Governor of Wisconsin
Privy Seal of Wisconsin.svg
Gubernatorial seal
Tony Evers - 2022 (crop).jpg
Incumbent
Tony Evers

since January 7, 2019
ResidenceWisconsin Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, no term limits
Inaugural holderNelson Dewey
FormationJune 7, 1848 (1848-06-07)
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Wisconsin
Salary$146,597.88[1]
Websiteevers.wi.gov

The governor of Wisconsin is the head of government of Wisconsin[2] and the commander-in-chief of the state's army and air forces.[3] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws,[3] and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Wisconsin Legislature,[4] to convene the legislature,[3] and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[5]

Forty-four individuals have held the office of governor of Wisconsin since the state's admission to the Union in 1848, one of whom—Philip La Follette—served non-consecutive terms. Nelson Dewey, the first governor, took office on June 7, 1848. The longest-serving governor was Tommy Thompson, who took office on January 5, 1987 and resigned on February 1, 2001, a total of 14 years and 28 days. Arthur MacArthur, Sr. had the shortest term: he was governor for a total of just 5 days—from March 21, 1856 to March 25, 1856.[6] The current governor is Tony Evers, a Democrat who took office on January 7, 2019.[6]

Governors

Initially after the American Revolution, parts of the area now known as Wisconsin were claimed by Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut; however, Virginia ceded its claim in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786.[7] On July 13, 1787, the Northwest Territory, including the area now called Wisconsin, was formed; Wisconsin remained part of the territory until 1800.[8] The territorial governor during this period was Arthur St. Clair.[9] As parts of the Northwest Territory were admitted to the Union as states, Wisconsin became part of first the Indiana Territory (1800–1809), then the Illinois Territory (1809–1818), and then the Michigan Territory (1818–1836);[8] see the lists of governors of Indiana, of Illinois, and of Michigan for these periods.

Governors of Wisconsin Territory

Wisconsin Territory was formed on July 3, 1836. During the time of its existence, the Wisconsin Territory had 3 territorial governors, 1 of whom served non-consecutive terms,[8][10] and 1 who continued on as acting governor after the territory had officially ceased to exist.

# Governor Appointed Left office
[a]
Appointed by Notes
1
Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man
  Henry Dodge
    October 12, 1782 – June 19, 1867   
(aged 84)
April 30, 1836 September 13, 1841[11] Andrew Jackson
2
Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man
  James Duane Doty
    November 5, 1799 – June 13, 1865   
(aged 65)
September 30, 1841 June 21, 1844 John Tyler
3
Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man
  Nathaniel P. Tallmadge
    February 8, 1795 – November 2, 1864   
(aged 69)
June 21, 1844 April 8, 1845 John Tyler
4
Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man
  Henry Dodge
    October 12, 1782 – June 19, 1867   
(aged 84)
April 8, 1845 June 23, 1848 James Polk [b][12]
John Catlin (Wisconsin).jpg
  John Catlin
    October 13, 1803 – August 4, 1874   
(aged 70)
June 23, 1848 March 3, 1849 none
(acting governor)
[c][13]

Governors of the State of Wisconsin

Wisconsin was admitted to the Union on May 29, 1848. Since then, it has had 45 governors, one of whom served non-consecutive terms.[6]

Originally, governors of Wisconsin served for two-year terms, but in 1967 the state constitution was amended to change this to four.[2] Jeremiah McLain Rusk served 1 3-year term in the 1880s as the constitution was amended during his first term to move elections from odd to even years, and all officers were allowed to serve an extra year, rather than have their terms cut a year short. Patrick Lucey, elected in the 1970 election, was the first governor to serve a 4-year term.[6] Governors of Wisconsin are not term limited.

The state constitution provides for the election of a lieutenant governor; originally, the governor and lieutenant governor were elected on different tickets, and thus were not necessarily of the same party. Since the 1967 amendment, however, the two have been nominated, and voted on, together.[2] Originally, if the office of the governor was vacant for any reason, "the powers and duties of the office . . . devolve[d] upon the lieutenant governor." In 1979, the constitution was amended to make this more specific: if the governor dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the lieutenant governor becomes governor, but becomes acting governor if the governor is absent from the state, impeached, or unable to carry out of duties.[14] If any of these events occur while the office of lieutenant governor is vacant, the secretary of state becomes either governor or acting governor.[15] Two Wisconsin governors have died while in office, one has died after being elected but before taking office, and four have resigned.[6]

Parties

  Democratic (12)   Republican (31)   Whig (1)   Wisconsin Progressive (2)

# Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[16][d]
1
Nelson Dewey.jpg
  Nelson Dewey
    December 19, 1813 – July 21, 1889   
(aged 75)
June 7, 1848

January 5, 1852
Democratic 1848   John E. Holmes
1849   Samuel W. Beall
2
LeonardJFarwell extracted.jpg
  Leonard J. Farwell
    January 5, 1819 – April 11, 1889   
(aged 70)
January 5, 1852

January 2, 1854
Whig 1851   Timothy Burns
[e]
3
William A Barstow by William F Cogswell, c1850s.jpg
  William A. Barstow
    September 13, 1813 – December 13, 1865   
(aged 52)
January 2, 1854

March 21, 1856
Democratic 1853   James T. Lewis
1855
[f][17]
  Arthur MacArthur Sr.
4
Arthur macarthur sr.png
  Arthur MacArthur Sr.
    January 26, 1815 – August 26, 1896   
(aged 81)
March 21, 1856

March 25, 1856
Democratic vacant
5
Coles Bashford - Brady-Handy.jpg
  Coles Bashford
    January 24, 1816 – April 25, 1878   
(aged 62)
March 25, 1856

January 4, 1858
Republican   Arthur MacArthur Sr.
6
AWRandall.jpg
  Alexander Randall
    October 31, 1819 – July 26, 1872   
(aged 52)
January 4, 1858

January 6, 1862
Republican 1857   Erasmus D. Campbell
1859   Butler G. Noble
7
Louis P. Harvey.jpg
  Louis P. Harvey
    July 22, 1820 – April 19, 1862   
(aged 41)
January 6, 1862

April 19, 1862
(died)
Republican 1861   Edward Salomon
8
Wisconsin Governor Edward Salomon.jpg
  Edward Salomon
    August 11, 1828 – April 21, 1909   
(aged 80)
April 19, 1862

January 4, 1864
Republican Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
vacant
9
James T. Lewis Cropped.jpg
  James T. Lewis
    October 30, 1819 – August 5, 1904   
(aged 84)
January 4, 1864

January 1, 1866
Republican 1863   Wyman Spooner
10
Lucius Fairchild.png
  Lucius Fairchild
    December 27, 1831 – May 23, 1896   
(aged 64)
January 1, 1866

January 1, 1872
Republican 1865
1867
1869   Thaddeus C. Pound
11
Cadwallader Colden Washburn.jpg
  Cadwallader C. Washburn
    April 22, 1818 – May 14, 1882   
(aged 64)
January 1, 1872

January 5, 1874
Republican 1871   Milton H. Pettit
[g]
12
William Robert Taylor.jpg
  William Robert Taylor
    July 10, 1820 – March 17, 1909   
(aged 88)
January 5, 1874

January 3, 1876
Democratic 1873   Charles D. Parker
13
Harrison Ludington.jpg
  Harrison Ludington
    July 30, 1812 – June 17, 1891   
(aged 78)
January 3, 1876

January 7, 1878
Republican 1875
14
William E. Smith.jpg
  William E. Smith
    June 18, 1824 – February 13, 1883   
(aged 58)
January 7, 1878

January 2, 1882
Republican 1877   James M. Bingham
1879
15
Jeremiah McLain Rusk - Brady-Handy.jpg
  Jeremiah McLain Rusk
    June 17, 1830 – November 21, 1893   
(aged 63)
January 2, 1882

January 7, 1889
Republican 1881
[h]
  Sam S. Fifield
1884
1886   George W. Ryland
16
William D. Hoard.jpg
  William D. Hoard
    October 10, 1836 – November 22, 1918   
(aged 82)
January 7, 1889

January 5, 1891
Republican 1888
17
George W. Peck.jpg
  George Wilbur Peck
    September 28, 1840 – April 16, 1916   
(aged 75)
January 5, 1891

January 7, 1895
Democratic 1890   Charles Jonas
1892
18
William H Upham.jpg
  William H. Upham
    May 3, 1841 – July 2, 1924   
(aged 83)
January 7, 1895

January 4, 1897
Republican 1894   Emil Baensch
19
Edward Scofield.jpg
  Edward Scofield
    March 28, 1842 – February 3, 1925   
(aged 82)
January 4, 1897

January 7, 1901
Republican 1896
1898   Jesse Stone
[i]
20
Robert M. La Follette, Sr.jpg
  Robert M. La Follette, Sr.
    June 14, 1855 – June 21, 1925   
(aged 70)
January 7, 1901

January 1, 1906
(resigned)[j]
Republican 1900
1902   James O. Davidson
1904
21
James Ole Davidson (Wisconsin Governor).png
  James O. Davidson
    February 10, 1854 – December 16, 1922   
(aged 68)
January 1, 1906

January 2, 1911
Republican Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
vacant
1906   William D. Connor
1908   John Strange
22
Francis E. McGovern.jpg
  Francis E. McGovern
    January 21, 1866 – May 16, 1946   
(aged 80)
January 2, 1911

January 4, 1915
Republican 1910   Thomas Morris
1912
23
Emanuel Lorenz Philipp (cropped).jpg
  Emanuel L. Philipp
    March 25, 1861 – June 15, 1925   
(aged 64)
January 4, 1915

January 3, 1921
Republican 1914   Edward F. Dithmar
1916
1918
24
John J. Blaine (WI).png
  John J. Blaine
    May 4, 1875 – April 16, 1934   
(aged 75)
January 3, 1921

January 3, 1927
Republican 1920   George F. Comings
1922
1924   Henry A. Huber
25
Fred R. Zimmerman.jpg
  Fred R. Zimmerman
    November 20, 1880 – December 14, 1954   
(aged 74)
January 3, 1927

January 7, 1929
Republican 1926
26
Walter J. Kohler, Sr. (Wisconsin Governor).jpg
  Walter J. Kohler Sr.
    March 5, 1875 – April 21, 1940   
(aged 65)
January 7, 1929

January 5, 1931
Republican 1928
27
Philip La Follette (1935).jpg
  Philip La Follette
    May 8, 1897 – August 18, 1965   
(aged 68)
January 5, 1931

January 2, 1933
(lost renomination)
Republican 1930
28
Albert G Schmedeman.jpg
  Albert G. Schmedeman
    November 25, 1864 – November 26, 1946   
(aged 82)
January 2, 1933

January 7, 1935
(lost election)
Democratic 1932   Thomas J. O'Malley
[k]
27 (2)
Philip La Follette (1935).jpg
  Philip La Follette
    May 8, 1897 – August 18, 1965   
(aged 68)
January 7, 1935

January 2, 1939
(lost election)
Wisconsin
Progressive
1934
1936   Henry A. Gunderson
[l]
  Herman L. Ekern
29
Julius P. Heil.jpg
  Julius P. Heil
    July 8, 1876 – November 30, 1949   
(aged 73)
January 2, 1939

January 4, 1943
(lost election)
Republican 1938   Walter S. Goodland
1940
Orland Steen Loomis (Wisconsin governor-elect).jpg
  Orland Steen Loomis
    November 2, 1893 – December 7, 1942   
(aged 49)
did not take office
[m]
Wisconsin
Progressive
1942
30
Walter Samuel Goodland.jpg
  Walter Samuel Goodland
    December 22, 1862 – March 12, 1947   
(aged 84)
January 4, 1943

March 12, 1947
(died)
Republican Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
vacant
1944   Oscar Rennebohm
1946
31
Rennebohm Governor.jpg
  Oscar Rennebohm
    May 25, 1889 – October 15, 1968   
(aged 79)
March 12, 1947

January 1, 1951
(not candidate election)
Republican Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
vacant
1948   George M. Smith
32
Walter Jodok Kohler, Jr. (4728499663).jpg
  Walter J. Kohler Jr.
    April 4, 1904 – March 21, 1976   
(aged 71)
January 1, 1951

January 7, 1957
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1950
1952
1954   Warren P. Knowles
33
Vernon W. Thomson (WI).png
  Vernon Wallace Thomson
    November 5, 1905 – April 2, 1988   
(aged 82)
January 7, 1957

January 5, 1959
(lost election)
Republican 1956
34
Gaylord Nelson (WI).png
  Gaylord Nelson
    June 4, 1916 – July 3, 2005   
(aged 89)
January 5, 1959

January 7, 1963
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1958   Philleo Nash
1960   Warren P. Knowles
35
John W. Reynolds Jr. (WI).png
  John W. Reynolds Jr.
    April 4, 1921 – January 6, 2002   
(aged 80)
January 7, 1963

January 4, 1965
(lost election)
Democratic 1962   Jack B. Olson
36
WarrenPKnowles.jpg
  Warren P. Knowles
    August 19, 1908 – May 1, 1993   
(aged 84)
January 4, 1965

January 4, 1971
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1964   Patrick J. Lucey
1966   Jack B. Olson
1968
37
Patrick Lucey.png
  Patrick Lucey
    March 21, 1918 – May 10, 2014   
(aged 96)
January 4, 1971

July 6, 1977
(resigned)
[n]
Democratic 1970
[o]
  Martin J. Schreiber
1974
38
Martin J. Schreiber (1977).png
  Martin J. Schreiber
    (1939-04-08) April 8, 1939 (age 83)
July 6, 1977

January 3, 1979
(lost election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
vacant
39
Lee Dreyfus (Wisconsin Governor).jpg
  Lee S. Dreyfus
    June 20, 1926 – January 2, 2008   
(aged 81)
January 3, 1979[p][18]

January 3, 1983
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1978   Russell A. Olson
40
Anthony Earl (Wisconsin Governor) (cropped).jpg
  Tony Earl
    (1936-04-12) April 12, 1936 (age 86)
January 3, 1983

January 5, 1987
(lost election)
Democratic 1982   James T. Flynn
41
Tommy Thompson (WI).jpg
  Tommy Thompson
    (1941-11-19) November 19, 1941 (age 80)
January 5, 1987

February 1, 2001
(resigned)
[q]
Republican 1986   Scott McCallum
1990
1994
1998
42
Governor Scott McCallum 2001 (cropped).jpg
  Scott McCallum
    (1950-05-02) May 2, 1950 (age 72)
February 1, 2001

January 6, 2003
(lost election)
Republican Succeeded from
Lieutenant
Governor
  Margaret A. Farrow
43
Jim Doyle (cropped).jpg
  Jim Doyle
    (1945-11-23) November 23, 1945 (age 76)
January 6, 2003

January 3, 2011
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 2002   Barbara Lawton
2006
44
Scott Walker by Gage Skidmore 4.jpg
  Scott Walker
    (1967-11-02) November 2, 1967 (age 54)
January 3, 2011

January 7, 2019
(lost election)
Republican 2010   Rebecca Kleefisch
2012
(special)
[r]
2014
45
Tony Evers - 2022 (crop).jpg
  Tony Evers
    (1951-11-05) November 5, 1951 (age 70)
January 7, 2019

Incumbent
[s]
Democratic 2018   Mandela Barnes

Other high offices held

This is a table of other governorships, congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions in foreign countries held by Wisconsin governors.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Governor Gubernatorial term Other offices held Source
Henry Dodge 1836–1841
1845–1848
U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, Delegate from Wisconsin Territory [19]
James Doty 1841–1844 Delegate from Wisconsin Territory, U.S. Representative from Wisconsin, Governor of Utah Territory [20]
Nathaniel Tallmadge 1844–1845 Senator from New York [21]
Arthur MacArthur, Sr. 1856 Justice of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia [22]
Coles Bashford 1856–1858 Delegate from Arizona Territory [23]
Alexander Randall 1858–1862 Minister to the Papal States; Postmaster General [24]
Lucius Fairchild 1866–1872 Minister to Spain [25]
Cadwallader Washburn 1872–1874 U.S. Representative from Wisconsin [26]
Jeremiah Rusk 1882–1889 U.S. Representative from Wisconsin, Secretary of Agriculture [27]
Robert La Follette, Sr. 1901–1906 U.S. Senator from Wisconsin*, U.S. Representative from Wisconsin [28]
John Blaine 1921–1927 U.S. Senator from Wisconsin [29]
Albert Schmedeman 1933–1935 Minister to Norway [30]
Vernon Thomson 1957–1959 U.S. Representative from Wisconsin [31]
Gaylord Nelson 1959–1963 U.S. Senator from Wisconsin [32]
John W. Reynolds, Jr. 1963–1965 District Judge for the Eastern District of Wisconsin [33]
Patrick Lucey 1971–1977 Ambassador to Mexico* [34]
Tommy Thompson 1987–2001 Secretary of Health and Human Services* [35]

Living former governors of Wisconsin

As of July 2022, there are six former governors of Wisconsin who are currently living at this time, the oldest governor of Wisconsin being Anthony S. Earl (served 1983–1987, born 1936). The most recent death of a former governor of Wisconsin was that of Patrick Lucey (served 1971–1977, born 1918) on May 10, 2014.[6] The most recently serving governor to die was Lee S. Dreyfus (served 1979–1983, born 1926) on January 2, 2008.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Martin J. Schreiber 1977–1979 (1939-04-08) April 8, 1939 (age 83)
Anthony S. Earl 1983–1987 (1936-04-12) April 12, 1936 (age 86)
Tommy Thompson 1987–2001 (1941-11-19) November 19, 1941 (age 80)
Scott McCallum 2001–2003 (1950-05-02) May 2, 1950 (age 72)
Jim Doyle 2003–2011 (1945-11-23) November 23, 1945 (age 76)
Scott Walker 2011–2019 (1967-11-02) November 2, 1967 (age 54)

Notes

  1. ^ Absent any other sources, it is assumed the governor left office when his successor was appointed.
  2. ^ When the State of Wisconsin was formed, part of Wisconsin Territory was not included in the state. This portion likely became unorganized territory; however, the Wisconsin territorial government continued to function there until the land was assigned to Minnesota Territory on March 3, 1849. Henry Dodge ceased to be territorial governor when he took his seat as a U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin on June 23, 1848. In the absence of a governor, John Catlin, as Secretary of Wisconsin Territory, acted as governor until the organization of Minnesota Territory.
  3. ^ When the State of Wisconsin was formed, part of Wisconsin Territory was not included in the state. This portion likely became unorganized territory; however, the Wisconsin territorial government continued to function there until the land was assigned to Minnesota Territory on March 3, 1849. Henry Dodge ceased to be territorial governor when he took his seat as a U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin on June 23, 1848. In the absence of a governor, John Catlin, as Secretary of Wisconsin Territory, acted as governor until the organization of Minnesota Territory.
  4. ^ Vacancies in the office of the lieutenant governor are only listed if they lasted for the entire term. For a full list of vacancies, see List of Lieutenant Governors of Wisconsin.
  5. ^ Died in office
  6. ^ Initially, Barstow was declared the winner of the 1855 election, but soon resigned amid claims that he had won through fraudulent means. MacArthur, as lieutenant governor, acted as governor for five days, until the Wisconsin Supreme Court declared Barstow's opponent, Bashford, the legitimate governor. Bashford completed the term, with MacArthur continuing to serve as lieutenant governor.
  7. ^ Died in office
  8. ^ During Rusk's first term, the Wisconsin Constitution was amended to say that all elections of state and county officers would henceforth take place in even-numbered years. By the provisions of the amendment, the terms of all officials who would have left office in 1884, including Rusk, were extended by one year.
  9. ^ Died in office
  10. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  11. ^ Died in office
  12. ^ Resigned to take an appointment to the state tax commission.
  13. ^ Loomis was elected in the 1942 election, but died before taking office. Per a ruling of the Wisconsin Supreme Court Goodland, who had been re-elected lieutenant governor in the same election, served as governor for the entire term.
  14. ^ Resigned to become Ambassador to Mexico.
  15. ^ As per a 1967 amendment to the Wisconsin Constitution, Lucey's first term was the first gubernatorial term to last 4 years.
  16. ^ Contemporary newspaper sources indicate that Dreyfus was sworn in on January 3; the Wisconsin Blue Book, however, states that he was sworn in on January 1.
  17. ^ Resigned to become United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.
  18. ^ Walker survived a recall election.
  19. ^ Evers' first term expires on January 2, 2023.

References

General
  • "Governors Database: Wisconsin". National Governors Association. National Governors Association. 2007. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  • Barish, Lawrence S., ed. (2009). Wisconsin Blue Book 2009–2010. Madison: Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau. ISBN 978-0-9752820-3-8.
Constitution
Specific
  1. ^ "Database: Wisconsin state employee salaries | Politics and Elections". Wisconsin State Journal. May 13, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 1
  3. ^ a b c Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 4
  4. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 10
  5. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 6
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Wisconsin Governors since 1848". State of Wisconsin Blue Book 2005–2006 (PDF). p. 724. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
  7. ^ Beck, J. D., ed. (1911). The blue book of the state of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: Democrat Printing Company. p. 512. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  8. ^ a b c "Significant Events in Wisconsin History". State of Wisconsin Blue Book 2005–2006 (PDF). p. 696. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  9. ^ "St. Clair, Arthur". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Government Printing Office. 2005. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  10. ^ Manual for the use of the assembly, of the state of Wisconsin, for the year 1853. Madison, Wisconsin: Brown and Carpenter, Printers. 1853. p. 74. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  11. ^ Butterfield, C.W. (1880). The history of Columbia County, Wisconsin. p. 49. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  12. ^ The History of Racine and Kenosha Counties, Wisconsin. Racine County, Wisconsin: Western Historical Company. 1879. pp. 54–56. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  13. ^ The History of Racine and Kenosha Counties, Wisconsin. Racine County, Wisconsin: Western Historical Company. 1879. pp. 54–56. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  14. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 7
  15. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 8
  16. ^ "Wisconsin Constitutional Officers; Lieutenant Governors". State of Wisconsin Blue Book 2005–2006 (PDF). p. 725. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
  17. ^ McCann, Dennis (December 10, 1998). "3 governors held office within weeks. Corruption charges helped spark power struggle, office turnover in 1856". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
  18. ^ "Inaugural Caps Dreyfus Miracle". Ironwood Daily Globe. Ironwood, Michigan. January 4, 1979. p. 3.
  19. ^ "Dodge, Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  20. ^ "Doty, James Duane". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  21. ^ "Tallmadge, Nathaniel Pitcher". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  22. ^ "Biographical Directory of Federal Judges". Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
  23. ^ "Bashford, Coles". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  24. ^ "Randall, Alexander Williams". Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  25. ^ "Former U.S. Ambassadors and Presidential Representatives to Spain". Spanish Embassy of the United States. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  26. ^ "Washburn, Cadwallader Colden". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  27. ^ "Rusk, Jeremiah McLain". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  28. ^ "La Follette, Robert Marion". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  29. ^ "Blaine, John James". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  30. ^ "Chiefs of Missions to Norway". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  31. ^ "Thomson, Vernon Wallace". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  32. ^ "Nelson, Gaylord". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  33. ^ "Biographical Directory of Federal Judges". Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on June 4, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
  34. ^ "Chiefs of Missions to Mexico". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  35. ^ "Historical Highlights". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 19 June 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2010.