Sioux City, Iowa
Downtown Sioux City.
Downtown Sioux City.
Location in Iowa
Location in Iowa
Sioux City is located in Iowa
Sioux City
Sioux City
Sioux City is located in the United States
Sioux City
Sioux City
Coordinates: 42°29′53″N 96°23′44″W / 42.49806°N 96.39556°W / 42.49806; -96.39556Coordinates: 42°29′53″N 96°23′44″W / 42.49806°N 96.39556°W / 42.49806; -96.39556[1]
Country United States
State Iowa
CountiesWoodbury, Plymouth
Founded1854
Incorporated1857
Government
 • MayorBob Scott
 • City ManagerRobert Padmore[2]
Area
 • City59.63 sq mi (154.4 km2)
 • Land58.46 sq mi (151.4 km2)
 • Water1.165 sq mi (3.02 km2)
Elevation
1,201 ft (366 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City85,797
 • Rank
  • US: 407th
  • IA: 4th
 • Density1,467.6/sq mi (566.65/km2)
 • Urban
106,494 (US: 292nd)
 • Metro
149,940 (US: 284th)
 • CSA
175,638
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP Codes
51101–51104, 51106-51108, 51109-51111
Area code712
FIPS code19-73335
GNIS feature ID0461653
InterstatesI-29 (IA 1957).svg I-129 (IA 1961).svg
Websitesioux-city.org

Sioux City (/s/) is a city in Woodbury and Plymouth counties in the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Iowa. The population was 85,797 in the 2020 census, making it the fourth-largest city in Iowa.[3] The bulk of the city is in Woodbury County, of which it is the county seat, though a small portion is in Plymouth County. Sioux City is located at the navigational head of the Missouri River. The city is home to several cultural points of interest including the Sioux City Public Museum, Sioux City Art Center and Sergeant Floyd Monument, which is a National Historic Landmark. The city is also home to Chris Larsen Park, commonly referred to as "the Riverfront", which includes the Anderson Dance Pavilion, Sergeant Floyd Riverboat Museum and Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center. Sioux City is the primary city of the five-county Sioux City, IANESD Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), with a population of 149,940 in the 2020 census. The Sioux City–Vermillion, IA–NE–SD Combined Statistical Area had a population of 175,638 as of 2020.

Sioux City is at the navigational head, or the furthest upstream point to which general cargo ships can travel, of the Missouri River, approximately 95 mi (153 km) north of the Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area. Sioux City and the surrounding areas of northwestern Iowa, northeastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota are sometimes referred to as Siouxland, especially by local media and residents.

History

Waterfront, circa 1912
Waterfront, circa 1912

Main article: History of Sioux City, Iowa

Iowa is in the tallgrass prairie of the North American Great Plains, historically inhabited by speakers of Siouan languages. The area of Sioux City was inhabited by Yankton Sioux when it was first reached by Spanish and French furtrappers in the 18th century. The first documented US citizens to record their travels through this area were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark during the summer of 1804. Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, died here on August 20, 1804, the only death during the two and a half-year expedition.[4]

1859 map of route from Sioux City, Iowa, through Nebraska, to gold fields of Wyoming, partially following old Mormon trails.
1859 map of route from Sioux City, Iowa, through Nebraska, to gold fields of Wyoming, partially following old Mormon trails.

Sioux City was laid out in the winter of 1854–1855.[5] It became a major transportation hub to the western Plains, including Mormons heading to Salt Lake City and speculators heading to Wyoming goldfields.

In 1891, the Sioux City Elevated Railway was opened and became the third steam-powered elevated rapid transit system in the world, and later the first electric-powered elevated railway in the world after conversion in 1892. However, the system fell into bankruptcy and closed within a decade.[6]

The city gained the nickname "Little Chicago" during the Prohibition era due to its reputation for being a purveyor of alcoholic beverages.[7]

On 19 July 1989, United Airlines Flight 232 crash-landed at Sioux Gateway Airport, killing 111 people, but 184 survived the crash and ensuing fire due to outstandingly quick performances by fire and emergency local teams.[8][9]

Geography and climate

Geography

Historic Fourth Street, Downtown.
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Sioux City

Sioux City is located at 42°29′44″N 96°23′26″W / 42.495668°N 96.390525°W / 42.495668; -96.390525.[1] Sioux City lies at an altitude of 1,135 ft (345.9 m) above sea level. Sioux City borders two states, South Dakota to the west-northwest and Nebraska to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 59.63 sq mi (154.44 km2), of which 58.46 sq mi (151.41 km2) is land and 1.165 sq mi (3.02 km2) is water.[1]

Climate

As is typical of Iowa, Sioux City has a humid continental climate, with very warm, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and wide temperature extremes; it is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5a.[10] The normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 20.0 °F (−6.7 °C) in January to 74.2 °F (23.4 °C) in July. On average, there are 25 days that reach 90 °F (32 °C) or higher, 52 days that do not climb above freezing, and 17 days with a low of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below annually. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 1 thru April 26, allowing a growing season of 157 days. Extreme temperatures officially range from −35 °F (−37 °C) on 12 January 1912 up to 111 °F (44 °C) on 4 July 1936 and 17 July 1936, as well as 11 July 1939; the record cold daily maximum is −22 °F (−30 °C) on 8 February 1899, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 86 °F (30 °C) on 18 August 1936.

Precipitation is greatest in May and June and averages 29.27 in (743 mm) annually, but has ranged from 14.33 in (364 mm) in 1976 to 41.10 in (1,044 mm) in 1903. Snowfall averages 36.0 in (91 cm) per season, and has historically ranged from 6.9 in (18 cm) in 1895–1896 to 65.9 in (167 cm) in 1961–1962; the average window for measurable (≥0.1 in or 0.25 cm) snowfall is November 8 thru April 7, although snow in October occurs several times per decade. On 14 May 2013, the high temperature reached 106 °F (41 °C), setting a new all-time May record high, along with a 77 °F (43 °C) rise from the morning of the 12th.[11]

Climate data for Sioux City, Iowa (Sioux Gateway Airport), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1889–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 71
(22)
75
(24)
91
(33)
98
(37)
106
(41)
108
(42)
111
(44)
108
(42)
103
(39)
96
(36)
82
(28)
71
(22)
111
(44)
Average high °F (°C) 29.5
(−1.4)
34.2
(1.2)
47.6
(8.7)
61.1
(16.2)
72.3
(22.4)
81.9
(27.7)
85.0
(29.4)
82.6
(28.1)
76.6
(24.8)
62.8
(17.1)
46.8
(8.2)
33.4
(0.8)
59.5
(15.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 20.0
(−6.7)
24.5
(−4.2)
36.7
(2.6)
48.9
(9.4)
60.5
(15.8)
70.7
(21.5)
74.2
(23.4)
71.7
(22.1)
63.9
(17.7)
50.3
(10.2)
35.9
(2.2)
24.1
(−4.4)
48.4
(9.1)
Average low °F (°C) 10.4
(−12.0)
14.8
(−9.6)
25.9
(−3.4)
36.7
(2.6)
48.7
(9.3)
59.4
(15.2)
63.4
(17.4)
60.8
(16.0)
51.2
(10.7)
37.9
(3.3)
25.0
(−3.9)
14.8
(−9.6)
37.4
(3.0)
Record low °F (°C) −35
(−37)
−31
(−35)
−22
(−30)
−2
(−19)
23
(−5)
38
(3)
41
(5)
37
(3)
24
(−4)
5
(−15)
−9
(−23)
−28
(−33)
−35
(−37)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.69
(18)
0.86
(22)
1.76
(45)
3.15
(80)
3.87
(98)
4.35
(110)
3.35
(85)
3.94
(100)
2.84
(72)
2.20
(56)
1.27
(32)
0.99
(25)
29.27
(743)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.7
(20)
8.7
(22)
5.7
(14)
2.3
(5.8)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(2.0)
3.2
(8.1)
7.6
(19)
36.0
(91)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.8 6.5 8.1 10.0 12.0 11.7 9.0 9.8 8.0 7.6 5.9 6.8 102.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.9 5.7 3.4 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.5 5.4 24.8
Average relative humidity (%) 72.2 72.4 69.7 61.6 62.3 65.5 69.2 72.0 70.8 66.2 72.3 75.9 69.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 171.1 165.5 211.9 232.3 271.8 310.2 330.9 292.9 235.5 209.3 146.4 138.3 2,716.1
Percent possible sunshine 58 56 57 58 60 68 71 68 63 61 50 49 61
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[12][13][14]


Demographics

Woodbury County Courthouse
Historical population
Census Pop.
18703,401
18807,366116.6%
189037,806413.3%
190033,111−12.4%
191047,82844.4%
192071,22748.9%
193079,18311.2%
194082,3644.0%
195083,9912.0%
196089,1596.2%
197085,925−3.6%
198082,003−4.6%
199080,505−1.8%
200085,0135.6%
201082,684−2.7%
202085,7973.8%
  • U.S. Decennial Census[15]
  • 2020 Census[3]

2010 census

As of the census[16] of 2010, there were 82,684 people, 31,571 households, and 20,144 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,441.7/sq mi (556.6/km2). There were 33,425 housing units at an average density of 582.8/sq mi (225.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 80.6% White, 2.9% African American, 2.6% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.4% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.4% of the population.

There were 31,571 households, of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 36.2% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.14.

The median age in the city was 33.7 years. 26.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.6% were from 25 to 44; 24% were from 45 to 64, and 12.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 85,013 people, 32,054 households, and 21,091 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,551.3 people per square mile (599.0/km2). There were 33,816 housing units at an average density of 617.1 per square mile (238.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.23% White, 2.41% African American, 1.95% Native American, 2.82% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.27% from other races, and 2.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.89% of the population.

There were 32,054 households, of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.14.

Age spread: 27.1% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was US$37,429, and the median income for a family was US$45,751. Males had a median income of US$31,385 versus US$22,470 for females. The per capita income for the city was US$18,666. About 7.9% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. This compares with a median household income for the state of Iowa of US$54,736 and an Iowa median family income of US$69,382.[17] (current data from State of Iowa, see also List of U.S. states by income for historical data).

Metropolitan area

As of the 2020 census, the Sioux City Metropolitan Area had 149,940 residents in four counties. As defined by the Office of Management and Budget, the counties comprising the metropolitan area are (in descending order of population):

Economy

The Floyd River in Sioux City
The Floyd River in Sioux City
Confluence of the Missouri and Floyd River in Sioux City
Confluence of the Missouri and Floyd River in Sioux City
Top employers

Statistics from Sioux City's 2020 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report[18]

Rank Employer
  • Number of
  • Employees
  • % of Total City
  • Employment
1   Tyson Fresh Meats 4,500   10.77%  
2   Seaboard Triumph Foods 2,400   5.74%  
2   Sioux City Community School District 2,370   5.67%  
4   Bomgaars 2,100   5.02%  
5   Mercy Medical Center 1,562   3.74%  
6   UnityPoint Health - St. Luke's 1,500   3.59%  
7   Hy-Vee 1,023   2.45%  
8   185th Air Refueling Wing 952   2.28%  
9   City of Sioux City 878   2.10%  
10   Western Iowa Tech Community College 700   ---  
Totals   17,985   41.36%  

Arts and culture

Sergeant Floyd Monument
Sergeant Floyd Monument

Neighborhoods, commercial districts, and suburbs

City neighborhoods

Main article: Neighborhoods of Sioux City, Iowa

Nearby communities

Veteran's Memorial Bridge
Veteran's Memorial Bridge

Parks and recreation

Stone State Park
Stone State Park

Golf courses, city parks, and aquatics: Sioux City is also home to several municipal public golf courses, including Floyd Park in Morningside, Green Valley near the Southern Hills, Sun Valley on the northern West Side, and Hidden Acres in nearby Plymouth County. Sioux City also has a number of private golf clubs, including Sioux City Country Club, and Whispering Creek Golf Club. The city has over 1,132 acres (5 km2) of public parkland located at 53 locations, including the riverfront and many miles of recreation trails. Five public swimming pools/aquatics centers are located within Sioux City neighborhoods.

Education

Public schools

The Sioux City Community School District served 14,569 students in the 2018-2019 school year;[24] there are three public high schools West High School, North High School, East High School (grades 9-12), three public Middle Schools, West Middle, North Middle, and East Middle (grades 6-8), and 19 Elementary Schools (grades K-5).[25]

Because of sprawl, districts around Sioux City continue to grow at dramatic rates. South Sioux City, Hinton, North Sioux City, Lawton, Bronson, Elk Point, Jefferson, Vermillion, Le Mars, Hawarden, Akron, Westfield, Ponca, Sergeant Bluff, Wayne, Sioux Center, along with other school districts that serve many metro-area students.

Private schools

Bishop Heelan Catholic Schools is a centralized private Catholic School System that includes six schools: They teach preschool through twelfth grade.

Siouxland Christian School educates grades pre-K-12 and began in 1959.

Advanced education

Sioux City is home to Briar Cliff University, Morningside College, Western Iowa Tech Community College, St. Luke's College of Nursing, and the Bellevue University outreach center.

City ratings

Money recognized Sioux City in its August 2010 issue of the "Best Places To Live".[26] Sioux City was no longer on the list of the top 50 as of 2016.[27]

Sioux City has a crime rate that is 91% higher than the average for Iowa and 63% higher than the national average. The violent crime rate is 90% above the Iowa average and 49% higher than the national average, based on the FBI's uniform crime reports for the year of 2020.[28] According to the report, this represented an 12% decrease over the prior year.

In March 2013, Site Selection recognized Sioux City as the 4th Top Metro area in the Midwest Region. This ranking is based on the number of commercial facilities projects being developed. Sioux City ranked 1st in regards to Metro Populations between 50,000 and 200,000.[29]

Forbes placed the Sioux City metro in the Top 15 Best Small Places for Businesses and Careers in 2011. By 2019, it had fallen to number 55 on the list.[30] In 2011, MSN ranked the area the #2 Most Livable Bargain Market.[31] In 2010, The Daily Beast, an American news reporting website, placed Sioux City on their list of The Top 40 Drunkest Cities in America, with a ranking of 14th.[32] According to a 2015 University of Iowa study for the Iowa Initiative for Sustainable Communities,[33] blight and disinvestment are serious problems in the downtown core as investment has shifted to suburbs.[34]

Media

Television stations

Radio stations

FM stations
AM stations

Print

Sports

Tyson Events Center, with Fleet Farm Arena to the left and Longlines Family Recreation Center to the right
Tyson Events Center, with Fleet Farm Arena to the left and Longlines Family Recreation Center to the right

Transportation

Highways

Interstate 29 is a major controlled-access highway in Sioux City and the surrounding area providing easy access of the 20-mile stretch covering Sioux City and the majority of its suburbs. It approaches the city from Omaha to the south before curving northwest along the Missouri River near downtown. The highway then enters South Dakota and curves back to the north as it approaches Sioux Falls. Interstate 129 is an auxiliary Interstate that connects South Sioux City, Nebraska, to the south side of Sioux City and works as a bypass for travelers to other surrounding suburbs. Interstate 129 also interconnects with U.S. Route 75, which is in expansion to expressway form connecting Sioux City to Worthington, Minnesota. U.S. Route 20, the longest road in the United States, spanning 3,365 mi (5,415 km), is also in the process of expanding from a two-lane highway to four-lanes from Sioux City to Dubuque, which will provide faster and easier access comparable to Interstate 80. Until 2020, Sioux City operated automatic speed cameras on Interstate 29. Redflex Holdings, the camera operator, and the city extricated US$22 million from drivers while they were operating.[37][38] The state of South Dakota has been refusing to provide addresses associated with license plates due to the large number of South Dakota residents fined by Sioux City.[39][40][41][42]

Public transportation

Sioux City Transit, the local public transit organization, operates several bus lines within the city. Buses transfer downtown in the Martin Luther King Jr. Transportation Center at 505 Nebraska Street.[43] The Sioux City Paratransit serves members of the community who would otherwise not be able to travel by providing door to door service.[44]

Air

The city is served by Sioux Gateway Airport (SUX) 6 mi (9.7 km) to its south where United Airlines' affiliate SkyWest Airlines has announced it plans to discontinue the one flight per day each to Chicago and Denver it currently offers. As those flights are federally subsidized under the Essential Air Service program, SkyWest is required to continue those flights until a replacement is found.[45]

FBO and jet charter services are currently offered by Hawthorne Global Aviation Services.[46]

In 2019, the Federal Aviation Administration proposed a US$145,452 civil penalty against SUX Airport for numerous alleged safety violations including alleging that the airport repeatedly failed to maintain surfaces, runway and taxiway markings, and visual wind direction indicators. The FAA inspected the airport in May 2018, June 2019, and September 2019, and each time found numerous alleged violations.[47][48]

Others

Jefferson Lines runs long-distance bus routes to Sioux City. Non-Transfer destinations include Winnipeg, Kansas City, Minneapolis, and Omaha.

Sioux City also has several private taxi companies that operate within the city.

There is no established water or rail passenger transportation in the area. The last passenger train was the Illinois Central's Hawkeye, a daily train to Chicago via Waterloo, Dubuque and Rockford, discontinued in 1971.[49]

Big Soo Terminal offers barge transportation.[50]

Notable people

Sioux City native Pauline (Friedman) Phillips, who used the pen name of Abigail Van Buren for her advice column "Dear Abby", was the twin sister of Esther (Friedman) Lederer, the author of the competing Ann Landers column.
Sioux City native Pauline (Friedman) Phillips, who used the pen name of Abigail Van Buren for her advice column "Dear Abby", was the twin sister of Esther (Friedman) Lederer, the author of the competing Ann Landers column.

Sister cities

See also

Note

  1. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 100 UN member states (with another 13 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 93 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

References

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  3. ^ a b "2020 Census State Redistricting Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  4. ^ a b "The Lewis & Clark Expedition - A History Brief". Sioux City Public Library. Archived from the original on 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
  5. ^ History of Western Iowa, Its Settlement and Growth. Sioux City: Western Publishing Company. 1882. p. 178. OCLC 15078679 – via Internet Archive.
  6. ^ "Elevated Railway". Sioux City History. Archived from the original on 2021-08-14. Retrieved 2022-03-29.
  7. ^ Sunshine, Rebecca (2008-07-20). "Our Hometown: 'Downtown Sioux City'". KTIV. Archived from the original on 2018-01-17. Retrieved 2022-03-29.
  8. ^ Grandy, Fred (1989-08-16). "Text: H.J.Res.379 — 101st Congress (1989-1990)". United States Congress. Archived from the original on 2022-03-29. Retrieved 2022-03-29.
  9. ^ Bush, George (1989-09-22). "Proclamation 6027 of September 22, 1989: Commendation of the Citizens of the Sioux City, Iowa, Tri-State Area" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-29.
  10. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
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  27. ^ "Best Places to Live 2016". Money. Archived from the original on 2021-05-08. Retrieved 2022-03-30.
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