Nicaragua population pyramid in 2020
Demographics of Nicaragua
Population 6,850,540 (2021 est.)[1][2]
Male population 2,839,168
Female population 2,836,188
Population growth 1.855%
Birth rate 18.9/1,000 (2020 est.)
Death rate 5.1/1,000 (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate 27.14/1,000
Life expectancy 70.92 years
Nationality Nicaraguan
Demographic bureaus INEC

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[1][2], Nicaragua has a population of 6,850,540.[1][2].According to a 2014 research published in the journal Genetics and Molecular Biology, European ancestry predominates in 69% of Nicaraguans, followed by African ancestry in 20%, and lastly indigenous ancestry in 11%.[3] A Japanese research of "Genomic Components in America's demography" demonstrated that, on average, the ancestry of Nicaraguans is 58–62% European, 28% Native American, and 14% African, with a very small Near Eastern contribution.[4] Non-genetic data from the CIA World Factbook establish that from Nicaragua's 2016 population of 5,966,798, around 69% are mestizo, 17% white, 5% Native American, and 9% black and other races.[5] This fluctuates with changes in migration patterns. The population is 58% urban as of 2013.[6]

Prior to the Sandinista revolution of 1979 since most of the migration during the years that followed were primarily of upper or middle-class Nicaraguans, a group primarily made up of whites. A growing number of these expats have returned, while many continue to live abroad.[7]

42.5% of the population lives below the poverty line.[8] The general poverty rate is estimated at 47.3%, although much of the population falls in the lower middle class due to low salaries and a low GDP (US$1000–3000).[9]

The most populous city in the country is the capital city, Managua, with a population of 1.2 million (2005). As of 2005, over 4.4 million inhabitants live in the Pacific, Central and North regions. 2.7 million inhabitants reside in the Pacific region alone, while inhabitants in the Caribbean region only reach an estimated 700,000.[10]

The Census Bureau in Nicaragua is the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC). The institution is in charge of completing censuses and surveys. INEC ran its first census in 1906, the last census was taken in 2005, it was the eighth to date.

Population

Nicaragua's total population, 2005. Number of inhabitants in thousands.

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[1][2] the total population was 6,850,540 in 2021, compared to only 1,295,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 34.5%, 60.9% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.6% was 65 years or older .[11]

Total population
(million)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 1 295 43.0 54.2 2.8
1955 1 508 45.2 52.1 2.7
1960 1 775 47.4 50.0 2.5
1965 2 063 49.2 48.3 2.5
1970 2 400 48.1 49.4 2.5
1975 2 798 47.1 50.2 2.6
1980 3 250 47.1 50.1 2.7
1985 3 710 47.1 50.0 2.9
1990 4 138 46.0 50.9 3.2
1995 4 659 44.0 52.6 3.4
2000 5 069 39.7 56.6 3.8
2005 5 439 36.2 59.6 4.2
2010 5 824 33.3 62.2 4.5
2015 6 223 31.3 64.0 4.8
2020 6 625 29.5 64.8 5.7

Structure of the population

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2009):[12]
Age group Male Female Total %
Total 2 844 244 2 898 072 5 742 316 100
0-4 347 205 332 920 680 125 11.84
5-9 336 817 323 279 660 096 11.50
10-14 344 831 332 925 677 756 11.80
15-19 331 536 329 072 660 608 11.50
20-24 286 484 290 439 576 923 10.05
25-29 250 672 260 730 511 402 8.91
30-34 197 120 214 967 412 087 7.18
35-39 162 472 174 845 337 317 5.87
40-44 136 223 143 572 279 795 4.87
45-49 115 914 124 028 239 942 4.18
50-54 98 355 107 733 206 088 3.59
55-59 74 173 80 156 154 329 2.69
60-64 45 221 48 460 93 681 1.63
65-69 43 121 46 230 89 351 1.56
70-74 32 418 35 443 67 861 1.18
75-79 22 249 25 956 48 205 0.84
80+ 19 433 27 317 46 750 0.81
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 028 853 989 124 2 017 977 35.14
15-64 1 698 170 1 774 002 3 472 172 60.47
65+ 117 221 134 946 252 167 4.39
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2021): [13]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 3 288 408 3 375 956 6 664 364 100
0–4 335 249 320 686 655 935 9.84
5–9 343 583 328 904 672 487 10.09
10–14 337 314 323 968 661 282 9.92
15–19 313 019 301 775 614 794 9.23
20–24 304 662 297 089 601 751 9.03
25–29 296 857 299 885 596 742 8.95
30–34 259 590 270 778 530 368 7.96
35–39 235 250 251 343 486 593 7.30
40–44 193 337 216 923 410 260 6.16
45–49 156 792 176 961 333 753 5.01
50–54 129 366 143 115 272 481 4.09
55–59 110 143 122 372 232 515 3.49
60–64 94 032 107 538 201 570 3.02
65-69 72 950 83 721 156 671 2.35
70-74 40 996 47 564 88 560 1.33
75-79 31 679 37 603 69 282 1.04
80+ 33 589 45 731 79 320 1.19
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 1 016 146 973 558 1 989 704 29.86
15–64 2 093 048 2 187 779 4 280 827 64.23
65+ 179 214 214 619 393 833 5.91

Population distribution

Ninety percent of Nicaraguans live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands. The population is 54% urban. The most populous city in Nicaragua is the capital city, Managua, with a population of 1.2 million (2005). As of 2005, over 4.4 million inhabitants live in the Pacific, Central and North regions of the country. There are 2.7 million residents in the Pacific region. The Caribbean region has an estimated 700,000 residents.[10] In addition, many Nicaraguans live abroad.

Departments by population

Rank City Department Pop. Rank City Department Pop.
1 Managua Managua 1,262,978 10 Estelí Estelí 201,548
2 Matagalpa Matagalpa 469,172 11 Granada Granada 168,186
3 Chinandega Chinandega 378,970 12 Jinotepe Carazo 166,073
4 León León 355,779 13 Rivas Rivas 156,283 Managua
5 Jinotega Jinotega 331,335 14 Juigalpa Chontales 153,932
Granada
6 Bilwi RAAN 314,130 15 Boaco Boaco 150,636
7 Bluefields RAAS 306,510 16 Somoto Madriz 132,459
8 Masaya Masaya 289,988 17 San Carlos Río San Juan 95,596
9 Ocotal Nueva Segovia 208,523 18 Total -- 5,142,098 (2005)
Source: National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC).[14]

[15]

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is in Nicaragua not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [11]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
for males
Life expectancy
for females
1950-1955 77 000 32 000 45 000 54.9 23.0 31.9 7.20 172 42.3 40.9 43.7
1955-1960 89 000 33 000 56 000 54.2 20.4 33.8 7.50 151 45.4 44.1 46.8
1960-1965 93 000 33 000 60 000 48.5 17.0 31.5 7.10 131 48.7 47.3 50.0
1965-1970 103 000 32 000 71 000 46.3 14.4 31.9 6.95 114 52.0 50.5 53.4
1970-1975 120 000 33 000 88 000 46.3 12.6 33.7 6.79 98 55.3 53.7 56.8
1975-1980 137 000 34 000 102 000 45.2 11.3 33.9 6.35 90 57.6 55.3 60.0
1980-1985 149 000 35 000 114 000 42.9 10.1 32.7 5.85 80 59.5 56.5 62.6
1985-1990 150 000 33 000 117 000 38.2 8.4 29.8 5.00 65 62.2 59.0 65.5
1990-1995 156 000 29 000 127 000 35.4 6.5 28.9 4.50 48 66.1 63.5 68.7
1995-2000 147 000 27 000 120 000 30.1 5.6 24.6 3.60 34 68.4 65.9 71.1
2000-2005 139 000 26 000 112 000 25.8 5.2 20.6 2.91 26 70.9 68.0 73.8
2005-2010 140 000 27 000 113 000 24.3 5.1 19.2 2.68 22 72.9 69.9 76.0
2010-2015 22.8 5.0 17.8 2.54
2015-2020 20.9 5.1 15.8 2.42
2020-2025 18.7 5.1 13.6 2.28
2025-2030 17.1 5.3 11.8 2.16
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and births

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[16]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1998 29 3,6 (2,5) 2,9 (2,0) 5,0 (3,3)
2001 27 3,2 (2,3) 24 2,6 (1,8) 31 4,4 (3,0)
2006-2007 2,7 2,2 3,5
2011/2012 2,4 2,1 2,9

Births and deaths [17] [18]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
1990 3,959,785
1991 4,058,434
1992 4,162,367
1993 4,268,685
1994 4,374,490
1995 4,476,881
1996 4,574,524
1997 4,669,352
1998 4,763,366
1999 4,858,570
2000 4,956,964
2001 5,058,643
2002 5,162,275
2003 5,267,714
2004 5,374,820
2005 5,483,447 121,380 16,770 104,610 22.1 3.1 19.0 2.94
2006 5,522,606 123,886 16,595 107,291 22.4 3.0 19.4
2007 5,595,541 128,171 17,288 110,883 22.9 3.1 19.8 2.509
2008 5,668,876 129,506 18,262 111,244 22.8 3.2 19.6 2.487
2009 5,742,310 132,222 18,179 114,043 23.0 3.2 19.8 2.492
2010 5,815,524 132,165 19,944 112,221 22.7 3.4 19.3 2.458
2011 5,996,619 140,958 19,523 121,435 23.5 3.3 20.2 2.541
2012 6,071,045 142,874 20,300 122,574 23.5 3.3 20.2 2.544
2013 6,134,270 142,756 21,381 121,375 23.3 3.5 19.8 2.526
2014 6,198,154 143,421 22,469 120,952 23.1 3.6 19.5 2.521
2015 6,262,703 144,597 23,540 121,057 23.1 3.8 19.3 2.524
2016 6,327,927 139,595 23,738 115,857 22.1 3.8 18.3 2.430
2017 6,393,824 139,487 24,300 115,187 21.8 3.8 18.0 2.421
2018 6,460,411 139,126 24,296 114,830 21.5 3.8 17.7 2.416
2019 6,527,691 131,673 25,340 106,333 20.1 3.9 16.2 2.284
2020 6,595,674 124,365 33,681 90,684 18.9 5.1 13.8 2.158
2021 120,473 34,999 85,474 17.5 5.0 12.5
2022 118,118

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups in Nicaragua % [19]

  Mestizo (69%)
  White (17%)
  Black (9%)

See also: Nicaraguans

An Afro-Nicaraguan.

According to the 2005 census 443,847 (8.6%) residents consider themselves to belong to an indigenous people or to an ethnic community.[20] The remaining majority of the Nicaraguan population (91.6%) are deemed mestizo and white, with the majority of these being of Spanish, with some German, Italian, Portuguese and French ancestry. Mestizos and whites mainly reside in the western region of the country.

Possibly also a part of the black or Afro-Nicaraguan population, which mainly resides on the country's sparsely populated Caribbean (or Atlantic) coast, is included in the majority population which does not consider itself to belong to an ethnic community. In the 2005 census, there were only 19,890 Creoles (0.4% of the total population). The Creole population is mostly of West Indian (Antillean) origin, the descendants of indentured laborers brought mostly from Jamaica when the region was a British protectorate.

Primarily in the 19th century, Nicaragua saw several waves of immigration from European nations. In particular the northern cities of Estelí, Jinotega and Matagalpa have significant populations of fourth generation Germans.

The Garifuna, a people of mixed Carib, Angolan, Congolese and Arawak descent, numbered 3,271 in 2005 (0.1%). 112,253 people considered themselves "Mestizo de la Costa Caribe" (mestizo of the Caribbean coast). In addition to the inhabitants who declared themselves Indigenous or Ethnic community, 13,740 answered "Other". Another 47,473 responded "Not Sure" and an additional 19,460 responded "Ignore".

Indigenous population

The Native American population, the unmixed descendants of the country's indigenous inhabitants, numbered 227,760 (4.4% of the total population) in 2005.[20] Nicaragua's pre-Columbian consisted of many indigenous groups. In the western region, the Nicarao people were present along with other groups such as the Mangue and Subtiaba, all three being considered Mesoamerican peoples.

The central region and the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua were mainly inhabited by speakers of Misumalpan languages and some speakers of Chibchan languages. These groups include the Miskitos (120,817 people), Matagalpa (15,240 people), Ramas (4,185 people), Sumos (9,756 people) and Ulwa (698 people).

In the 19th century, the indigenous population was more demographically significant, but they have since largely been culturally assimilated into the mestizo majority. In the mid-1980s, the government divided the department of Zelaya – consisting of the eastern half of the country — into two autonomous regions and granted the black and indigenous people of this region limited self-rule within the Republic.

Those belonging to recognized indigenous communities (2005)
Rama 4,185 0.9% Chorotega 46,002 10.4
Sumo 9,756 2.2% Miskito 120.817 27.2%
Ulwa 698 0.2% Matagalpa 15,240 3.4%
Subtiaba 19,949 4.5% Nahua 11,113 2.5

Immigration

Relative to its overall population, Nicaragua has never experienced any large scale wave of immigrants. The total number of immigrants to Nicaragua, both originating from other Latin American countries and all other countries, never surpassed 1% of its total population prior to 1995. The 2005 census showed the foreign-born population at 1.2%, having risen 0.06% in 10 years.[10] However, in the 19th century, Nicaragua received immigrants from Europe, who established many agricultural businesses such as coffee and sugar cane plantations, and also newspapers, hotels and banks.

The founding members of the Deutscher Club in Nicaragua, 1901

Emigration

During the Nicaraguan Revolution and the Civil War, thousands of Nicaraguans left the country. After the 1990 Nicaraguan Elections some people returned, but many more emigrated during the rest of the decade. In 1998, the Hurricane Mitch killed almost 4,000 people in the country and destroyed much of the Nicaraguan economy, as a result thousands of Nicaraguans received the TPS for emigrate to the United States as "refugees".[21] In recent years, many Nicaraguans had left the country to escape poverty and unemployment.

Nicaraguan emigration is a recent process. During the 1990–2004 period, more than 800,000 Nicaraguans left the country, compared to 100,000 during the 1970–1989 period.[22] According to the World Bank, in 2005 there were 683,520 Nicaraguans living outside Nicaragua legally. If those who are undocumented are counted, some sources estimate as many as 1,500,000 Nicaraguans living abroad by the end of 2005.[23] Nicaraguans are the third largest community of Central Americans living abroad, after Guatemalans and Salvadorans. Nicaragua is also the second country in Central America by percentage of population living abroad.

Remittances to Nicaragua represent about 15% of the country's GDP.[24] In 2008 Nicaragua received close to one billion dollars in remittances; an increase from the $750,000,000 received in 2007, according to the World Bank[25]

Language

Languages of Nicaragua
Language Speakers
Arabic 400
Chinese 7,000
English 20,334
Garífuna 1,500
Miskito 154,400
Sign language 3,000
Spanish 4,347,000
Sumo 6,700
Rama 24
Creole English 30,000
Source: Ethnologue[26]

Main article: Languages of Nicaragua

<div style="border:solid transparent;background-color:initial;position:absolute;width:100px;line-height:0;

Languages in Nicaragua%[19]

  Spanish (95.3%)
  Miskito (2.2%)
  Other (2.5%)

The official language of Nicaragua is Spanish, or Nicañol as Nicaraguan Spanish is sometimes referred to, and is spoken by the country's population. In Nicaragua the Voseo form is common, just as in other countries in Central and South America like Honduras, Argentina, and Uruguay. Spanish has many different dialects spoken throughout Latin America, Central American Spanish is the dialect spoken in Nicaragua.

Phonology

Some other characteristics of Nicaraguan phonology include:

Nicaraguans on the Caribbean coast speak their indigenous languages and also English. The indigenous peoples of the east who use their original language tend to also speak Spanish and/or English, the main languages being Miskito language, Sumo language, and Rama language. Creole languages are also present in the Caribbean coast, Nicaragua Creole English has 30,000 speakers.

Nicaragua has many minority groups. Many ethnic groups in Nicaragua, such as the Chinese Nicaraguans and Palestinian Nicaraguans, have maintained their ancestral languages while also speaking Spanish and/or English. Minority languages include Chinese, Arabic, German, Italian among others. Nicaragua also has a total of 3 extinct languages.[27]

Nicaraguan Sign Language is also of particular interest to linguists.

Religion

Main article: Religion in Nicaragua

Religious Affiliation in Nicaragua (census 2005 )[19]
Religion Percentage
Roman Catholic 58.5%
Evangelical 21.6%
Moravian 1.6%
Jehovah's Witnesses 0.9%
None 15.7%
Other1 1.6%
1 Includes Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism among other religions.
Source: 2005 Nicaraguan Census[19]

Religion is a significant part of the culture of Nicaragua and forms part of the constitution. Religious freedom, which has been guaranteed since 1939, and religious tolerance is promoted by both the Nicaraguan government and the constitution. Bishops are expected to lend their authority to important state occasions, and their pronouncements on national issues are closely followed. They can also be called upon to mediate between contending parties at moments of political crisis.[28]

Although Nicaragua has no official religion it is nominally Roman Catholic. Practicing Roman Catholics are no longer the majority and are declining while evangelical Protestant groups and Mormons are growing rapidly have been growing since the 1990s. There are also strong Anglican and Moravian communities on the Caribbean coast.

Roman Catholicism came to Nicaragua in the 16th century with the Spanish conquest and remained, until 1939, the established faith. Protestantism and various Christian sects came to Nicaragua during the 19th century, but only during the 20th century have Protestant denominations gained large followings in the Caribbean Coast of the country. Popular religion revolves around the saints, who are perceived as intermediaries between human beings and God.[28]

Most localities, from the capital of Managua to small rural communities, honor patron saints selected from the Roman Catholic calendar with annual fiestas. In many communities, a rich lore has grown up around the celebrations of patron saints, such as Managua's Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), honored in August with two colorful, often riotous, day-long processions through the city. The high point of Nicaragua's religious calendar for the masses is neither Christmas nor Easter, but La Purísima, a week of festivities in early December dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, during which elaborate altars to the Virgin Mary are constructed in homes and workplaces.[28]

Other demographic statistics

Demographic statistics according to the 2022 World Population Review.[29]

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[30]

Population

6,301,880 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5%

Age structure

Population piramid in 2020
0-14 years: 25.63% (male 811,731/female 777,984)
15-24 years: 19.51% (male 609,962/female 600,567)
25-54 years: 42.41% (male 1,254,683/female 1,376,052)
55-64 years: 6.63% (male 188,591/female 222,766)
65 years and over: 5.82% (2020 est.) (male 159,140/female 201,965)

Birth rate

16.52 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 97th

Death rate

5.17 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 191st

Median age

total: 27.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 148th
male: 26.4 years
female: 28.2 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.8 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 145th

Population growth rate

0.92% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 104th

Net migration rate

-2.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 170th

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.2 years (2011/12 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate

80.4% (2011/12)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.78 years. Country comparison to the world: 132nd
male: 72.56 years
female: 77.11 years (2022 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 59.6% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Education expenditures

3.4% of GDP (2019) Country comparison to the world: 132nd

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 82.6%
male: 82.4%
female: 82.8% (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 8.5%
male: 6.4%
female: 12.9% (2014 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5%; note - English and indigenous languages found on the Caribbean coast (2005 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 50%, Evangelical 33.2%, other 2.9%, none 0.7%, unspecified 13.2% (2017 est.)

See also

General:

References

  1. ^ a b c d "World Population Prospects 2022". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX) ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  3. ^ Mauro Salzano, Francisco; Sans, Mónica (2014). "Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations". Genetics and Molecular Biology. 37 (1 (suppl)): 151–170. doi:10.1590/s1415-47572014000200003. PMC 3983580. PMID 24764751.
  4. ^ "Genomic Components in America's demography". Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  5. ^ "Nicaragua". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency.
  6. ^ "Urban population (% of total)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  7. ^ "Sandinista | political and military organization, Nicaragua | Britannica". www.britannica.com.
  8. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  9. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo- INIDE de Nicaragua". Inide.gob.ni. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  10. ^ a b c "VIII Censo de Poblacion y IV de Vivienda" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (in Spanish). October 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
  11. ^ a b "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011.
  12. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  13. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2023-05-10.
  14. ^ "Nicaraguan 2005 Census" (PDF). INEC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  15. ^ "Worldbank, country Nicaragua, visited October 9, 2021".
  16. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  17. ^ "3. Live births, deaths, and infant deaths, latest available year (2002 - 2016)" (PDF). Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  18. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo - INIDE".
  19. ^ a b c d "Central America and Caribbean :: NICARAGUA". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  20. ^ a b "CAPÍTULO 1 : CENSO DE POBLACIÓN" (PDF). Inide.gob.ni. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  21. ^ "Knowledge of Immigrant Nationalities of Santa Clara County (KIN) - Nicaragua". Archived from the original on 2007-05-20. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
  22. ^ "La Prensa - Economia - los exiliados económicos". Archived from the original on 2008-06-04. Retrieved 2009-08-13.
  23. ^ "Nicaragüenses en el exterior divididos y rizo no renunciará". Lajornadanet.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  24. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  25. ^ "Nicaragua" (PDF). Siteresources.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  26. ^ "Languages of Nicaragua". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
  27. ^ "Nicaragua". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  28. ^ a b c Dennis, Gilbert. "Nicaragua: Religion". Country Studies. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
  29. ^ "Nicaragua Population 2022", World Population Review
  30. ^ "World Factbook CENTRAL AMERICA : Nicaragua", The World Factbook, 2022

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from The World Factbook. CIA.