United Provinces of Central Italy
Province Unite del Centro Italia (Italian)
Flag of the United provinces
Flag used in Tuscany
Top: Flag of the United Provinces
Bottom: Flag used in Tuscany
Coat of arms of United Provinces of Central Italy
Coat of arms
The United Provinces of Central Italy (green)
The United Provinces of Central Italy (green)
StatusClient state of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Common languages
GovernmentMilitary government
• King
Victor Emmanuel II
• Governor General
Carlo Bon Compagni di Mombello
• Appointed Regent
Eugenio Emanuele di Savoia-Carignano
Historical eraLate modern
• Revolution
8 December 1859
• Annexation
22 March 1860
CurrencySardinian lira, Tuscan florin
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Duchy of Parma and Piacenza
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Papal Legations
Kingdom of Sardinia
Today part ofItaly

The United Provinces of Central Italy (Italian: Province Unite del Centro Italia), also known as the Confederation of Central Italy or General Government of Central Italy, was a short-lived military government established by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. It was formed by a union of the former Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, and the Papal Legations, after the Second Italian War of Independence.

After August 1859, the pro-Piedmontese regimes of Tuscany, Parma, Modena and the Papal Legations agreed to several military treaties. On 7 November 1859, they elected Eugenio Emanuele di Savoia-Carignano [it] as their regent.

The peace of the Treaty of Zürich had left the question of the United Provinces unsettled.[1] This led to a period of negotiations and eventually to the Treaty of Turin during Napoleon III faced pressure from Austria through their ambassador Richard von Metternich to halt Sardinian expansion[2] and restore Ferdinand IV who had been deposed as Grand Duke of Tuscany and was a cousin of Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I.[2] The Austrians saw Savoia-Carignano, a member of the same dynasty as Victor Emmanuel II, as unacceptably likely to promote annexation by Sardinia.[3] At the urging of Napoleon III, Victor Emmanuel II refused to allow Savoia-Cariagnano to accept,[3] instead sending Carlo Bon Compagni[4] as the Governor General of Central Italy, who was responsible for the diplomatic and military affairs of the states.

On 8 December 1859, Parma, Modena and the Papal Legations were incorporated into the Royal Provinces of Emilia. After plebiscites were held during March 1860, and France was granted Nice and Savoy, the territory was annexed formally to Piedmont-Sardinia, as Bon Compagni resigned on 3 March 1860.

See also


  1. ^ Barker 1967, p. 49.
  2. ^ a b Barker 1967, p. 49–59.
  3. ^ a b Barker 1967, p. 58.
  4. ^ Barker 1967, p. 58–5 9.