Balochistan Agency
Agency of India (1877–1947)
Colony of the United Kingdom (1947)
Baluchistan Agency 1931 Map.png

Baluchistan Agency
• 1941
347,064[1] km2 (134,002 sq mi)
• 1941
857,835 [1]
• Signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars
• Balochistan Made Separate British Colony (British Balochistan)
Succeeded by
Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province)
"A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds relating to India and neighbouring countries"

The Baluchistan Agency (also spelt Balochistan Agency) was one of agencies of India during the colonial era. It was located in the present-day Pakistani Balochistan province.[2]


The territories of the agency covered an area of 208,262 km2 (44,345 square miles)[dubious ] and included areas which had been acquired by lease or otherwise brought under direct British control, as well as the princely states.


This political agency was established in 1877, following the 1876 treaty signed in Mastung by Baloch leaders by means of which they accepted the mediation of the British authorities in their disputes.[3]

Colonel Sir Robert Groves Sandeman introduced an innovative system of tribal pacification in Balochistan that was in effect from 1877 to 1947. However the Government of India generally opposed his Methods and refused to allow it to operate in India's North West Frontier. Historians have long debated its scope and effectiveness in the peaceful spread of Imperial influence.[4]


Religion in Balochistan (1911 and 1941 census)
Religion Population (1911)[5] Percentage (1911) Population (1941)[1] Percentage (1941)
Star and Crescent.svg
782,648 93.76% 785,181 91.53%
38,326 4.59% 54,394 6.34%
8,390 1.01% 12,044 1.4%
Christian cross.svg
5,085 0.61% 6,056 0.71%
Zoroastrianism 170 0.02% N/A N/A
Judaism 57 0.01% N/A N/A
Buddhism 16 0% N/A N/A
Jainism 10 0% N/A N/A
Others 1 0% 160 0.02%
Total Population 834,703 100% 857,835 100%

Princely states

The Baluchistan Agency consisted of three princely states:

The Government of India maintained its relations with the states through its political agent in Kalat. The first agent in Balochistan was Robert Groves Sandeman (1835-1892), Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India, who was appointed by Lord Lytton, the Viceroy of India.[3]

Administrative structure

Map of the Balochistan Agency with the princely states' territories in yellow.[6]
Map of the Balochistan Agency with the princely states' territories in yellow.[6]

In addition to the princely states, the north of the agency was administered as the Chief Commissioner's Province. This consisted of the following districts:

See also


  1. ^ a b c "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME XIV BALUCHISTAN". Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  2. ^ Administration report of the Balochistan Agency for 1888–89: selections from the records of the Government of India, Foreign Department. 104pgs.
  3. ^ a b "Balochistan Archives - Records of the Agent to the Governor General in Balochistan". Archived from the original on 2015-07-09. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
  4. ^ Christian Tripodi, "'Good for one but not the other': The 'Sandeman System' of Pacification as Applied to Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier, 1877-1947." Journal of Military History 73#3 (2009): 767-802. online
  5. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1911 VOLUME IV BALUCHISTAN" (PDF). Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  6. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India (1907-1909)

Coordinates: 29°01′33″N 66°35′24″E / 29.02583°N 66.59000°E / 29.02583; 66.59000