Portrait of Robert Filmer, the first person to use the term stratocracy in English.[1]
Portrait of Robert Filmer, the first person to use the term stratocracy in English.[1]

A stratocracy (from στρατός, stratos, "army" and κράτος, kratos, "dominion", "power",[2] also stratiocracy[3][4][5]) is a form of government headed by military chiefs.[6] The branches of government are administered by military forces, the government is legal under the laws of the jurisdiction at issue, and is usually carried out by military workers.[7]

Description of stratocracy

The word stratocracy first appeared in 1652 from the political theorist Robert Filmer, being preceded in 1649 by stratokratia used by Claudius Salmasius in reference to the newly declared Commonwealth of England.[1][8] John Bouvier and Daniel Gleason describe a stratocracy as one where citizens with mandatory or voluntary military service, or veterans who have been honorably discharged, have the right to elect or govern. The military's administrative, judicial, and/or legislative powers are supported by law, the constitution, and the society.[6] It does not necessarily need to be autocratic or oligarchic by nature in order to preserve its right to rule. The political scientist Samuel Finer distinguished between stratocracy which was rule by the army and military regimes where the army did not rule but enforced the rule of the civil leaders.[9] Peter Lyon wrote that through history stratocracies have been relatively rare, and that in the latter half of the twentieth century there has been a noticeable increase in the number of stratocratic states due to the "rapid collapse of the West European thalassocracies".[8]

Notable examples of stratocracies

Modern stratocracies

Senior General Than Shwe who was the Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council from 1992 to 2011.
Senior General Than Shwe who was the Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council from 1992 to 2011.

The closest modern equivalent to a stratocracy, the State Peace and Development Council of Myanmar (Burma), which ruled from 1997 to 2011,[10] arguably differed from most other military dictatorships in that it completely abolished the civilian constitution and legislature.[11][12] A new constitution that came into effect in 2010 cemented the Tatmadaw's hold on power through mechanisms such as reserving 25% of the seats in the legislature for military personnel.[13] The civilian constitutional government was dissolved again in the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état, with power being transferred back to the Tatmadaw through the State Administration Council.[14]

The United Kingdom overseas territory, the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia on the island of Cyprus, provides another example of a stratocracy: British Forces Cyprus governs the territory, with Major-General Robert Thomson serving as administrator from 2019.[15] The territory is subject to unique laws different from both those of the United Kingdom and those of Cyprus.[16]

Historical stratocracies

Sparta

Structure of the Spartan Constitution
Structure of the Spartan Constitution

The Diarchy of Sparta was a stratocratic kingdom.[17] From a young age, male Spartans were put through the agoge, necessary for full-citizenship, which was a rigorous education and training program to prepare them to be warriors.[18] Aristotle describes the kingship at Sparta as "a kind of unlimited and perpetual generalship" (Pol. iii. 1285a), while Isocrates refers to the Spartans as "subject to an oligarchy at home, to a kingship on campaign" (iii. 24).[19]

Rome

One of the most distinguished and, perhaps, long-lived examples of a stratocratic state, is Ancient Rome, though the stratocratic system developed over time.[20] Following the disposition of the last Roman king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Rome became an oligarchic Republic.[21][22] However, with the gradual expansion of the empire and conflicts with its rival Carthage which eventually led to the Punic wars, the Roman political and military system experienced drastic changes.[23] Following the Marian reforms, de facto political power became concentrated under military leadership, as the loyalty of the legionaries shifted from the Senate to its generals.[24][25]

Through the First Triumvirate[26] this led to, following a series of civil wars, the formation of the Roman Empire, the head of which was acclaimed as "Imperator", previously an honorary title for distinguished military commanders.[25] Following the formation of the Empire, the Roman Army either approved of or acquiesced in the accession of an emperor, with the Praetorian Guard having a decisive role in the succession until Emperor Constantine abolished it.[27] Militarization of the Empire increased over time and emperors were increasingly beholden to their armies and fleets, yet how active emperors were in actually commanding in the field in military campaigns varied from emperor to emperor, even from dynasty to dynasty. The vital political importance of the army persisted up until the destruction of the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire with the fall of Constantinople in 1453.[28]

Cossacks

The Zaporizhian Cossack host in 1654 (against the backdrop of contemporary Ukraine)
The Zaporizhian Cossack host in 1654 (against the backdrop of contemporary Ukraine)

Cossacks were predominantly East Slavic people who became known as members of democratic, semi-military and semi-naval communities, predominantly located in Ukraine and in Southern Russia.[29] They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper,[30] Don, Terek, and Ural river basins, and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Russia and Ukraine.[31] The Zaporozhian Sich[32] was a Cossack semi-autonomous polity and proto-state[33] that existed between the 16th to 18th centuries, and existed as an independent stratocratic state as the Cossack Hetmanate for over a hundred years.[34][35][36]

Military frontier of the Habsburg monarchy

The Military Frontier was a borderland of the Habsburg monarchy (which became the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire).[37][38] The military frontier acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire. Located in the southern part of Hungarian crown land, the frontier and was separated from local jurisdiction and was under direct Viennese central military administration from the 1500s to 1872. Unlike the rest of the Catholic dominated territory of the empire, the frontier area had relatively freer religious laws in order to attract settlement into the area.[39][40][41]

States argued to be stratocratic

USA

President Dwight D. Eisenhower famously warned U.S. citizens about the "military–industrial complex" in his farewell address.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower famously warned U.S. citizens about the "military–industrial complex" in his farewell address.

The political scientist Harold Lasswell wrote in 1941 of his concerns that the world was moving towards "a world of 'garrison states'" with the United States of America being one of the countries moving in that direction.[17] This was supported by the historian Richard Kohn in 1975 commenting on the US's creation of a military state during its early independence, and the political scientist Samuel Fitch in 1985.[17] The historian Eric Hobsbawm has used the existence and power of the military-industrial complex in the US as evidence of it being a stratocratic state.[17] The expansion and prioritisation of the military during the administrations of Reagan and H. W. Bush have also been described as signs of stratocracy in the US.[42] The futurist Paul Saffo[43] and the researcher Robert Marzec[44] have argued that the post 9/11 projection of the United States was trending towards stratocracy.

USSR

The philosopher and economist Cornelius Castoriadis wrote in his 1980 text, Facing the War, that Russia had become the primary world military power. To sustain this, in the context of the visible economic inferiority of the Soviet Union in the civilian sector, he proposed that the society may no longer be dominated by the one-party state bureaucracy of the Communist Party but by a "stratocracy"[45][46] describing it as a separate and dominant military sector with expansionist designs on the world.[47][48] He further argued that this meant there was no internal class dynamic which could lead to social revolution within Russian society and that change could only occur through foreign intervention. Timothy Luke agreed that under the secretaryship of Mikhail Gorbachev this was the USSR moving towards a stratocratic state.[49]

African states

Gamal Abdel Nasser (right) and Mohamed Naguib (left) during celebrations marking the second anniversary of the 1952 revolution, July 1954
Gamal Abdel Nasser (right) and Mohamed Naguib (left) during celebrations marking the second anniversary of the 1952 revolution, July 1954

Various countries in post-colonial Africa have been described as stratocracies.[50][51][52] The Republic of Egypt under the leadership of Nasser was described by the political theorist P. J. Vatikiotis as a statocratic state.[53] George commented in a 1988 paper that the military dictatorship of Idi Amin in Uganda and the apartheid regime in South Africa should be considered stratocracies.[51] Various previous Nigerian governments have been described as stratocratic in research, including the government under Olusegun Obasanjo, and the Armed Forces Ruling Council lead by Ibrahim Babangida.[54][55][56][7] Under the 1978 constitution of eSwatini Sobhuza II appointed the Swazi army commander as the country's prime minister, and the second-in-command of the army as the head of the civil service board. This fusing of military and civil power continued in subsequent appointments, with many of the appointees viewing their civil roles as secondary to their military positions.[57] Ghana under Jerry Rawlings has also been described as being stratocratic in nature.[42] Karl Marx's term of barracks socialism was retermed by the political scientist Michel Martin in their description of socialist stratocracies in the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa, including specifically the People's Republic of Benin.[58][59] Martin also believes the praetorianism of francophone African republics can be called stratocratic, including the Côte d'Ivoire and the Central African Republic.[60]

Other

The French historian François Raguenet wrote in 1691 of the stratocracy of Oliver Cromwell in the Protectorate, and commented that he believed William III of England was seeking to revive the stratocracy in England.[61]

Prussia in the German Empire from 1871 to 1918
Prussia in the German Empire from 1871 to 1918

The Prussian military writer Georg Henirich von Berenhorst wrote in hindsight that ever since the reign of the soldier king, Prussia always remained "not a country with an army, but an army with a country" (a quote often misattributed to Voltaire and Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau).[62] It has been argued the subsequent dominance of the Kingdom of Prussia in the North German Confederation and German Empire and the expansive militarism in their administrations and policies, saw a continuance of the stratocratic Prussian government.[63]

British commentators such as Sir Richard Burton described the pre-Tanzimat Ottoman Empire as a stratocratic state.[64]

The Warlord Era of China is viewed as period of stratocratic struggles[65] with the researcher Peng Xiuliang pointing to the actions and policies of Wang Shizhen, a general and politician of the Republic of China, as an example of the stratocratic forces within the Chinese government of the time.[66]

Occupied Poland in World War I was put under the General-Militärgouvernementen (general military governments) of Germany and Austria-Hungary. This government was a stratocratic system where the military was responsible for the political administration of Poland.[67]

Fictional stratocracies

Stratocratic forms of government have been popular in fictional stories.[68]

A map of Amestris and its surrounding countries from Fullmetal Alchemist.
A map of Amestris and its surrounding countries from Fullmetal Alchemist.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Blackford, Paul W. (March 1956). "Stratocracy, a Seventeenth Century Greek Coinage". The Classical Journal. The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. 51 (6): 279–280. JSTOR 3292889.
  2. ^ Milojević, Jelisaveta (2010). "Neo-Classical Neological Formations in the English Language". Belgrade English Language and Literature Studies. 2 (1): 84. doi:10.18485/bells.2010.2.3. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021.
  3. ^ Kaplan, Mordecai (October 2016) [1940]. Scult, Mel (ed.). Communings of the Spirit, Volume II: The Journals of Mordecai M. Kaplan, 1934–1941. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 9780814341629.
  4. ^ A Pallas nagy lexikona (in Hungarian). Vol. 15. 1897.
  5. ^ Révai Nagy Lexikona (in Hungarian). Vol. 17. 1925. p. 755.
  6. ^ a b Bouvier, John; Gleason, Daniel A. (1999) [1851]. Institutes of American law. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-886363-80-9.
  7. ^ a b de Grazia 1970.
  8. ^ a b Lyon, Peter (January 1985). "Introduction: Back to the Barracks?". Third World Quarterly. Taylor & Francis. 7 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1080/01436598508419820. JSTOR 3992118.
  9. ^ Finer, Samuel (January 1985). "The Retreat to the Barracks: Notes on the Practice and the Theory of Military Withdrawal from the Seats of Power". Third World Quarterly. Taylor & Francis. 7 (1): 16–30. doi:10.1080/01436598508419821. JSTOR 3992119.
  10. ^ Oo, Shwe Yinn Mar; Lynn, Soe Than (4 April 2011). "Mission accomplished as SPDC 'dissolved'". Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  11. ^ "Myanmar: Government and society: Administrative framework". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  12. ^ Resource Information Center (17 September 1998). "Burma [Myanmar]: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)/ State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)/ National League for Democracy (NLD)/Burmese Dissidents". United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  13. ^ "Burma 'approves new constitution'". BBC News. 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 July 2008.
  14. ^ "Myanmar Leader Aung San Suu Kyi, Others Detained by Military". VOA. Archived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  15. ^ "No. 62784". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 October 2019. p. 17508.
  16. ^ The SBA Administration. "Sovereign Base Area - Court". sbaadministration.org. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  17. ^ a b c d Gouliamos, Kostas; Kassimeris, Christos (2012). "Stratocracy: The Growing Hypertrophy of the LifeWorld Militarization". In Gouliamos, Kostas; Kassimeris, Christos (eds.). The Marketing of War in the Age of Neo-Militarism. Routledge.
  18. ^ Harley, T. Rutherford (May 1934). The Public School of Sparta, Greece & Rome. Vol. 3. pp. 129–139.
  19. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainTod, Marcus Niebuhr (1911). "Sparta". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 609–14.
  20. ^ Eckstein, Arthur M. (2007). "Rome and Roman Militarism within the Anarchic Interstate System". In Eckstein, Arthur; Rajakaruna, Nishanta (eds.). Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War, and the Rise of Rome. University of California Press. pp. 181–243. doi:10.1525/california/9780520246188.003.0006. ISBN 9780520246188.
  21. ^ North, John (October 1990). "Politics and Aristocracy in the Roman Republic". Classical Philology. University of Chicago Press. 85 (4): 277–287. doi:10.1086/367213. JSTOR 269580. S2CID 153671867. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  22. ^ Mackay, Christopher S. (2014). The Breakdown of the Roman Republic: From Oligarchy To Empire. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107657021.
  23. ^ Coats, R. Morris; Pecquet, Gary M. (Spring 2013). "The calculus of conquests: the decline and fall of the returns to Roman expansion". The Independent Review. Independent Institute. 17 (4): 517–540. JSTOR 24563133.
  24. ^ Flower, Harriet I. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2.
  25. ^ a b Reid, Conor. "The Marian Reforms". Academia.
  26. ^ Launspach, Charles W. L. (1908). State and Family in Early Rome. London: George Bell And Sons. pp. xi. The Gabinian and Manilian Laws had rehearsed the stratocracy of the first Triumvirate; and after the renewed convulsions which followed Caesar's murder the world gladly found refuge in Octavians ordered despotism.
  27. ^ Andrews, Evan. "8 Things You May Not Know About the Praetorian Guard". HISTORY. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  28. ^ Kaegi, Walter Emil (1983). Army, Society and Religion in Byzantium: Byzantine Military Unrest 471-843. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert.
  29. ^ Lebedynsky, Iaroslav (September 2002). "Les Cosaques, de la société de guerriers à la caste militaire" [The Cossacks, from the society of warriors to the military caste] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  30. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. pp. 179–181.
  31. ^ O'Rourke, Shane (2000). Warriors and peasants: The Don Cossacks in late imperial Russia. ISBN 978-0-312-22774-6.
  32. ^ Mytsyk, Yu (2003). "Вольностi Вiйська Запорозького Низового" [Freedoms of the Zaporozhian Lowland Army]. Енциклопедія історії України [Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine] (in Ukrainian).
  33. ^ Essen, Michael Fredholm von (2018). Muscovy's Soldiers. The Emergence of the Russian Army 1462–1689. Warwick: Helion & Company. ISBN 978-1912390106.
  34. ^ Okinshevych, Lev; Zhukovsky, Arkadii (1989). "Hetman state". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Vol. 2. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  35. ^ Smoliy, Valeriy (1991). Українська козацька держава [The Ukrainian Cossack State] (PDF). Ukrainian Historical Journal (in Ukrainian) (4). ISSN 0130-5247. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  36. ^ Saltovskiy, Oleksandr (2002). "Концепції Української Державності в Історії Вітчизняної Політичної Думки (від витоків до початку XX сторіччя)" [Concepts of Ukrainian Statehood in the History of Domestic Political Thought (from its origins to the beginning of the XX century)]. litopys.org.ua (in Ukrainian). Kyiv. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  37. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1994) [1987]. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472082604.
  38. ^ Horvat, Rudolf (1906). Najnovije doba hrvatske povjesti [The latest era of Croatian history] (in Croatian). Matica hrvatska. (Wikisource)
  39. ^ Pálffy, Géza (2012). "The Habsburg Defense System in Hungary Against the Ottomans in the Sixteenth Century: A Catalyst of Military Development in Central Europe". In Davies, Brian (ed.). Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1500-1800. BRILL. ISBN 9789004221987.
  40. ^ Végh, Ferenc (2017). "Doprinos mađarske historiografije istraživanju "Vojne krajine" u ranom novom vijeku (16.-17. stoljeće)" [The Contribution of the Hungarian Historiography to the Research on the "Military Frontier" in the Early Modern Period (16th-17th Centuries)]. Academia (in Hungarian). University of Pécs Institute of History. p. 169. The Habsburg government in this way came to relatively cheap military force using the South Slavic (Croatian, Vlach, Serbian) grencers
  41. ^ Macartney, Carlile Aylmer, ed. (2017). Hungary: From Ninth Century Origins to the 1956 Uprising. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1138525542.
  42. ^ a b Okoampa-Ahoofe Jr., Kwame (4 August 2004). Sounds Of Sirens: Essays In African Politics & Culture. iUniverse. ISBN 9780595326785.
  43. ^ Saffo, Paul (3 January 2006). "A stratocracy in America's future?". Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  44. ^ Marzec, Robert P. (2009). "Militarialitys". The Global South. Indiana University Press. 3 (1): 139–149. doi:10.2979/GSO.2009.3.1.139. JSTOR 40339253. S2CID 246279338.
  45. ^ Castoriadis, Cornelius (February 1980). "Facing the War". Telos (46): 48.
  46. ^ Castoriadis, Cornelius (1981). "Vers la stratocratie" [Towards the stratocracy]. Le Débat (in French). 5 (12): 5–17. doi:10.3917/deba.012.0005.
  47. ^ Castoriadis, Cornelius (1981). Devant la guerre [In the face of war] (in French). Paris: Fayard. ISBN 9782213009605.
  48. ^ Frank, Richard I. (1982). "Review of Der magister officiorum in der Spätantike (4.-6. Jahrhundert). Das Amt und sein Einfluß auf die kaiserliche Politik by Manfred Clauss". Gnomon. Verlag C.H.Beck. 54 (8): 755–763. JSTOR 27688245.
  49. ^ Luke, Timothy W. (1987). "Civil Religion and Secularization: Ideological Revitalization in Post-Revolutionary Communist Systems". Sociological Forum. Springer. 2 (1): 108–134 (127). doi:10.1007/BF01107896. JSTOR 684530. S2CID 144281892. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  50. ^ Philip Ogochukwu Ujomu (19 May 2020). "Africa's Crisis of Social and Political Order and the Significance of Ubuntu Human Values for Peace and Development". Culture and Dialogue. Brill Publishers. 8 (1): 97–115. doi:10.1163/24683949-12340077. S2CID 219772170. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  51. ^ a b George, David (1988). "Distinguishing Classical Tyrannicide from Modern Terrorism". The Review of Politics. Cambridge University Press. 50 (3): 390–419. doi:10.1017/S0034670500036317. JSTOR 1407906. S2CID 146523905. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  52. ^ Christie, Ross (November 2004). 'Britain's Crisis of Confidence': How Whitehall Planned Britain's Retreat from the extra-European World, 1959-1968 (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Stirling. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  53. ^ Vatikiotis (1968); Anthony (1980); Barfi (2018); de Grazia (1970)
  54. ^ Akpeninor, James Ohwofasa (28 February 2013). Merger Politics of Nigeria and Surge of Sectarian Violence. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781467881715.
  55. ^ Ogunjimi, Bayo (1992). "The Herd Instinct and Class Literature in Nigeria Today". Issue: A Journal of Opinion. Cambridge University Press. 20 (2): 12–16. doi:10.2307/1166986. JSTOR 1166986.
  56. ^ Bangura, Yusuf (March 1991). Authoritarian Rule and Democracy in Africa: A Theoretical Discourse (PDF) (Report). United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  57. ^ Tshabalala, Jeffrey; Nhlengethwa, Cyprian; Rupiya, Martin (2005). "Caught between tradition and regional warfare: The Umbutfo Swaziland Defence Force since 1968". In Rupiya, Martin (ed.). Evolutions & Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa (PDF). Institute for Security Studies.
  58. ^ Martin, Michel Louis (1985). "The Rise and 'Thermidorianization' of Radical Praetorianism in Benin". Journal of Communist Studies. Taylor & Francis. 1 (3–4): 58–81. doi:10.1080/13523278508414782.
  59. ^ Markakis, John; Waller, Michael, eds. (1986). Military Marxist Regimes in Africa. Routledge. ISBN 9781138995871.
  60. ^ Martin, Michel Louis (2006). "Soldiers and Governments in Postpraetorian Africa: Cases in the Francophone Area". In Caforio, Giuseppe (ed.). Handbook of the Sociology of the Military. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-34576-5.
  61. ^ Levillain, Charles-Edouard (2007). "Cromwell Redivivus? William III as Military Dictator: Myth and Reality". In Mijers, Esther; Onnekink, David (eds.). Redefining William III: The Impact of the King-Stadholder in International Context (1 ed.). London: Routledge. p. 165. doi:10.4324/9781315604152. ISBN 9781315604152.
  62. ^ Georg Heinrich von Berenhorst (1845). Aus dem Nachlasse [From the estate] (in German). Dessau: Eduard von Bülow.
  63. ^ Stapleton, F.G. (September 2003). "'An Army with a State, not a State with an Army'". History Review (46). Archived from the original on 8 May 2021.
  64. ^ Burton, Richard Francis (1854). "Journey to Medina, with Route from Yambu". The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. Wiley on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). 24: 208–225. doi:10.2307/3698107. JSTOR 3698107.
  65. ^ Lin, Hsu-Ta (2005). Reflavored nostalgias: A history and ethnography of Taiwan's muted marginality, 1895–2004 (PhD). Princeton University Press.
  66. ^ Xiuliang, Peng (2013). A Biography of Wang Shizhen (in Chinese). Zhonghua Book Company.
  67. ^ Zoltán, Tefner (2016). "István Burián and the Settling of the Polish Issue during the First World War". Prague Papers on the History of International Relations (2): 82–103.
  68. ^ a b c d e f Olson 2020.
  69. ^ a b Grimes, Hannah (22 June 2021). "Fullmetal Alchemist: 10 Things You Need To Know About Amestris". cbr.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  70. ^ Isayama, Hajime (April 2016). "70". Attack on Titan. Kodansha Comics. pp. 1, 18–25.
  71. ^ Finger, Penina; Isgreen, Adam; Yeo, Erik (1997). Command & Conquer: Instruction Manual (PDF). Las Vegas, Nevada: Westwood Studios. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2021.
  72. ^ Stojsavljević, Rade; O'Miley, Ryan (1999). Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun: Operations Manual. Las Vegas, Nevada: Westwood Studios.
  73. ^ Heinlein, Robert A. (1959). Starship Troopers. G. P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-0450044496.
  74. ^ Salter, Alexander (11 August 2016). "The Political Economy of "Starship Troopers"". The Imaginative Conservative. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  75. ^ Allen, Natalie (2020). "Voting Rights in Starship Troopers and Early American History". Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University. Archived from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  76. ^ Childers, Juliet (9 November 2020). "Mass Effect: Everything You Didn't Know About Turians". thegamer. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  77. ^ Delgreco, Marina (19 November 2020). "A Deep Dive Into Mass Effect's Loyal and Dedicated Turian Alien Race". gamerant. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  78. ^ Kotono, Kato (2017). Altair: A Record of Battles. Vol. 1. ISBN 9784063731125.

Bibliography