The Chilean military junta, led by Augusto Pinochet in March 1986

A military junta (/ˈhʊntə, ˈʌntə/ ) is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term junta means "meeting" or "committee" and originated in the national and local junta organized by the Spanish resistance to Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808.[1] The term is now used to refer to an authoritarian form of government characterized by oligarchic military dictatorship, as distinguished from other categories of authoritarian rule, specifically strongman (autocratic military dictatorships); machine (oligarchic party dictatorships); and bossism (autocratic party dictatorships).[2]

A junta often comes to power as a result of a coup d'état.[1] The junta may either formally take power as the nation's governing body, with the power to rule by decree, or may wield power by exercising binding (but informal) control over a nominally civilian government.[3] These two forms of junta rule are sometimes called open rule and disguised rule.[4] Disguised rule may take the form of either civilianization or indirect rule.[4] Civilianization occurs when a junta publicly ends its obviously military features, but continues its dominance.[4] For example, the junta may terminate the martial law, forgo military uniforms in favor of civilian attire, "colonize" government with former military officers, and make use of political parties or mass organizations.[5] "Indirect rule" involves the junta's exertion of concealed, behind-the-scenes control over a civilian puppet.[4] Indirect rule by the military can include either broad control over the government or control over a narrower set of policy areas, such as military or national security matters.[4]

Throughout the 20th century, military juntas were frequently seen in Latin America, typically in the form of an "institutionalized, highly corporate/professional junta" headed by the commanding officers of the different military branches (army, navy, and air force), and sometimes joined by the head of the national police or other key bodies.[3] Political scientist Samuel Finer, writing in 1988, noted that juntas in Latin America tended to be smaller than juntas elsewhere; the median junta had 11 members, while Latin American juntas typically had three or four.[3] "Corporate" military coups have been distinguished from "factional" military coups. The former are carried out by the armed forces as an institution, led by senior commanders at the top of the military hierarchy, while the latter are carried out by a segment of the armed forces and are often led by mid-ranking officers.[3][6]

A 2014 study published in the Annual Review of Political Science journal found that military regimes behaved differently from both civilian dictatorships and autocratic military strongmen. Military regime is ruled by a group of high ranking officers, whereas military strongman is ruled by a single dictator.[7] The study found that (1) "strongmen and military regimes are more likely to commit human rights abuses and become embroiled in civil wars than are civilian dictatorships"; (2) "military strongmen start more international wars than either military regimes or civilian dictators, perhaps because they have more reason to fear postouster exile, prison, or assassination" and (3) military regimes and civilian dictatorships are more likely to end in democratization, in contrast to the rule of military strongmen, which more often ends by insurgency, popular uprising, or invasion.[7]

Current examples



Former examples






See also


  1. ^ Turkey is a part of both Europe and Asia
  1. ^ a b Junta, Encyclopædia Britannica (last updated 1998).
  2. ^ Lai, Brian; Slater, Dan (2006). "Institutions of the Offensive: Domestic Sources of Dispute Initiation in Authoritarian Regimes, 1950-1992". American Journal of Political Science. 50 (1): 113–126. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00173.x. JSTOR 3694260.
  3. ^ a b c d Paul Brooker, Non-Democratic Regimes (Palgrave Macmillan: 2d ed. 2009), pp. 148-150.
  4. ^ a b c d e Paul Brooker, Comparative Politics (ed. Daniele Caramani: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 101-102.
  5. ^ Brooker, Non-Democratic Regimes (2d ed.), p. 153.
  6. ^ David Kuehn, "Democratic Control of the Military" in Handbook of the Sociology of the Military (eds. Giuseppe Caforio & Marina Nuciari: Springer, 2nd ed.), p. 164.
  7. ^ a b Geddes, Barbara; Frantz, Erica; Wright, Joseph G. (2014). "Military Rule". Annual Review of Political Science. 17: 147–162. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-032211-213418.
  8. ^ Ramadane, Mahamat (2 October 2022). "Junta set to stay in power after Chad delays elections by two years". Reuters. N'Djamena. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  9. ^ Ahmed, Baba (2 January 2022). "Mali junta defies mediators with 5-year transition plan". Associated Press. Bamako. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  10. ^ Gavin, Michelle (8 April 2022). "Junta and Public at Odds in Sudan". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  11. ^ Jeffrey, Jack (23 October 2022). "Analysis: Year post-coup, cracks in Sudan's military junta". Associated Press. Cairo, Egypt. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  12. ^ "Mali: President Bah N'Daw decrees the dissolution of the CNSP". The Africa 2021-01-28. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  13. ^ "Fiji holds historic election after years of military rule - DW - 17.09.2014". Deutsche Welle.