Barghawata Confederacy
744–1058
Barghawata Confederacy (blue)
Barghawata Confederacy (blue)
Common languagesBerber (Lisan al-Gharbi)
Religion
Official : Islam-influenced Traditional Berber religion (adopted by 12 tribes)
Other : Islam (Khariji)(adopted by 17 tribes)
GovernmentMonarchy
Tribal confederacy
(29 tribes)
King 
• 744
Tarif al-Matghari
• 961
Abu Mansur Isa
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Established
744
• Disestablished
1058
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Umayyad Caliphate
Almoravid dynasty

The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a Berber tribal confederation on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy.[1] After allying with the Sufri Kharijite rebellion in Morocco against the Umayyad Caliphate, they established an independent state (AD 744-1058) in the area of Tamesna on the Atlantic coast between Safi and Salé under the leadership of Tarif al-Matghari.

Etymology

Some historians believe that the term Barghawata is a phonetic deformation of the term Barbati, a nickname which Tarif carried. It is thought that he was born in the area of Barbate, near Cádiz in Spain.[2] However, Jérôme Carcopino and other historians think the name is much older and the tribe is the same as that which the Romans called Baquates, who up until the 7th century lived near Volubilis.[3]

History

Western Eurasia and North Africa c. 800, showing the Barghawata in central Morocco
Western Eurasia and North Africa c. 800, showing the Barghawata in central Morocco

Few details are known about Barghawata. Most of the historical sources are largely posterior to their rule and often present a contradictory and confused historical context. However, one tradition appears more interesting. It comes from Córdoba in Spain and its author is the Large Prior of Barghawata and the Barghawata ambassador to Córdoba Abu Salih Zammur, around the middle of the 10th century. This tradition is regarded as most detailed concerning Barghwata.[4] It was reported by Al Bakri, Ibn Hazm and Ibn Khaldun, although their interpretations comprise some divergent points of view.

The Barghawatas, along with the Ghomara and the Miknasa, launched the Berber Revolt of 739 or 740. They were fired up by Sufri Kharijite preachers, a Muslim sect that embraced a doctrine representing total egalitarianism in opposition to the aristocracy of the Quraysh which had grown more pronounced under the Umayyad Caliphate. The rebels elected Maysara al-Matghari to lead their revolt, and successfully seized control of nearly all of what is now Morocco, inspiring further rebellions in the Maghreb and al-Andalus. At the Battle of Bagdoura, the rebels annihilated a particularly strong army dispatched by the Umayyad caliph from Syria. But the rebels army itself was eventually defeated in the outskirts Kairouan, Ifriqiya in 741. In the aftermath, the rebel alliance dissolved. Even before this denouement, the Barghawatas, as founders of the revolt, had grown resentful of the attempt by later adherents, notably the Zenata chieftains, in alliance with the increasingly authoritarian Sufri commissars, to take control of the leadership of the rebellion. As their primary objective – the liberation of their people from Umayyad rule – had already been achieved, and there was little prospect of it ever being re-imposed, the Barghwata saw little point in continued military campaigns. In 742 or 743, the Barghwata removed themselves from the rebel alliance, and retreated to the Tamesna region, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, where they founded their new independent state and abandoned their Sufri Kharijitism.

The Barghawatas ruled in the Tamesna region for more than three centuries (744–1058). Under the successors of Salih ibn Tarif, Ilyas ibn Salih (792-842); Yunus (842-888) and Abu Ghufail (888–913) the tribal kingdom was consolidated, and missions sent to neighbouring tribes. After initially good relations with the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba there was a break at the end of the 10th century. Two Umayyad incursions, as well as attacks by the Fatimids were fought off by the Barghawata. From the 11th century there was an intensive guerrilla war with the Banu Ifran. Even though the Barghawata were subsequently much weakened,[5] they were still able to fend off Almoravid attacks—the spiritual leader of the Almoravids, Abdallah ibn Yasin, fell in battle against them on 7 July 1058. Only in 1149 were the Barghawata eliminated by the Almohads as a political and religious group.[6]

Religion

After the conversion to Islam at the beginning of the 8th century and the Maysara uprising (739-742), the Barghawata Berbers formed their own state on the Atlantic coast between Safi and Salé.

The Barghawata kingdom followed a syncretic religion inspired by Islam with elements of Sunni, Shi'a and Kharijite Islam, mixed with astrological and traditional Berber mythology such as their taboo surrounding eating eggs and chickens, and the belief that the saliva of Salih and his family contained baraka, or, roughly translated, blessedness.[6] Supposedly, they had their own Qur'an in the Berber language comprising 80 suras under the leadership of the second ruler of the dynasty Salih ibn Tarif who had taken part in the Maysara uprising. He proclaimed himself a prophet.[7] He also claimed to be the final Mahdi, and that Isa (Jesus) would be his companion and pray behind him.

Tribes

The Barghawata confederacy was made of 29 tribes. 12 of these tribes adopted the Barghawata religion while 17 retained Islam.[8]

Barghawata religion (syncretic with Islam) tribes

Khariji Muslim tribes

Some constituent tribes, such as Branès, Matmata, Ifren and Trara, were fractions of much larger tribal groups, and only the Tamesna-based fractions joined the Barghawata Confederacy.

Barghawata kings

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Le Tourneau, R. (1986) [1960]. "Barg̲h̲awāṭa". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. I (2nd ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 1043. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_1231. ISBN 9004081143.
  2. ^ Tarif, el conquistador de Tarifa Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine by Enrique Gozalbes Cravioto - (in Spanish)
  3. ^ see e.g. this article originally published in Hesperis Archived April 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine and for a contrary view the reference by Mohammed Talbi cited above
  4. ^ Talbi (ref. cited above) believes, however, that it contains a certain amount of myth or propaganda
  5. ^ Al Bakri even states they were annihilated in 1029, although this is inconsistent with what he himself states elsewhere regarding their battles with the Almoravids
  6. ^ a b Le Tourneau, R. (1986) [1960]. "Barg̲h̲awāṭa". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. I (2nd ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 1044. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_1231. ISBN 9004081143.
  7. ^ a b Talbi (ref. cited above) notes that in fact there is no contemporary record of him being anything other than a Sufri Kharijite, and that it may have been a myth propagated by Yunus
  8. ^ "مركز أبي الحسن الأشعري للدراسات و البحوث العقدية". Archived from the original on 2014-11-26. Retrieved 2014-11-14.
  9. ^ Dates with question marks are calculated on the basis of a secondary source [1][permanent dead link]. Other info is from Ibn Khaldun.

Bibliography