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This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (February 2013) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Italian article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Italian Wikipedia article at [[:it:Repubblica direttoriale]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|it|Repubblica direttoriale)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

A directorial republic is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state and/or a head of government.

In political history, the term directory, in French directoire, is applied to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director. The most important of these by far was the Directory of 1795–1799 in France.[1] The system was inspired by the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, which prominently featured a collegial 12-member Supreme Executive Council with a primus inter pares President. Variants of this form of government, based on the French model, were also established in the European regions conquered by France during the French Revolutionary Wars.

In the past, Uruguay, Yugoslavia (after 1974), Ukraine (1918),[2] and other countries were ruled by directories. The government of the Soviet Union could in some ways be characterized as a directory.[citation needed]

One country now using this form of government is Switzerland[3] (and to a lesser extent, San Marino), where directories rule all levels of administration, federal, cantonal and municipal. The Swiss Federal Council is elected by the Federal Assembly for four years (its members cannot be dismissed), and is composed of seven members, among whom one is president and one is vice-president on a rotating basis, although these positions are symbolic in normal circumstances. There is no relationship of confidence between the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council. It is a shared system of government that reflects and represents the heterogeneity and multiethnicity of the Swiss people. Direct popular elections are used at the local level.


A directorial system is a system of government in which the executive power is split among a select number of individuals who are, or de facto are, equals. Some[who?] have argued that diarchies such as Andorra are directorial as executive power is held between more than one person.[citation needed] Israel's parliamentary system, a codified, streamlined variant of the Westminster System under which executive power is vested directly in the multi-person Cabinet (in contrast to the President acting on the advice of the Cabinet, as in a normal Westminster System) can be seen as semi-directorial.




See also


  1. ^ Directory (French history) at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ Directory (Ukrainian ruling body) at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ "Switzerland | History, Flag, Map, Capital, Population, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica.