Balochistan Agency
Agencies of British India (1877–1947)
Colony of the United Kingdom (1947)
1877–1947
Flag of Balochistan Agency
Flag

Administrative map of Baluchistan Agency 1931

Baluchistan Agency in British India 1940
CapitalQuetta
Area 
• 1941
347,064[1] km2 (134,002 sq mi)
Population 
• 1941
857,835[1]
History 
• Signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars
1877
• Balochistan Made Separate British Colony (British Balochistan)
1947
1947
Succeeded by
Balochistan, Pakistan
"A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds relating to India and neighbouring countries"

The Baluchistan Agency (also spelt Balochistan Agency) was one of the agencies of British India during the colonial era. It was located in the present-day Pakistani Balochistan province.[2]

Geography

The territories of the agency covered an area of 347,064 km2 (134,002 square miles)[1] and included areas which had been acquired by lease or otherwise brought under direct British control, as well as the princely states.

History

This political agency was established in 1877, following the 1876 treaty signed in Mastung by Baloch leaders by means of which they accepted the mediation of the British authorities in their disputes.[3]

Colonel Sir Robert Groves Sandeman introduced an innovative system of tribal pacification in Balochistan that was in effect from 1877 to 1947. However the Government of India generally opposed his Methods and refused to allow it to operate in India's North West Frontier. Historians have long debated its scope and effectiveness in the peaceful spread of Imperial influence.[4]

Demographics

Religion

Religion in Balochistan Agency (1901−1941)
Religious
group
1901[5]: 5  1911[6]: 9–13  1921[7]: 47–52  1931[8]: 149  1941[1]: 13–18 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 765,368 94.4% 782,648 93.76% 733,477 91.73% 798,093 91.88% 785,181 91.53%
Hinduism 38,158 4.71% 38,326 4.59% 51,348 6.42% 53,681 6.18% 54,394 6.34%
Sikhism 2,972 0.37% 8,390 1.01% 7,741 0.97% 8,425 0.97% 12,044 1.4%
Christianity 4,026 0.5% 5,085 0.61% 6,693 0.84% 8,059 0.93% 6,056 0.71%
Zoroastrianism 166 0.02% 170 0.02% 165 0.02% 167 0.02% 75 0.01%
Judaism 48 0.01% 57 0.01% 19 0% 17 0% 19 0%
Jainism 8 0% 10 0% 17 0% 17 0% 11 0%
Buddhism 0 0% 16 0% 160 0.02% 68 0.01% 43 0.01%
Others 0 0% 1 0% 5 0% 75 0.01% 12 0%
Total Population 810,746 100% 834,703 100% 799,625 100% 868,617 100% 857,835 100%

Districts

Religion in the Districts of Baluchistan Agency (1941)[1]: 18–20 
District Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others[a] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Sibi District 157,706 95.64% 6,425 3.9% 566 0.34% 200 0.12% 2 0% 164,899 100%
Administered Areas
99,875 93.53% 6,144 5.75% 566 0.53% 200 0.19% 2 0% 106,787 100%
Marri-Bugti Country
57,831 99.52% 281 0.48% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 58,112 100%
QuettaPishin District 113,288 72.49% 28,629 18.32% 8,787 5.62% 5,441 3.48% 144 0.09% 156,289 100%
Loralai District 79,273 94.73% 3,129 3.74% 1,124 1.34% 159 0.19% 0 0% 83,685 100%
Zhob District 55,987 91.04% 4,286 6.97% 1,076 1.75% 146 0.24% 4 0.01% 61,499 100%
Chaghai District 27,864 93.04% 1,204 4.02% 181 0.6% 1 0% 0 0% 29,950 100%
Bolan District 4,812 80.08% 950 15.81% 184 3.06% 55 0.92% 8 0.13% 6,009 100%
Total 438,980 87.51% 44,623 8.9% 11,918 2.38% 6,002 1.2% 158 0.03% 501,631 100%

Princely States

Religion in the Princely States of Baluchistan Agency (1941)[1]: 18–20 
Princely state Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others[a] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Kalat State 245,208 96.8% 7,971 3.15% 79 0.03% 45 0.02% 2 0% 253,305 100%
Makran Division
86,406 99.72% 206 0.24% 17 0.02% 20 0.02% 2 0% 86,651 100%
Kachhi Division
79,016 91.76% 7,095 8.24% 1 0% 0 0% 0 0% 86,112 100%
Jhalawan Division
52,194 99.85% 78 0.15% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 52,272 100%
Sarawan Division
27,592 97.6% 592 2.09% 61 0.22% 25 0.09% 0 0% 28,270 100%
Las Bela State 67,310 97.46% 1,701 2.46% 47 0.07% 9 0.01% 0 0% 69,067 100%
Kharan State 33,733 99.71% 99 0.29% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 33,832 100%
Total 346,251 97.21% 9,771 2.74% 126 0.04% 54 0.02% 2 0% 356,204 100%

Cities

Religion in the Cities of Baluchistan Agency (1941)[1]: 13–14 
City/Urban Area Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Others[a] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Quetta[b] 27,935 43.33% 24,010 37.24% 7,364 11.42% 5,024 7.79% 143 0.22% 64,476 100%
Fort Sandeman[b] 5,232 55.94% 2,992 31.99% 1,004 10.73% 111 1.19% 4 0.04% 9,353 100%
Sibi 5,505 62.18% 2,814 31.78% 362 4.09% 171 1.93% 2 0.02% 8,854 100%
Chaman[b] 2,812 42.29% 2,898 43.58% 697 10.48% 242 3.64% 1 0.02% 6,650 100%
Loralai[b] 2,327 45.67% 1,536 30.15% 1,116 21.9% 116 2.28% 0 0% 5,095 100%
Bela 3,389 86.79% 469 12.01% 47 1.2% 0 0% 0 0% 3,905 100%
Pasni 3,547 98.09% 69 1.91% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 3,616 100%
Mastung 2,963 94.36% 124 3.95% 28 0.89% 25 0.8% 0 0% 3,140 100%
Kalat 2,049 83.19% 381 15.47% 33 1.34% 0 0% 0 0% 2,463 100%
Machh 1,632 73.51% 421 18.96% 121 5.45% 38 1.71% 8 0.36% 2,220 100%
Usta 1,154 59.95% 688 35.74% 77 4% 6 0.31% 0 0% 1,925 100%
Pishin 1,245 65.87% 447 23.65% 183 9.68% 15 0.79% 0 0% 1,890 100%
Panjgur 416 87.95% 45 9.51% 9 1.9% 3 0.63% 0 0% 473 100%
Total
Urban
Population
60,206 52.78% 36,894 32.35% 11,041 9.68% 5,751 5.04% 158 0.14% 114,060 100%

Castes and tribes

Castes and Tribes of Baluchistan Agency (1931–1941)
Caste or
Tribe
1931[1]: 22  1941[1]: 22 
Pop. % Pop. %
Baluch 227,846 26.23% 237,526 27.69%
Pathan 193,025 22.22% 190,074 22.16%
Brahui 152,588 17.57% 128,336 14.96%
Jatt 77,157 8.88% 67,317 7.85%
Other Muslims 60,690 6.99% 68,032 7.93%
Lasi 31,812 3.66% 34,066 3.97%
Sayyid 21,976 2.53% 23,327 2.72%
Other Hindus 16,905 1.95% 12,765 1.49%
Other Sikhs 48 0.01% 51 0.01%
Others 86,570 9.97% 96,341 11.23%
Total 868,617 100% 857,835 100%

Princely states

The Baluchistan Agency consisted of three princely states:

The Government of India maintained its relations with the states through its political agent in Kalat. The first agent in Balochistan was Robert Groves Sandeman (1835-1892), Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India, who was appointed by Lord Lytton, the Viceroy of India.[3]

Administrative structure

Map of the Balochistan Agency with the princely states' territories in yellow.[9]

In addition to the princely states, the north of the agency was administered as the Chief Commissioner's Province. This consisted of the following districts:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Tribals, others, or not stated
  2. ^ a b c d Includes town and cantonment

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME XIV BALUCHISTAN". Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  2. ^ Administration report of the Balochistan Agency for 1888–89: selections from the records of the Government of India, Foreign Department. 104pgs.
  3. ^ a b "Balochistan Archives - Records of the Agent to the Governor General in Balochistan". Archived from the original on 2015-07-09. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  4. ^ Christian Tripodi, "'Good for one but not the other': The 'Sandeman System' of Pacification as Applied to Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier, 1877-1947." Journal of Military History 73#3 (2009): 767-802. online
  5. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1901 VOLUME V(A) BALUCHISTAN PART II IMPERIAL TABLES". Retrieved 22 January 2023.
  6. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1911 VOLUME IV BALUCHISTAN Part II TABLES". Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  7. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1921 VOLUME IV BALUCHISTAN Part I REPORT; Part II TABLES". Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  8. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1931 VOLUME IV BALUCHISTAN PARTS I & II". Retrieved 22 January 2023.
  9. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India (1907-1909)

29°01′33″N 66°35′24″E / 29.02583°N 66.59000°E / 29.02583; 66.59000