Menominee County
Menominee Indian Tribal Offices in Keshena, Wisconsin
Menominee Indian Tribal Offices in Keshena, Wisconsin
Map of Wisconsin highlighting Menominee County
Location within the U.S. state of Wisconsin
Map of the United States highlighting Wisconsin
Wisconsin's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 45°01′N 88°42′W / 45.02°N 88.7°W / 45.02; -88.7
Country United States
State Wisconsin
FoundedJuly 3, 1959
Named forMenominee tribe
SeatKeshena
Largest townMenominee
Area
 • Total365 sq mi (950 km2)
 • Land358 sq mi (930 km2)
 • Water7.4 sq mi (19 km2)  2.0%%
Population
 • Total4,255
 • Density11.9/sq mi (4.6/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district8th
Websitewww.co.menominee.wi.us

Menominee County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2020 census, the population was 4,255,[1] making it the least populous county in Wisconsin. Its county seat is in the community of Keshena.[2]

Menominee is Wisconsin's newest county, having been created in 1959 after recognition of the Menominee tribe was terminated by federal law. In 1974, the tribe regained federal recognition and restoration of most of its reservation. Today Menominee County is essentially coterminous with the boundaries of the federally recognized Menominee Indian Reservation.

Menominee County is included in the Shawano, WI Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Green Bay-Shawano, WI Combined Statistical Area.

History

The county was created from the northeastern portion of 7 townships of Shawano County and the Western 3 townships of Oconto County on July 3, 1959, in anticipation of the termination of the Menominee Indian Reservation in 1961. The reservation status was restored in 1973, and is now co-extensive with the county.

Most of the land within the county boundary is under Federal trust for the exclusive use by enrolled members of the Menominee nation. Scattered parcels that were purchased during termination, as well as many lots around the Legend Lake area in the southeastern part of the county, are the only parts of the county that are privately owned by non-Native Americans. Most of Menominee County's population consists of members of the Menominee nation.[3]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 365 square miles (950 km2), of which 358 square miles (930 km2) is land and 7.4 square miles (19 km2) (2.0%) is water.[4] It is the second-smallest county in Wisconsin by total area.

Soils of Menominee County
Soils of Menominee County

Adjacent counties

Major highways

Buses

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
19702,607
19803,37329.4%
19903,89015.3%
20004,56217.3%
20104,232−7.2%
20204,2550.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[5]
1900–1990[6] 1990–2000[7]
2010[8] 2020[1]
2000 Census Age Pyramid for Menominee County
2000 Census Age Pyramid for Menominee County

2020 census

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Menominee County racial composition
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[9][10]
Race Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 447 483 10.56% 11.35%
Black or African American (NH) 19 2 0.45% 0.05%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 3,538 3,549 83.6% 83.41%
Asian (NH) 1 2 0.02% 0.05%
Pacific Islander (NH) 0 2 0.0% 0.05%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 49 81 1.16% 1.9%
Hispanic or Latino 178 136 4.21% 3.2%
Total 4,232 4,255

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 4,255 people, 1,400 households, and 1,064 families residing in the county. The population density was 11.9 inhabitants per square mile (4.6/km2). There were 2,145 housing units at an average density of 6.0 per square mile (2.3/km2). The racial makeup of the county (including Hispanics and Latinos) was 85.6% Native American, 11.8% White, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Ethnically, the population was 3.2% Hispanic or Latino of any race.[1]

2000 census

At the 2000 census there were 4,562 people, 1,345 households, and 1,065 families in the county. This total makes it the least-populated county in the state. The population density was 13 people per square mile (5/km2). There were 2,098 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile (2/km2). The racial makup of the county was 11.57% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 87.26% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.75% from two or more races. 2.67%.[11] were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 5.0% were of German ancestry. 89.8% spoke English, 7.0% Menominee and 1.6% Hmong as their first language. At over 80% of the county's population, Menominee County has the highest percentage of Native Americans in the state of Wisconsin by far.[12]

Of the 1,345 households 42.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.50% were married couples living together, 26.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.80% were non-families. 16.50% of households were one person and 6.40% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 3.35 and the average family size was 3.66.

The age distribution was 38.90% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 19.50% from 45 to 64, and 8.50% 65 or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males.

In 2017, there were 89 births, giving a general fertility rate of 115.9 births per 1000 women aged 15–44, the highest rate out of all 72 Wisconsin counties.[13]

Politics

Menominee County has voted strongly Democratic in every election since 1964. In every election since its creation, Menominee has been the most Democratic-leaning county in Wisconsin. It is one of only three counties in the entire nation that has never voted Republican, the others being Jim Hogg and Brooks counties in South Texas.

United States presidential election results for Menominee County, Wisconsin[14]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 278 17.48% 1,303 81.95% 9 0.57%
2016 267 20.41% 1,002 76.61% 39 2.98%
2012 179 13.00% 1,191 86.49% 7 0.51%
2008 185 12.78% 1,257 86.81% 6 0.41%
2004 288 16.84% 1,412 82.57% 10 0.58%
2000 225 18.25% 949 76.97% 59 4.79%
1996 230 17.04% 992 73.48% 128 9.48%
1992 244 21.03% 691 59.57% 225 19.40%
1988 381 26.89% 1,028 72.55% 8 0.56%
1984 392 31.84% 832 67.59% 7 0.57%
1980 302 32.26% 544 58.12% 90 9.62%
1976 324 28.88% 766 68.27% 32 2.85%
1972 355 36.37% 608 62.30% 13 1.33%
1968 179 24.19% 531 71.76% 30 4.05%
1964 78 10.74% 647 89.12% 1 0.14%


Communities

Entrance sign on WIS 47
Entrance sign on WIS 47
Woods occupy most of Menominee County.
Woods occupy most of Menominee County.

Menominee County is one of only two counties in Wisconsin with no incorporated communities, the other being Florence County.

Town

Census-designated places

Ghost town/neighborhood

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "2020 Decennial Census: Menominee County, Wisconsin". data.census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Paxton Hart. "The Making of Menominee County". Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 143, no. 3 (Spring 1960):181-189.
  4. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
  5. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
  6. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
  7. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
  8. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  9. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  10. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  12. ^ "Wisconsin American Indian and Alaska Native Population Percentage by County". www.indexmundi.com. Retrieved April 17, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ "Annual Wisconsin Birth and Infant Mortality Report, 2017 P-01161-19 (June 2019): Detailed Tables". Archived from the original on June 19, 2019. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  14. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved August 14, 2018.

Coordinates: 45°01′N 88°42′W / 45.02°N 88.70°W / 45.02; -88.70