President of the
Republic of Nicaragua
Presidente de la República de Nicaragua
Coat of arms of Nicaragua.svg
Coat of arms of Nicaragua
Daniel Ortega 2014 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Daniel Ortega

since 10 January 2007
StatusHead of State
Head of Government
ResidenceCasa Naranja
SeatManagua
Term lengthFive years
renewable
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Nicaragua
PrecursorSupreme Director of Nicaragua
Formation30 April 1854
First holderFruto Chamorro
DeputyVice President of Nicaragua
SalaryUS$3,193 per month[1][2]
WebsitePresident of Nicaragua

The president of Nicaragua (Spanish: Presidente de Nicaragua), officially known as the president of the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Nicaragua), is the head of state and head of government of Nicaragua. The office was created in the Constitution of 1854. From 1825 until the Constitution of 1839, the head of state of Nicaragua was styled simply as Head of State (Jefe de Estado), and from 1839 to 1854 as Supreme Director (Supremo Director).

The incumbent president, Daniel Ortega, has served as president since 2007.[3]

The presidential term was set at five years from 1985 to 1990, seven years from 1990 to 1997, and was reduced to five years again in 1997.

From 1990 to 2009, the president was barred from immediate reelection. An incumbent president could run again after waiting five years, but if successful would have to leave office for good at the end of his second, nonconsecutive term. However, in 2009, the Supreme Court ruled that the constitutional ban on immediate reelection was unenforceable.[4] In 2014, the legislature amended the constitution to allow the president to run for an unlimited number of five-year terms.[5]

Heads of state of Nicaragua

Heads of the state of Nicaragua within the Federal Republic of Central America (1822–1838)

Name Political party Dates in office Notes
Manuel Antonio de la Cerda Conservative Federalist 22 April 1825 – 22 April 1826 1st time, from León.
Juan Argüello Liberal Federalist 22 April 1826 – 14 September 1827 1st time, from León.
Pedro Benito Pineda Conservative Federalist 17 September 1826 – 26 February 1827 In rebellion, from Granada.
Manuel Antonio de la Cerda Conservative Federalist 27 February 1827 – 7 November 1828 In rebellion, 2nd time.
Pedro Oviedo Liberal Federalist 14 September 1827 – December 1827 Provisional, from Chinandega, León and Granada.
Liberal Juntas Liberal Federalist December 1827 – August 1828 From León and Granada.
Juan Argüello Liberal Federalist 5 August 1828 – November 1829 2nd time, from León.
Juan Espinosa Liberal Federalist 8 November 1829 – 10 May 1830 Acting.
Dionisio de Herrera Liberal Federalist 10 May 1830 – December, 1833
Benito Morales Legitimist December, 1833 – 10 March 1834 Acting.
José Núñez Legitimist 10 March 1834 – 23 April 1835
José Zepeda Liberal Federalist 23 April 1835 – 25 January 1837 Assassinated.
José Núñez Legitimist 25 January 1837 – 12 January 1838 2nd time, acting.
Francisco Jiménez Rubio Legitimist 12 January 1838 – 13 March 1838 Acting.
José Núñez Legitimist 13 March 1838 – 30 April 1838 3rd time.

Supreme directors (1838–1854)

Portrait Name Political party Dates in office Notes
No image.png
José Núñez Legitimist 30 April 1838 – 5 January 1839 First Transitional Government
Joaquin-Cosio.jpg
Joaquín del Cossío Legitimist ? 1839 – 15 May 1839 Second Transitional Government
No image.png
Evaristo Rocha Legitimist 5 January – 30 June 1839 Second Transitional Government, Acting
Patricio rivas.jpg
Patricio Rivas Democratic 30 June 1839 – 27 July 1839 Second Transitional Government, Acting
Joaquin-Cosio.jpg
Joaquín del Cossío Legitimist 27 July 1839 – 20 October 1839 Second Transitional Government
No image.png
Hilario Ulloa Legitimist 20 October 1839 – 7 November 1839 Acting
No image.png
Tomás Valladares Independent 7 November 1839 – 21 September 1840 Acting
Patricio rivas.jpg
Patricio Rivas Democratic 21 September 1840 – 4 March 1841 Acting
Pablo Buitrago Benavente 2.jpg
Pablo Buitrago Legitimist 4 March 1841 – 1 April 1843 1841 Nicaraguan Supreme Director Elections
No image.png
Juan de Dios Orozco Legitimist 1 April 1843 – 31 May 1843 Acting
No image.png
Manuel Pérez Democratic 31 May 1843 – 4 November 1844 Elected by Parliament, resigned due to Salvadoran Invasion
No image.png
Emiliano Madriz Democratic 4 November 1844 – 24 January 1845 Acting until 26 December, then Interim in León
No image.png
Silvestre Selva Legitimist 16 December 1844 – 20 January 1845 Appointed by invading forces of Francisco Malespín, in Masaya
No image.png
Blas Antonio Sáenz Legitimist 20 January – 4 April 1845 Provisional in Masaya until January 24, Acting until elections
Jose Leon Sandoval.jpg
José León Sandoval Republican 4 April 1845 – 12 March 1847 1845 Nicaraguan Supreme Director Elections
No image.png
Miguel Ramón Morales Legitimist 12 March – 6 April 1847 Acting
JoseMariaGuerrero.jpg
José María Guerrero Republican 6 April 1847 – 1 January 1849 Lost the 1847 Nicaraguan Supreme Director Elections, but Legislative Assembly appointed him unanimously
No image.png
Toribio Terán Legitimist 1 January – 8 March 1849 Acting
No image.png
Benito Rosales Legitimist 8 March – 1 April 1849 Acting
Amnistia 7 - Norberto Ramírez.jpg
Norberto Ramírez Legitimist 1 April 1849 – 1 April 1851 1849 Nicaraguan Supreme Director Elections
No image.png
Justo Abaunza Legitimist 1 April – 5 May 1851 Provisional Government in León. 1st time, Acting Senator.
JoseLaureanoPinedaUgarte.jpg
Laureano Pineda Democratic 5 May – 4 August 1851 1st time. Deposed by José Trinidad Muñoz military coup.
No image.png
Justo Abaunza Legitimist 4 August – 11 November 1851 2nd time. Acting senator under the authority of José Trinidad Muñoz, General in Chief, leader of the military coup.
JoseLaureanoPinedaUgarte.jpg
Laureano Pineda Democratic 5–11 August 1851 In dissent, 2nd time.
No image.png
José Francisco del Montenegro Legitimist 5–11 August 1851 Government in Granada, died after assuming command.
No image.png
José de Jesús Alfaro Democratic 11 August – 2 November 1851 In dissent. Government in Granada, Acting Senator.
Fulgencio Vega Santos 2.jpg
Fulgencio Vega Legitimist 11 November 1851 – 1852, Appointed by the Assembly with the support of: Fruto Chamorro Brigadier General, victorious against José Trinidad Muñoz.
JoseLaureanoPinedaUgarte.jpg
Laureano Pineda Democratic 11 November 1851 – 1 April 1853 In rebellion until 2 November 1851. 3rd time.
01 Fruto Chamorro Pérez 1854-1855.png
Fruto Chamorro Legitimist 1 April 1853 – 30 April 1854 Government in Granada.
Francisco castellon.png
Francisco Castellón Democratic 11 June 1854 – 2 September 1855 Provisional in rebellion, from León to 1 April 1855.
No image.png
Nazario Escoto Democratic 2 September – 30 October 1855 Provisional in rebellion, from León.

Presidents (1854–present)

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
(at time of election)
Election Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
1
Fruto Chamorro
Fruto Chamorro
(1804–1855)
30 April 185412 March 1855316 daysConservative[6]
José María Estrada
José María Estrada
(1802–1856)
Acting
12 March 185522 October 1855224 daysConservative[6]
Patricio Rivas
Patricio Rivas
(1810–1867)
Provisional
30 October 185524 June 1857224 daysDemocratic1856[6]
William Walker
William Walker
(1824–1860)
Usurper
12 July 18561 May 1857293 daysDemocratic[6]
Máximo Jerez and Tomás Martínez
Government Junta
Máximo Jerez and Tomás Martínez
24 June 185715 November 1857144 daysNonpartisan[6]
2
Tomás Martínez
Tomás Martínez
(1820–1873)
15 November 18571 March 18679 years, 106 daysConservative1857
1863
[6]
3
Fernando Guzmán Solórzano
Fernando Guzmán Solórzano
(1812–1891)
1 March 18671 March 18714 yearsConservative1867[6]
4
José Vicente Cuadra
José Vicente Cuadra
(1812–1894)
1 March 18711 March 18754 yearsConservative1871[6]
5
Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro
Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro
(1818–1890)
1 March 18751 March 18794 yearsConservative1875[6]
6
Joaquín Zavala
Joaquín Zavala
(1835–1906)
1 March 18791 March 18834 yearsConservative1879[6]
7
Adán Cárdenas
Adán Cárdenas
(1836–1916)
1 March 18831 March 18874 yearsConservative1883[6]
8
Evaristo Carazo
Evaristo Carazo
(1821–1889)
1 March 18871 August 18892 years, 153 daysConservative1887[6]
Nicolás Osorno
Nicolás Osorno
(?–?)
Acting
1 August 18895 August 18894 daysConservative
Roberto Sacasa
Roberto Sacasa
(1840–1896)
Acting
5 August 18891 January 18911 year, 149 daysConservative[6]
9
Ignacio Chaves López
Ignacio Chaves López
(1821–1889)
1 January 18911 March 189159 daysConservative
10
Roberto Sacasa
Roberto Sacasa
(1840–1896)
1 March 189111 July 18932 years, 132 daysConservative[6]
Salvador Machado
Salvador Machado
(1838–1925)
Acting
11 July 189315 July 18934 daysConservative
Joaquín Zavala
Joaquín Zavala
(1835–1906)
Acting
16 July 189325 July 18939 daysConservative[6]
11
José Santos Zelaya
José Santos Zelaya
(1853–1919)
25 July 189321 December 190916 years, 149 daysLiberal1902
1906
[6]
José Madriz
José Madriz
(1867–1911)
Acting
21 December 190920 August 1910242 daysLiberal[6]
José Dolores Estrada
José Dolores Estrada
(1869–1939)
Acting
20 August 191027 August 19107 daysLiberal
Luis Mena
Luis Mena
(1869–1939)
Acting
27 August 191030 August 19103 daysConservative
Juan José Estrada
Juan José Estrada
(1872–1967)
Acting
30 August 19109 May 1911252 daysLiberal[6]
12
Adolfo Díaz
Adolfo Díaz
(1875–1964)
9 May 19111 January 19175 years, 237 daysConservative1912
1914
[6]
13
Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
(1871–1966)
1 January 19171 January 19214 yearsConservative1916[6]
14
Diego Manuel Chamorro
Diego Manuel Chamorro
(1861–1923)
1 January 192112 October 1923 †2 years, 284 daysConservative1920[6]
Rosendo Chamorro
Rosendo Chamorro
(1861–1923)
Acting
12 October 192327 October 192315 daysConservative
15
Bartolomé Martínez
Bartolomé Martínez
(1873–1936)
27 October 19231 January 19251 year, 66 daysConservative[6]
16
Carlos José Solórzano
Carlos José Solórzano
(1860–1936)
1 January 192514 March 19261 year, 72 daysConservative1924[6]
(13)
Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
(1871–1966)
De facto
14 March 192611 November 1926242 daysConservative[6]
Sebastián Uriza
Sebastián Uriza
(1861–1926)
Acting
11 November 192614 November 19263 daysConservative
(12)
Adolfo Díaz
Adolfo Díaz
(1875–1964)
14 November 19261 January 19292 years, 293 daysConservative1926[6]
17
José María Moncada
José María Moncada
(1870–1945)
1 January 19291 January 19334 yearsLiberal1928[6]
18
Juan Bautista Sacasa
Juan Bautista Sacasa
(1874–1946)
1 January 19339 June 19363 years, 160 daysLiberal1932[6]
Carlos Alberto Brenes
Carlos Alberto Brenes
(1884–1942)
Acting
9 June 19361 January 1937206 daysPLN[6]
19
Anastasio Somoza García
Anastasio Somoza García
(1896–1956)
1 January 19371 May 194710 years, 120 daysPLN1936[6]
20
Leonardo Argüello Barreto
Leonardo Argüello Barreto
(1875–1947)
1 May 194726 May 194725 daysPLN1947 (Feb)[6]
Benjamín Lacayo Sacasa
Benjamín Lacayo Sacasa
(1893–1959)
Acting
26 May 194715 August 194781 daysPLN[6]
21
Víctor Manuel Román y Reyes
Víctor Manuel Román y Reyes
(1872–1950)
15 August 19476 May 195025 daysPLN1947 (Aug)[6]
Manuel Fernando Zurita
Manuel Fernando Zurita
(1893–1959)
Acting
6 May 19507 May 19501 dayPLN
(19)
Anastasio Somoza García
Anastasio Somoza García
(1896–1956)
7 May 195029 September 1956 †6 years, 145 daysPLN1950[6]
22
Luis Somoza Debayle
Luis Somoza Debayle
(1922–1967)
29 September 19561 May 19636 years, 214 daysPLN1957[6]
23
René Schick
René Schick
(1909–1966)
1 May 19633 August 1966 †3 years, 94 daysPLN1963[6]
Orlando Montenegro Medrano
Orlando Montenegro Medrano
(1920–1988)
Acting
3 August 19664 August 19661 dayPLN
24
Lorenzo Guerrero
Lorenzo Guerrero
(1900–1981)
4 August 19661 May 1967271 daysPLN[6]
25
Anastasio Somoza Debayle
Anastasio Somoza Debayle
(1925–1980)
1 May 19671 May 19725 yearsPLN1967[6]
Liberal-Conservative Junta
Liberal-Conservative Junta1 May 19721 December 19742 years, 214 daysNonpartisan
(25)
Anastasio Somoza Debayle
Anastasio Somoza Debayle
(1925–1980)
1 December 197417 July 19794 years, 228 daysPLN1974[6]
Francisco Urcuyo
Francisco Urcuyo
(1915–2001)
Acting
17 July 197918 July 19791 dayPLN[6]
Junta of National Reconstruction
Junta of National Reconstruction
(Coordinator: Daniel Ortega)
18 July 197910 January 19855 years, 176 daysNonpartisan
26
Daniel Ortega
Daniel Ortega
(born 1945)
10 January 198525 April 19905 years, 105 daysFSLN1984[6]
27
Violeta Chamorro
Violeta Chamorro
(born 1929)
25 April 199010 January 19976 years, 260 daysUNO1990[6]
28
Arnoldo Alemán
Arnoldo Alemán
(born 1946)
10 January 199710 January 20025 yearsPLC1996[6]
29
Enrique Bolaños
Enrique Bolaños
(1928–2021)
10 January 200210 January 20075 yearsPLC
APRE
2001[6]
(26)
Daniel Ortega
Daniel Ortega
(born 1945)
10 January 2007Incumbent15 years, 321 daysFSLN2006
2011
2016
2021

Latest election

Main article: 2021 Nicaraguan general election

CandidatePartyVotes%
Daniel OrtegaSandinista National Liberation Front2,093,83475.87
Walter EspinozaConstitutionalist Liberal Party395,40614.33
Guillermo OsornoNicaraguan Party of the Christian Path89,8533.26
Marcelo MontielNicaraguan Liberal Alliance85,7113.11
Gerson GutiérrezAlliance for the Republic48,4291.75
Mauricio OruéIndependent Liberal Party46,5101.69
Total2,759,743100.00
Valid votes2,759,74394.47
Invalid/blank votes161,6875.53
Total votes2,921,430100.00
Registered voters/turnout4,476,60165.26
Source: CSE, adam-carr

See also

References

  1. ^ "Shocking Gap Between Latin America's Presidential Salaries snd Workers Minimum Wage". Latin Post. 22 June 2017.
  2. ^ "Proponen reducir salario de otros cargos públicos nicaragüenses – LVDS". La Voz del Sandinismo (in Spanish). 26 January 2007.
  3. ^ "Nicaragua's Ortega takes office", BBC News, 11 January 2007.
  4. ^ "Nicaragua court backs re-election". BBC News. 20 October 2009.
  5. ^ "Nicaragua: Ortega allowed to run for third successive term". BBC News. 29 January 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq "Gobernantes de Nicaragua". Ministerio de Educación. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012.