These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including heads of states or of subnational entities.
A historical discipline, archontology, focuses on the study of past and current office holders.
Incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main article and "Politics of") and the list of national leaders, recent changes in 2020 in politics and government, and past leaders on State leaders by year and Colonial governors by year.
Various articles group lists by title, function or topic: e.g. abdication, assassinated persons, cabinet (government), chancellor, ex-monarchs (20th century), head of government, head of state, lieutenant governor, mayor, military commanders, minister (and ministers by portfolio below), order of precedence, peerage, president, prime minister, Reichstag participants (1792), secretary of state.
Main article: List of 21st-century religious leaders
For a more comprehensive list, see Lists of mayors by country.