longest-serving is Terry Branstad, who served from 1983 to 1999 and then again from 2011 to 2017. He is the longest-serving governor in U.S. history, surpassing the previous record of 21 years set by George Clinton of New York. The shortest-serving was Robert D. Fulton, who served 16 days.

List of governors

Territory of Iowa

Iowa Territory was formed on July 4, 1838, from Wisconsin Territory. It had four governors appointed by the president of the United States, though the first resigned days after he was confirmed by the Senate and before ever reaching the territory.

Governors of Iowa Territory
No. Governor Term in office[a] Appointed by
1 Henry Atkinson
(1782–1842)
June 13, 1838

July 7, 1838
(resigned before taking office)[b]
Martin Van Buren
2 Robert Lucas[c]
(1781–1853)
[10]
July 7, 1838[d]

June 17, 1841
(successor appointed)[e]
Martin Van Buren
3 John Chambers
(1780–1852)
[15]
March 25, 1841[f]

November 18, 1845
(successor appointed)
John Tyler
4 James Clarke
(1812–1850)
[20]
November 8, 1845[g]

December 3, 1846
(statehood)
James K. Polk

State of Iowa

The southeast portion of Iowa Territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Iowa on December 28, 1846. The first Constitution of Iowa, adopted in 1846, created the office of governor with a four-year term,[24] with no specific start date. The 1857 constitution reduced this term to two years,[25] but an amendment in 1972 increased this back to four years.[26] The 1857 constitution also set the start of the term to the second Monday in the January following the election,[27] which was moved one day later by a 1988 amendment.[28]

The office of lieutenant governor was created in the 1857 constitution, elected for the same term as the governor.[29] An amendment in 1988 specified that the lieutenant governor would be elected on the same ticket as the governor.[30] If the office becomes vacant, it devolves upon the lieutenant governor for the remainder of the term or vacancy.[31] Prior to 1857, if the office became vacant, the Secretary of State of Iowa would act as governor.[32] There is no term limit on the number of terms a governor may serve.

Governors of the State of Iowa
No.[h] Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[i][j]
1   Ansel Briggs
(1806–1881)
[34][35]
December 3, 1846[36]

December 4, 1850
(did not run)
Democratic[37] 1846 Office did not exist
2 Stephen P. Hempstead
(1812–1883)
[38][39]
December 4, 1850[40]

December 9, 1854
(did not run)
Democratic[37] 1850
3 James W. Grimes
(1816–1872)
[41][42]
December 9, 1854[43]

January 14, 1858
(did not run)
Whig[44] 1854[k]
4 Ralph P. Lowe
(1805–1883)
[45][46]
January 14, 1858[47]

January 11, 1860
(did not run)[l]
Republican[44] 1857[m]   Oran Faville
5 Samuel J. Kirkwood
(1813–1894)
[48][49]
January 11, 1860[50]

January 14, 1864
(did not run)[48]
Republican[51] 1859 Nicholas J. Rusch
1861 John R. Needham
6 William M. Stone
(1827–1893)
[52][53]
January 14, 1864[54]

January 16, 1868
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1863 Enoch W. Eastman
1865 Benjamin F. Gue
7 Samuel Merrill
(1822–1899)
[55][56]
January 16, 1868[57]

January 11, 1872
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1867 John Scott
1869 Madison Miner Walden
(resigned 1871)[n]
Vacant
Henry C. Bulis
(appointed September 13, 1871)
8 Cyrus C. Carpenter
(1829–1898)
[59][60]
January 11, 1872[61]

January 13, 1876
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1871
1873 Joseph Dysart
9 Samuel J. Kirkwood
(1813–1894)
[48][49]
January 13, 1876[62]

February 1, 1877
(resigned)[o]
Republican[51] 1875 Joshua G. Newbold
10 Joshua G. Newbold
(1830–1903)
[63][64]
February 1, 1877[65]

January 17, 1878
(did not run)
Republican[51] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
11 John H. Gear
(1825–1900)
[66][67]
January 17, 1878[68]

January 12, 1882
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1877 Frank T. Campbell
1879
12 Buren R. Sherman
(1836–1904)
[69][70]
January 12, 1882[71]

January 14, 1886
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1881 Orlando H. Manning
1883
13 William Larrabee
(1832–1912)
[72][73]
January 14, 1886[74]

February 27, 1890[p]
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1885 John A. T. Hull
1887
14 Horace Boies
(1827–1923)
[75][76]
February 27, 1890[p]

January 11, 1894
(lost election)
Democratic[51] 1889 Alfred N. Poyneer[q]
1891 Samuel L. Bestow
15 Frank D. Jackson
(1854–1938)
[78][79]
January 11, 1894[80]

January 16, 1896
(did not run)[78]
Republican[51] 1893 Warren S. Dungan
16 Francis M. Drake
(1830–1903)
[81][82]
January 16, 1896[83]

January 13, 1898
(did not run)[81]
Republican[51] 1895 Matt Parrott
17 L. M. Shaw
(1848–1932)
[84][85]
January 13, 1898[86]

January 16, 1902
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1897 James C. Milliman
1899
18 Albert B. Cummins
(1850–1926)
[87][88]
January 16, 1902[89]

November 24, 1908
(resigned)[r]
Republican[51] 1901 John Herriott
1903[s]
1906 Warren Garst
19 Warren Garst
(1850–1924)
[90]
November 24, 1908[91]

January 14, 1909
(successor took office)
Republican[51] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
20 Beryl F. Carroll
(1860–1939)
[92][93]
January 14, 1909[94]

January 16, 1913
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1908 George W. Clarke
1910
21 George W. Clarke
(1852–1936)
[95][96]
January 16, 1913[97]

January 11, 1917
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1912 William L. Harding
1914
22 William L. Harding
(1877–1934)
[98][99]
January 11, 1917[100]

January 13, 1921
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1916 Ernest Robert Moore
1918
23 Nathan E. Kendall
(1868–1936)
[101][102]
January 13, 1921[103]

January 15, 1925
(did not run)[101]
Republican[51] 1920 John Hammill
1922
24 John Hammill
(1875–1936)
[104][105]
January 15, 1925[106]

January 15, 1931
(did not run)[t]
Republican[51] 1924 Clem F. Kimball
(died September 10, 1928)
1926
Vacant
Arch W. McFarlane
(appointed November 15, 1928)
1928
25 Dan W. Turner
(1877–1969)
[107][108]
January 15, 1931[109]

January 12, 1933
(lost election)
Republican[51] 1930
26 Clyde L. Herring
(1879–1945)
[110][111]
January 12, 1933[112]

January 14, 1937
(did not run)[u]
Democratic[51] 1932 Nelson G. Kraschel
1934
27 Nelson G. Kraschel
(1889–1957)
[113][114]
January 14, 1937[115]

January 12, 1939
(lost election)
Democratic[51] 1936 John K. Valentine
28 George A. Wilson
(1884–1953)
[116][117]
January 12, 1939[118]

January 14, 1943
(did not run)[v]
Republican[51] 1938 Bourke B. Hickenlooper
1940
29 Bourke B. Hickenlooper
(1896–1971)
[119][120]
January 14, 1943[121]

January 11, 1945
(did not run)[w]
Republican[51] 1942 Robert D. Blue
30 Robert D. Blue
(1898–1989)
[122][123]
January 11, 1945[124]

January 13, 1949
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1944 Kenneth A. Evans
1946
31 William S. Beardsley
(1901–1954)
[125][126]
January 13, 1949[127]

November 21, 1954
(died in office)
Republican[51] 1948
1950 William H. Nicholas
1952 Leo Elthon
32 Leo Elthon
(1898–1967)
[128][129]
November 21, 1954[130]

January 13, 1955
(successor took office)
Republican[51] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
33 Leo Hoegh
(1908–2000)
[131][132]
January 13, 1955[133]

January 17, 1957
(lost election)
Republican[51] 1954 Leo Elthon
34 Herschel C. Loveless
(1911–1989)
[134][135]
January 17, 1957[136]

January 12, 1961
(did not run)
Democratic[51] 1956 William H. Nicholas[q]
1958 Edward Joseph McManus
35 Norman A. Erbe
(1919–2000)
[137][138]
January 12, 1961[139]

January 17, 1963
(lost election)
Republican[51] 1960 W. L. Mooty[x]
36 Harold Hughes
(1922–1996)
[140][141]
January 17, 1963[142]

January 1, 1969
(resigned)[y]
Democratic[51] 1962
1964 Robert D. Fulton
1966
37 Robert D. Fulton
(1929–2024)
[143][144]
January 1, 1969[145]

January 16, 1969
(successor took office)
Democratic[51] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
38 Robert D. Ray
(1928–2018)
[146][147]
January 16, 1969[148]

January 14, 1983
(did not run)
Republican[51] 1968 Roger Jepsen
1970
1972 Arthur Neu
1974[z]
1978 Terry Branstad
39 Terry Branstad
(b. 1946)
[149]
January 14, 1983[150]

January 15, 1999
(did not run)
Republican[149] 1982 Robert T. Anderson[x]
1986 Jo Ann Zimmerman[x]
1990 Joy Corning
1994
40 Tom Vilsack
(b. 1950)
[151]
January 15, 1999[152]

January 12, 2007
(did not run)
Democratic[151] 1998 Sally Pederson
2002
41 Chet Culver
(b. 1966)
[153]
January 12, 2007[154]

January 14, 2011
(lost election)
Democratic[153] 2006 Patty Judge
42 Terry Branstad
(b. 1946)
[149]
January 14, 2011[155]

May 24, 2017
(resigned)[aa]
Republican[149] 2010 Kim Reynolds
2014
43 Kim Reynolds
(b. 1959)
[157]
May 24, 2017[158]

Incumbent[ab]
Republican[157] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
Adam Gregg
(appointed May 25, 2017)[ac]
2018
2022

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The range given is from the date the governor was confirmed by the Senate, or appointed by the President during a Senate recess, to the date the governor left office.
  2. ^ Atkinson was nominated on June 12, 1838,[8] and confirmed by the Senate on June 13.[9] However, he declined the post;[10] no source gives a date for when this happened, so his term is marked as having ended when his successor was confirmed.
  3. ^ Lucas did not arrive for six weeks after the territory had been created; in the interim, territorial secretary William B. Conway acted as governor.[11]
  4. ^ Lucas was nominated,[12] and confirmed by the Senate,[13] on July 7, 1838. He took office on August 15.[10]
  5. ^ Lucas was out of the capital when Chambers arrived, and did not formally resign his commission until June 17, per a letter written to U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster.[14]
  6. ^ Chambers was appointed on March 25, 1841,[15] during a Senate recess; nominated on June 17;[16] and confirmed by the Senate on July 15.[17] He took office on May 13.[15] He was reappointed on July 2, 1844, during a Senate recess,[18] and reconfirmed by the Senate on December 23.[19]
  7. ^ Clarke was appointed during a Senate recess; McMullin says it was on November 8, 1845,[20] but some sources say November 18.[21] He was formally nominated on December 23, 1845,[22] and confirmed by the Senate on February 3, 1846.[23]
  8. ^ There is no official numbering, and different governors have interpreted it differently, depending on if they give a new number when a governor has multiple distinct terms in office.[33] This article includes numbering for every distinct term in office.
  9. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1857.[29]
  10. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  11. ^ The election schedule changed with this term, switching to odd-numbered years and shortening the term by nearly a year.
  12. ^ Lowe was instead elected to the Iowa Supreme Court.[45]
  13. ^ First term under the 1857 constitution, which shortened terms to two years.[25]
  14. ^ No source appears to know which date Walden resigned, just that it was after being elected to the United States House of Representatives for a term beginning March 4.[58]
  15. ^ Kirkwood resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[49]
  16. ^ a b Boies' inauguration was delayed for six weeks;[77] the legislature was deadlocked in organizaing itself, so Larrabee remained in office until Boies was certified.[51]
  17. ^ a b Represented the Republican Party
  18. ^ Cummins resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[88]
  19. ^ The election schedule changed with this term, switching to odd-numbered years and lengthening the term by nearly a year.
  20. ^ Hamill instead ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for the United States Senate.[104]
  21. ^ Herring was instead elected to the United States Senate.[110]
  22. ^ Wilson was instead elected to the United States Senate.[116]
  23. ^ Hickenlooper was instead elected to the United States Senate.[119]
  24. ^ a b c Represented the Democratic Party
  25. ^ Hughes resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[141]
  26. ^ First term under a 1972 constitutional amendment which lengthened terms to four years.[26]
  27. ^ Branstad resigned, having been confirmed as United States Ambassador to China.[156]
  28. ^ Reynold's second full term began on January 13, 2023, and will expire January 15, 2027.
  29. ^ Gregg was appointed acting lieutenant governor by Reynolds but, while he had the full powers and salary of the office, he was not in the line of succession until after he won the 2018 election.

References

General
  • "Former Iowa Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  • Sobel, Robert (1978). Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. II. Meckler Books. ISBN 9780930466008. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  • McMullin, Thomas A. (1984). Biographical directory of American territorial governors. Westport, CT : Meckler. ISBN 978-0-930466-11-4. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (2003). United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1776-1860: The Official Results by State and County. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1439-0.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (2014). United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1861-1911: The Official Results by State and County. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5646-8.
  • Kallenbach, Joseph Ernest (1977). American State Governors, 1776-1976. Oceana Publications. ISBN 978-0-379-00665-0. Retrieved September 23, 2023.
  • Glashan, Roy R. (1979). American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775-1978. Meckler Books. ISBN 978-0-930466-17-6.
  • "Our Campaigns - Governor of Iowa - History". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ IA Const. art. IV, § 1.
  3. ^ IA Const. art. IV, § 9.
  4. ^ IA Const. art III, § 16
  5. ^ IA Const. art. IV, § 11.
  6. ^ IA Const., art. IV, § 16.
  7. ^ IA Const. art. IV, § 7.
  8. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 25th Cong., 2nd sess., 131, accessed February 26, 2023.
  9. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 25th Cong., 2nd sess., 133, accessed February 26, 2023.
  10. ^ a b c McMullin 1984, pp. 155–157.
  11. ^ Shambaugh, Benjamin F., ed. (1903). The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa. Vol. 1. Iowa City, Iowa: State Historical Society of Iowa. p. 208.
  12. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 25th Cong., 2nd sess., 145, accessed February 26, 2023.
  13. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 25th Cong., 2nd sess., 153, accessed February 26, 2023.
  14. ^ Executive Journal of Iowa 1838–1841, Governor Robert Lucas. State Historical Society of Iowa. 1906. pp. 277–279.
  15. ^ a b c McMullin 1984, pp. 157–158.
  16. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 27th Cong., 1st sess., 386, accessed February 26, 2023.
  17. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 27th Cong., 1st sess., 406, accessed February 26, 2023.
  18. ^ The Territorial Papers of the United States: Volume I: General. United States Government Publishing Office. 1934. p. 13.
  19. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 28th Cong., 2nd sess., 364, accessed February 28, 2023.
  20. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 158–160.
  21. ^ Gue, Benjamin F. (1903). Iowa biography. Century History Company. p. 52.
  22. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 29th Cong., 1st sess., 10, accessed February 26, 2023.
  23. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 29th Cong., 1st sess., 41, accessed February 26, 2023.
  24. ^ 1846 Const. article V, § 2
  25. ^ a b IA Const. art. IV, § 2
  26. ^ a b IA Const. amendment 32
  27. ^ IA Const. art. IV, § 15
  28. ^ IA Const. amendment 42
  29. ^ a b IA Const. art. IV, § 3
  30. ^ IA Const. amendment 41
  31. ^ IA Const. art. IV, § 17
  32. ^ 1846 Const. art V, § 18
  33. ^ Hennigan, Gregg (November 5, 2010). "No 41st Governor for Iowa?". The Gazette (Cedar Rapids). Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  34. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 429.
  35. ^ "Ansel Briggs". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  36. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1846 sess., 33, accessed August 20, 2023
  37. ^ a b Dubin 2003, p. 65.
  38. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 429–430.
  39. ^ "Stephen Hempstead". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  40. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1850 sess., 35, accessed August 20, 2023
  41. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 430–431.
  42. ^ "James Wilson Grimes". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  43. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1854 sess., 42, accessed August 20, 2023
  44. ^ a b Dubin 2003, p. 66.
  45. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 431.
  46. ^ "Ralph Phillips Lowe". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  47. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1858 sess., 47, accessed August 20, 2023
  48. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, pp. 432–433.
  49. ^ a b c "Samuel Jordan Kirkwood". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  50. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1860 sess., 51, accessed August 20, 2023
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Kallenbach 1977, pp. 181–182.
  52. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 433.
  53. ^ "William Milo Stone". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  54. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1864 sess., 42, accessed August 20, 2023
  55. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 434.
  56. ^ "Samuel Merrill". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  57. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1868 sess., 46, accessed August 20, 2023
  58. ^ United States Congress. "Walden, Madison Miner (id: W000034)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  59. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 434–435.
  60. ^ "Cyrus Clay Carpenter". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  61. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1872 sess., 54, accessed August 20, 2023
  62. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1876 sess., 25, accessed August 20, 2023
  63. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 435–436.
  64. ^ "Joshua G. Newbold". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  65. ^ "none". The Courier. February 7, 1877. p. 4. Retrieved August 20, 2023. Last Thursday, at half past ten a.m., Lieut. Governor Newbold became full fledged Governor of Iowa by taking the oath as prescribed by the Constitution.
  66. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 436–437.
  67. ^ "John Henry Gear". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  68. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1878 sess., 24, accessed August 20, 2023
  69. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 437–438.
  70. ^ "Buren Robinson Sherman". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  71. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1882 sess., 20, accessed August 20, 2023
  72. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 438–439.
  73. ^ "William Larrabee". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  74. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1886 sess., 33, accessed August 20, 2023
  75. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 439–440.
  76. ^ "Horace Boies". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  77. ^ "A Democratic Ruler". Sioux City Journal. February 28, 1890. p. 1. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  78. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 440.
  79. ^ "Frank Darr Jackson". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  80. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1894 sess., 29, accessed August 20, 2023
  81. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 440–441.
  82. ^ "Francis Marion Drake". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  83. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1896 sess., 33, accessed August 20, 2023
  84. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 441–442.
  85. ^ "Leslie Mortier Shaw". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  86. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1898 sess., 102, accessed August 20, 2023
  87. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 442–443.
  88. ^ a b "Albert Baird Cummins". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  89. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1902 sess., 53, accessed August 20, 2023
  90. ^ "Warren Garst". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  91. ^ "Garst Takes Oath As Iowa Governor". The Des Moines Register. November 25, 1908. p. 2. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  92. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 443.
  93. ^ "Beryl Franklin Carroll". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  94. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the Senate. 1909 sess., 49, accessed August 20, 2023
  95. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 443–444.
  96. ^ "George Washington Clarke". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  97. ^ "New Regime Takes Hold at Capital". The Des Moines Register. January 17, 1913. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  98. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 444.
  99. ^ "William Lloyd Harding". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  100. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1917 sess., 117, accessed August 20, 2023
  101. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 445.
  102. ^ "Nathan Edward Kendall". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  103. ^ "Kendall Takes Oath of Office". Quad-City Times. January 13, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  104. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 445–446.
  105. ^ "John Hammill". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  106. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1925 sess., 71, accessed August 20, 2023
  107. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 446.
  108. ^ "Daniel Webster Turner". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  109. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the House of Representatives. 1931 sess., 93, accessed August 20, 2023
  110. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 446–447.
  111. ^ "Clyde Laverne Herring". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  112. ^ "Herring Takes Oath As 26th Governor of State". Iowa City Press-Citizen. Associated Press. January 12, 1933. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  113. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 447–448.
  114. ^ "Nelson George Kraschel". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  115. ^ "Government Changes Urged". Sioux City Journal. Associated Press. January 15, 1937. p. 4. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  116. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 448.
  117. ^ "George Allison Wilson". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  118. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the Senate. 1939 sess., 55, accessed August 20, 2023
  119. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 448–449.
  120. ^ "Bourke Blakemore Hickenlooper". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  121. ^ Iowa General Assembly. Journal of the Senate. 1943 sess., 48, accessed August 20, 2023
  122. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 449–450.
  123. ^ "Robert Donald Blue". National Governors Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
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