Governor of Wisconsin
Gubernatorial seal
Incumbent
Tony Evers
since January 7, 2019
ResidenceWisconsin Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, no term limits
Inaugural holderNelson Dewey
FormationJune 7, 1848 (1848-06-07)
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Wisconsin
Salary$146,597.88[1]
Websitegovernor.wi.gov

The governor of Wisconsin is the head of government of Wisconsin[2] and the commander-in-chief of the state's army and air forces.[3] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws,[3] and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Wisconsin Legislature,[4] to convene the legislature,[3] and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[5]

44 individuals have held the office of governor of Wisconsin since the state's admission to the Union in 1848, one of whom—Philip La Follette—served non-consecutive terms. Nelson Dewey, the first governor, took office on June 7, 1848. The longest-serving governor was Tommy Thompson, who took office on January 5, 1987, and resigned on February 1, 2001, a total of 14 years and 28 days. Arthur MacArthur Sr. had the shortest term: he was governor for a total of just 5 days—from March 21 to 25, 1856.[6] The current governor is Tony Evers, a Democrat who took office on January 7, 2019.[6]

List of governors

Initially after the American Revolution, parts of the area now known as Wisconsin were claimed by Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut; however, Virginia ceded its claim in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786.[7] On July 13, 1787, the Northwest Territory, including the area now called Wisconsin, was formed; Wisconsin remained part of the territory until 1800.[8] The territorial governor during this period was Arthur St. Clair.[9] As parts of the Northwest Territory were admitted to the Union as states, Wisconsin became part of first the Indiana Territory (1800–1809), then the Illinois Territory (1809–1818), and then the Michigan Territory (1818–1836);[8] see the lists of governors of Indiana, of Illinois, and of Michigan for these periods.

Wisconsin Territory

Wisconsin Territory was formed on July 3, 1836. During the time of its existence, the Wisconsin Territory had three people appointed governor by the President of the United States, one of whom served non-consecutive terms.

When most of Wisconsin Territory was admitted as the state of Wisconsin, the remainder became unorganized territory. However, the citizens of the region maintained a territorial government, and even elected a delegate to the United States House of Representatives, essentially making it a de facto continuation of Wisconsin Territory.[10] As the region no longer had an official governor, Territorial Secretary John Catlin acted as governor of the region.[11]

Governors of the Territory of Wisconsin
No. Governor Term in office[a] Appointing President
1 Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man Henry Dodge
(1782–1867)
[12]
April 30, 1836[b]

September 13, 1841
(successor appointed)
Andrew Jackson
Martin Van Buren
2 Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man James Duane Doty
(1799–1865)
[16]
September 13, 1841[c]

June 15, 1844
(successor appointed)
John Tyler
3 Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man Nathaniel P. Tallmadge
(1795–1864)
[19]
June 15, 1844[d]

April 8, 1845
(successor appointed)
John Tyler
4 Portrait of a well-dressed nineteenth-century man Henry Dodge
(1782–1867)
[12]
April 8, 1845[e]

June 23, 1848
(statehood)
James K. Polk

State of Wisconsin

Wisconsin was admitted to the Union on May 29, 1848. Since then, it has had 45 governors, one of whom served non-consecutive terms.[6]

Originally, governors of Wisconsin served for two-year terms, but in 1967 the state constitution was amended to change this to four.[2] Jeremiah McLain Rusk served 1 3-year term in the 1880s as the constitution was amended during his first term to move elections from odd to even years, and all officers were allowed to serve an extra year, rather than have their terms cut a year short. Patrick Lucey, elected in the 1970 election, was the first governor to serve a 4-year term.[6] Governors of Wisconsin are not term limited.

The state constitution provides for the election of a lieutenant governor; originally, the governor and lieutenant governor were elected on different tickets, and thus were not necessarily of the same party. Since the 1967 amendment, however, the two have been nominated, and voted on, together.[2] Originally, if the office of the governor was vacant for any reason, "the powers and duties of the office . . . devolve[d] upon the lieutenant governor." In 1979, the constitution was amended to make this more specific: if the governor dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the lieutenant governor becomes governor, but becomes acting governor if the governor is absent from the state, impeached, or unable to carry out of duties.[23] If any of these events occur while the office of lieutenant governor is vacant, the secretary of state becomes either governor or acting governor.[24] Two Wisconsin governors have died while in office, one has died after being elected but before taking office, and four have resigned.[6]

Governors of the State of Wisconsin
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[f]
1   Nelson Dewey
(1813–1889)
[25][26]
June 7, 1848[27]

January 5, 1852
(did not run)
Democratic[28] 1848   John Edwin Holmes
1849 Samuel Beall
2 Leonard J. Farwell
(1819–1889)
[29][30]
January 5, 1852[31]

January 2, 1854
(did not run)[g]
Whig[28] 1851 Timothy Burns[h]
(died September 21, 1853)
Vacant
3 William A. Barstow
(1813–1865)
[32][33]
January 2, 1854[34]

March 21, 1856
(resigned)[i]
Democratic[28] 1853 James T. Lewis[j]
1855[i] Arthur MacArthur Sr.
4 Arthur MacArthur Sr.
(1815–1896)
[35][37]
March 21, 1856[38]

March 25, 1856
(removed from office)[i]
Democratic[28] Acting as governor
5 Coles Bashford
(1816–1878)
[36][39]
March 25, 1856[40]

January 4, 1858
(did not run)
Republican[28] Arthur MacArthur Sr.[h]
6 Alexander Randall
(1819–1872)
[41][42]
January 4, 1858[43]

January 6, 1862
(did not run)
Republican[28] 1857 Erasmus D. Campbell[h]
1859 Butler Noble
7 Louis P. Harvey
(1820–1862)
[44][45]
January 6, 1862[46]

April 19, 1862
(died in office)
Republican[28] 1861 Edward Salomon
8 Edward Salomon
(1828–1909)
[47][48]
April 19, 1862[49]

January 4, 1864
(lost nomination)[50]
Republican[28] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
9 James T. Lewis
(1819–1904)
[51][52]
January 4, 1864[53]

January 1, 1866
(did not run)
Republican[28] 1863 Wyman Spooner
10 Lucius Fairchild
(1831–1896)
[54][55]
January 1, 1866[56]

January 1, 1872
(did not run)
Republican[28] 1865
1867
1869 Thaddeus C. Pound
11 Cadwallader C. Washburn
(1818–1882)
[57][58]
January 1, 1872[59]

January 5, 1874
(lost election)
Republican[28] 1871 Milton Pettit
(died March 23, 1873)
Vacant
12 William Robert Taylor
(1820–1909)
[60][61]
January 5, 1874[62]

January 3, 1876
(lost election)
Reform[63] 1873 Charles D. Parker[h]
13 Harrison Ludington
(1812–1891)
[64][65]
January 3, 1876[66]

January 7, 1878
(did not run)[64]
Republican[28] 1875
14 William E. Smith
(1824–1883)
[67][68]
January 7, 1878[69]

January 2, 1882
(did not run)
Republican[28] 1877 James M. Bingham
1879
15 Jeremiah McLain Rusk
(1830–1893)
[70][71]
January 2, 1882[72]

January 7, 1889
(did not run)
Republican[28] 1881 Sam Fifield
1884
1886 George Washington Ryland
16 William D. Hoard
(1836–1918)
[73][74]
January 7, 1889[75]

January 5, 1891
(lost election)
Republican[28] 1888
17 George Wilbur Peck
(1840–1916)
[76][77]
January 5, 1891[78]

January 7, 1895
(lost election)
Democratic[28] 1890 Charles Jonas
(resigned April 4, 1894)
1892
Vacant
18 William H. Upham
(1841–1924)
[79][80]
January 7, 1895[81]

January 4, 1897
(did not run)[79]
Republican[28] 1894 Emil Baensch
19 Edward Scofield
(1842–1925)
[82][83]
January 4, 1897[84]

January 7, 1901
(did not run)
Republican[28] 1896
1898 Jesse Stone
(died May 11, 1902)
20 Robert M. La Follette
(1855–1925)
[85][86]
January 7, 1901[87]

January 1, 1906
(resigned)[k]
Republican[28] 1900
Vacant
1902 James O. Davidson
1904
21 James O. Davidson
(1854–1922)
[88][89]
January 1, 1906[90]

January 2, 1911
(did not run)
Republican[28] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1906 William D. Connor
1908 John Strange
22 Francis E. McGovern
(1866–1946)
[91][92]
January 2, 1911[93]

January 4, 1915
(did not run)[l]
Republican[28] 1910 Thomas Morris
1912
23 Emanuel L. Philipp
(1861–1925)
[94][95]
January 4, 1915[96]

January 3, 1921
(did not run)
Republican[28] 1914 Edward Dithmar
1916
1918
24 John J. Blaine
(1875–1934)
[97][98]
January 3, 1921[99]

January 3, 1927
(did not run)[m]
Republican[28] 1920 George Comings
1922
1924 Henry Huber
25 Fred R. Zimmerman
(1880–1954)
[100][101]
January 3, 1927[102]

January 7, 1929
(lost nomination)[100]
Republican[28] 1926
26 Walter J. Kohler Sr.
(1875–1940)
[103][104]
January 7, 1929[105]

January 5, 1931
(lost nomination)[103]
Republican[28] 1928
27 Philip La Follette
(1897–1965)
[106][107]
January 5, 1931[108]

January 2, 1933
(lost nomination)[n]
Republican[28] 1930
28 Albert G. Schmedeman
(1864–1946)
[109][110]
January 2, 1933[111]

January 7, 1935
(lost election)
Democratic[28] 1932 Thomas J. O'Malley[h]
(died May 27, 1936)
29 Philip La Follette
(1897–1965)
[106][107]
January 7, 1935[112]

January 2, 1939
(lost election)
Progressive[28] 1934
Vacant
1936 Henry Gunderson
(resigned October 16, 1937)
Vacant
Herman Ekern
(appointed May 16, 1938)
30 Julius P. Heil
(1876–1949)
[113][114]
January 2, 1939[115]

January 4, 1943
(lost election)
Republican[28] 1938 Walter Samuel Goodland[j]
1940
Orland Steen Loomis
(1893–1942)
[116]
Died before
taking office
Progressive[28] 1942[o]
31 Walter Samuel Goodland
(1862–1947)
[117][118]
January 4, 1943[119]

March 12, 1947
(died in office)
Republican[28] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1944 Oscar Rennebohm
1946
32 Oscar Rennebohm
(1889–1968)
[120][121]
March 12, 1947[122]

January 1, 1951
(did not run)[120]
Republican[28] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1948 George M. Smith
33
Walter Jodok Kohler, Jr. (4728499663).jpg
Walter J. Kohler Jr.
(1904–1976)
[123][124]
January 1, 1951[125]

January 7, 1957
(did not run)[123]
Republican[28] 1950
1952
1954 Warren P. Knowles
34 Vernon Wallace Thomson
(1905–1988)
[126][127]
January 7, 1957[128]

January 5, 1959
(lost election)
Republican[28] 1956
35 Gaylord Nelson
(1916–2005)
[129][130]
January 5, 1959[131]

January 7, 1963
(did not run)[129]
Democratic[28] 1958 Philleo Nash
1960 Warren P. Knowles[j]
36 John W. Reynolds Jr.
(1921–2002)
[132][133]
January 7, 1963[134]

January 4, 1965
(lost election)
Democratic[28] 1962 Jack B. Olson[j]
37 Warren P. Knowles
(1908–1993)
[135][136]
January 4, 1965[137]

January 4, 1971
(did not run)[135]
Republican[28] 1964 Patrick Lucey[h]
1966 Jack B. Olson
1968
38 Patrick Lucey
(1918–2014)
[138][139]
January 4, 1971[140]

July 6, 1977
(resigned)[p]
Democratic[28] 1970 Martin J. Schreiber
1974
39 Martin J. Schreiber
(b. 1939)
[141][142]
July 6, 1977[143]

January 3, 1979
(lost election)
Democratic[142] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
40 Lee S. Dreyfus
(1926–2008)
[144]
January 3, 1979[145]

January 3, 1983
(did not run)
Republican[144] 1978 Russell Olson
41 Tony Earl
(1936–2023)
[146]
January 3, 1983[147]

January 5, 1987
(lost election)
Democratic[146] 1982 James Flynn
42 Tommy Thompson
(b. 1941)
[148]
January 5, 1987[149]

February 1, 2001
(resigned)[q]
Republican[148] 1986 Scott McCallum
1990
1994
1998
43 Scott McCallum
(b. 1950)
[150]
February 1, 2001[151]

January 6, 2003
(lost election)
Republican[150] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
Margaret Farrow
(appointed May 9, 2001)
44 Jim Doyle
(b. 1945)
[152]
January 6, 2003[153]

January 3, 2011
(did not run)
Democratic[152] 2002 Barbara Lawton
2006
45 Scott Walker
(b. 1967)
[154]
January 3, 2011[155]

January 7, 2019
(lost election)
Republican[154] 2010 Rebecca Kleefisch
2012
(recall)
2014
46 Tony Evers
(b. 1951)
[156]
January 7, 2019[157]

Incumbent[r]
Democratic[156] 2018 Mandela Barnes
2022 Sara Rodriguez

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The range given is from the date the governor was confirmed by the Senate, or appointed by the President during a Senate recess, to the date the governor's successor was confirmed, unless noted.
  2. ^ Dodge was nominated[13] and confirmed by the Senate[14] on April 30, 1836. He was reconfirmed by the Senate on March 2, 1839.[15]
  3. ^ Doty was appointed on April 15, 1841, during a Senate recess;[16] nominated on June 17;[17] and confirmed by the Senate on September 13.[18]
  4. ^ Tallmadge was nominated and confirmed by the Senate on June 15, 1844.[20]
  5. ^ Dodge was appointed on April 8, 1845, during a Senate recess;[12] nominated on December 23, 1846;[21] and confirmed by the Senate on February 3.[22]
  6. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  7. ^ A convention of Free Soilers and others nominated Farwell, but he declined.[29]
  8. ^ a b c d e f Represented the Democratic Party
  9. ^ a b c The 1855 election was very close, with Barstow initially named the winner by the Democratic state canvassing board, but irregularities were found and Republicans challenged it to the Supreme Court. Barstow resigned on March 21, before the Supreme Court could reach a decision.[32] Lieutenant Governor MacArthur then acted as governor, though there was uncertainty as to the legitimacy of his position; this was complicated further when the Supreme Court ruled on March 25 that Bashford was the winner. Bashford arrived at the capitol and, due to fears of violence, MacArthur did not resist.[35] The legislature recognized Bashford as governor on March 27.[36]
  10. ^ a b c d Represented the Republican Party
  11. ^ La Follette resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate for a term beginning March 4, 1905; he delayed his resignation for nine months.[28]
  12. ^ McGovern instead ran unsuccessfully for the United States Senate.[91]
  13. ^ Blaine was instead elected to the United States Senate.[97]
  14. ^ La Follette lost the Republican nomination to Walter J. Kohler Sr.[106]
  15. ^ Loomis was elected in the 1942 election, but died before taking office. Per a ruling of the Wisconsin Supreme Court, Goodland, who had been re-elected lieutenant governor in the same election, served as governor term.[117]
  16. ^ Lucey resigned, having been confirmed as United States Ambassador to Mexico.[138]
  17. ^ Thompson resigned, having been confirmed as United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.[148]
  18. ^ Evers' second term began on January 2, 2023, and will expire January 4, 2027.

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ Heynen, Nick (May 13, 2016). "Database: Wisconsin state employee salaries". Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 1
  3. ^ a b c Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 4
  4. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 10
  5. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 6
  6. ^ a b c d e "Wisconsin Governors since 1848". State of Wisconsin Blue Book 2005–2006 (PDF). p. 724. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
  7. ^ Beck, J. D., ed. (1911). The blue book of the state of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: Democrat Printing Company. p. 512. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  8. ^ a b "Significant Events in Wisconsin History". State of Wisconsin Blue Book 2005–2006 (PDF). p. 696. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  9. ^ "St. Clair, Arthur". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Government Printing Office. 2005. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  10. ^ Williams, J. Fletcher (1894). Henry Hastings Sibley: A Memoir. Minnesota Historical Society. pp. 277–281. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  11. ^ The History of Racine and Kenosha Counties, Wisconsin. Racine County, Wisconsin: Western Historical Company. 1879. pp. 54–56. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
  12. ^ a b c McMullin 1984, pp. 329–331.
  13. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 24th Cong., 1st sess., 535, accessed July 22, 2023.
  14. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 24th Cong., 1st sess., 536, accessed July 22, 2023.
  15. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 25th Cong., 3rd sess., 219, accessed July 22, 2023.
  16. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 331–333.
  17. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 27th Cong., 1st sess., 386, accessed July 22, 2023.
  18. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 27th Cong., 1st sess., 441, accessed July 22, 2023.
  19. ^ McMullin 1984, pp. 333–335.
  20. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 28th Cong., 1st sess., 343, accessed July 22, 2023.
  21. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 29th Cong., 1st sess., 10, accessed July 22, 2023.
  22. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 29th Cong., 1st sess., 41, accessed July 22, 2023.
  23. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 7
  24. ^ Wisconsin Constitution article V, § 8
  25. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1717–1718.
  26. ^ "Nelson Dewey". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  27. ^ Wisconsin Legislature. Journal of the Assembly. 1st sess., 26, accessed July 22, 2023
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Kallenbach 1977, pp. 636–637.
  29. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1718–1719.
  30. ^ "Leonard James Farwell". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  31. ^ "none". The Sheboygan Mercury. January 10, 1852. p. 2. Retrieved July 22, 2023. Our first Whig governor, Leonard J. Farwell, took the oath of office, administered by Chief Justice Whiton, at Madison, on Monday last...
  32. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1719–1720.
  33. ^ "William Augustus Barstow". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  34. ^ "Madison Correspondence". Daily Free Democrat. January 16, 1854. p. 2. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  35. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1720–1721.
  36. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1721–1723.
  37. ^ "Arthur MacArthur". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  38. ^ "Barstow Resigned - The Fraud Confessed". Daily Free Democrat. March 21, 1856. p. 2. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  39. ^ "Coles Bashford". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  40. ^ "Message of Governor Coles Bashford". The Telegraph-Courier. March 27, 1856. p. 3. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  41. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1723–1724.
  42. ^ "Alexander Williams Randall". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  43. ^ "The Inauguration of the New State Officers". Wisconsin State Journal. January 4, 1858. p. 2. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  44. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1724–1725.
  45. ^ "Louis Powell Harvey". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  46. ^ "The Inauguration Ceremonies". Wisconsin State Journal. January 6, 1862. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  47. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1725–1726.
  48. ^ "Edward Salomon". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  49. ^ "Proclamation". Wisconsin State Journal. April 22, 1862. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  50. ^ "Republican Union State Convention". The Telegraph-Courier. August 27, 1863. p. 2. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  51. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1727–1728.
  52. ^ "James Taylor Lewis". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  53. ^ "The New State Administration". Wisconsin State Journal. January 4, 1864. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  54. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1728–1729.
  55. ^ "Lucius Fairchild". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  56. ^ "Our New State Officers". Dodgeville Chronicle. January 4, 1866. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  57. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1729–1731.
  58. ^ "Cadwallader Colden Washburn". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  59. ^ "Change of State Administration - Inaugural Ceremonies". Wisconsin State Journal. January 2, 1872. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  60. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1731–1732.
  61. ^ "William R. Taylor". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  62. ^ "Out and In". Wisconsin State Journal. January 5, 1874. p. 4. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  63. ^ Glashan 1979, p. 340.
  64. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1732–1733.
  65. ^ "Harrison Ludington". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  66. ^ "Inauguration!". Wisconsin State Journal. January 3, 1876. p. 4. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  67. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1733–1734.
  68. ^ "William E. Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
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  70. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1734–1735.
  71. ^ "Jeremiah M. Rusk". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  72. ^ "Sworn In". Wisconsin State Journal. January 3, 1882. p. 4. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  73. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1736.
  74. ^ "William Dempster Hoard". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  75. ^ "The Old and New Administrations". Wisconsin State Journal. January 7, 1889. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  76. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1737.
  77. ^ "George W. Peck". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  78. ^ "All Nature Smiles". Wisconsin State Journal. January 5, 1891. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
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  82. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1739–1740.
  83. ^ "Edward Scofield". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  84. ^ "Scofield Sworn In". Portage Daily Democrat. January 4, 1897. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  85. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1740–1741.
  86. ^ "Robert M. La Follette". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  87. ^ "Inaugurated as Governor". The Journal Times. January 7, 1901. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  88. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1741–1742.
  89. ^ "James O. Davidson". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  90. ^ "Davidson Is Governor". The Journal Times. January 2, 1906. p. 7. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  91. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1742–1743.
  92. ^ "Francis E. McGovern". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  93. ^ "Inauguration Minus Fuss". Portage Daily Democrat. January 3, 1911. p. 2. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  94. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1743–1745.
  95. ^ "Emanuel L. Philipp". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  96. ^ "Thousands Witness Philipp Take Oath as Badger Governor". Janesville Daily Gazette. January 4, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  97. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1745–1746.
  98. ^ "John J. Blaine". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  99. ^ "Huge Throng Witnesses Ceremonies". The Capital Times. January 3, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  100. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1746–1747.
  101. ^ "Fred R. Zimmerman". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  102. ^ Griffiths, Bryn (January 3, 1927). "Five State Heads Take Oaths Today". The Capital Times. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  103. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1747–1748.
  104. ^ "Walter J. Kohler". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
  105. ^ "5,000 See Kohler Inaugurated". The Capital Times. January 7, 1929. p. 1. Retrieved July 23, 2023.
  106. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, pp. 1748–1749.
  107. ^ a b "Philip F. La Follette". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 22, 2023.
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