Eyalet of Rumelia
|Status||Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire|
41°1′N 21°20′E / 41.017°N 21.333°ECoordinates: 41°1′N 21°20′E / 41.017°N 21.333°E
|1844||124,630 km2 (48,120 sq mi)|
The Eyalet of Rumeli, or Eyalet of Rumelia (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت روم ایلی, Eyālet-i Rūm-ėli), known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli until 1591, was a first-level province (beylerbeylik or eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia"). For most of its history, it was the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Filibe (Plovdiv), Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki). It was also among the oldest Ottoman eyalets, lasting more than 500 years with several territorial restructurings over the long course of its existence.
The capital was in Adrianople (Edirne), Sofia, and finally Monastir (Bitola). Its reported area in an 1862 almanac was 48,119 square miles (124,630 km2).
The first beylerbey of Rumelia was Lala Shahin Pasha, who was awarded the title by Sultan Murad I as a reward for his capture of Adrianople (Edirne) in the 1360s, and given military authority over the Ottoman territories in Europe, which he governed effectively as the Sultan's deputy while the Sultan returned to Anatolia. Also, Silistra Eyalet was formed in 1593.
From its foundation, the province of Rumelia—initially termed beylerbeylik or generically vilayet ("province"), only after 1591 was the term eyalet used—encompassed the entirety of the Ottoman Empire's European possessions, including the trans-Danubian conquests like Akkerman, until the creation of further eyalets in the 16th century, beginning with the Archipelago (1533), Budin (1541) and Bosnia (1580).
The first capital of Rumelia was probably Edirne (Adrianople), which was also, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottomans' capital city. It was followed by Sofia for a while and again by Edirne until 1520, when Sofia once more became the seat of the beylerbey. At the time, the beylerbey of Rumelia was the commander of the most important military force in the state in the form of the timariot sipahi cavalry, and his presence in the capital during this period made him a regular member of the Imperial Council (divan). For the same reason, powerful Grand Viziers like Mahmud Pasha Angelovic or Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha held the beylerbeylik in tandem with the grand vizierate.
In the 18th century, Monastir emerged as an alternate residence of the governor, and in 1836, it officially became the capital of the eyalet. At about the same time, the Tanzimat reforms, aimed at modernizing the Empire, split off the new eyalets of Üsküb, Yanya and Selanik and reduced the Rumelia Eyalet to a few provinces around Monastir. The rump eyalet survived until 1867, when, as part of the transition to the more uniform vilayet system, it became part of the Salonica Vilayet.
The governor of the Rumelia Eyalet was titled "Beylerbey of Rumelia" (Rumeli beylerbeyi) or "Vali of Rumelia" (Rumeli vali).
|Lala Shahin Pasha||the first beylerbey of Rumelia, the lala (tutor) of Murad I.[better source needed]|
|Timurtaş Bey||fl. 1385|
|Süleyman Çelebi||before 1411||son of Bayezid I|
|Mihaloğlu Mehmed Bey||1411|
|Sinan Pasha ( son of Albanian noble Bogdan Muzaka||1430|
|Ömer Bey||fl. 1453|
|Turahan Bey||before 1456|
|Mahmud Pasha||before 1456|
|Ahmed||after 1456|
|Hass Murad Pasha||c. 1469–1473|
|Hadım Süleyman Pasha||c. 1475|
|Davud Pasha the Albanian||c. 1478|
|Sinan Pasha the Albanian||c. 1481|
|Mesih Pasha||after 1481|
|Hasan Pasha||fl. 1514|
|Ahmed Pasha the Albanian||fl. 1521|
|Güzelce Kasım Pasha||c. 1527|
|Khusrow Pasha||June 1538–?|
|Ali Pasha||fl. 1546|
|Sokollu Mehmed Pasha||fl. 1551|
|Doğancı Mehmed Pasha|||
|Osman Yeğen Pasha||1687|
|Sari Ahmed Pasha||1714–1715|
|Topal Osman Pasha||1721–27, 1729–30, 1731|
|Hadji Mustafa Pasha||summer of 1797–?|
|Ahmed Kamil Pasazade Hakki Pasha|||
|Ali Pasha of Albanian descent||1793|
|Ali Pasha (2nd term)||1802)|
|Veli Pasha (son of Ali Pasha) 1804|
|Hurshid Pasha||fl. 1808|
|Köse Ahmed Zekeriya Pasha||1836–March 1840|
|Mehmed Dilaver Pasha||May–July 1840|
|Yusuf Muhlis Pasha Serezli||July 1840–February 1842|
|Yakub Pasha Kara Osmanzade|
|Mustafa Nuri Paşa, Sırkatibi|
|Mehmed Said Paşa, Mirza/Tatar|
|Mehmed Ziyaeddin Paşa, Mezarcızade|
|Ömer Paşa, Kızılhisarlı|
|Mehmed Ziyaeddin Paşa, Mezarcızade|
|Mehmed Emin Pasha|
|Mehmed Reşid Paşa, Boşnakzade|
|Ömer Paşa, Kızılhisarlı (2nd term)|
|Mehmed Hurshid Pasha Arnavud|
|Ahmed Nazır Paşa|
|İsmail Paşa, Çerkes|
|Abdülkerim Nadir Paşa, Çırpanlı|
|Ali Paşa, Hacı, Kütahyalı/Germiyanoğlu|
|Hüseyin Hüsnü Paşa|
|Mehmed Tevfik Paşa, Taşcızade|
A list dated to 1475 lists seventeen subordinate sanjakbeys, who controlled sub-provinces or sanjaks, which also functioned as military commands:
Another list, dating to the early reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566), lists the sanjakbeys of that period, in approximate order of importance.:
The Çingene, Müselleman-i Kirk Kilise and Voynuks were not territorial circumscriptions, but rather represented merely a sanjakbey appointed to control these scattered and often nomadic groups, and who acted as the commander of the military forces recruited among them. The Pasha-sanjak in this period comprised a wide area in western Macedonia, including the towns of Üskub (Skopje), Pirlipe (Prilep), Manastir (Bitola) and Kesriye (Kastoria).
A similar list compiled c. 1534 gives the same sanjaks, except for the absence of Sofia, Florina and Inebahti (among the provinces transferred to the new Archipelago Eyalet in 1533), and the addition of Selanik (Salonica).
In 1538 there are listed 29 liva (sanjaks) during the reign of Sultan Suleiman I.
Further sanjaks were removed with the progressive creation of new eyalets, and an official register c. 1644 records only fifteen sanjaks for the Rumelia Eyalet:
The administrative division of the beylerbeylik of Rumelia between 1700-1730 was as follows:
Sanjaks in the early 19th century:
According to the state yearbook (salname) of the year 1847, the reduced Rumelia Eyalet, centred at Manastir, encompassed also the sanjaks of Iskenderiyye (Scutari), Ohri (Ohrid) and Kesrye (Kastoria). In 1855, according to the French traveller A. Viquesnel, it comprised the sanjaks of Iskenderiyye, with 7 kazas or sub-provinces, Ohri with 8 kazas, Kesrye with 8 kazas and the pasha-sanjak of Manastir with 11 kazas.
Sjedište beglerbega Rumelije ...prvi namjesnik, Lala Šahin-paša,...