Jabrids Emirate
الإمارة الجبرية
1417–1524
Flag of Jabrids Emirate
Flag
Coat of arms of Jabrids Emirate
Coat of arms
Realm of the Jabrids during Ajwad bin Zamil's reign
Realm of the Jabrids during Ajwad bin Zamil's reign
Common languagesArabic
Religion
Islam, Sunni
GovernmentEmirate
• 1417-1463
Zamil bin Hussein bin Jabr (first)
• 1500s-1524
Ghossib bin Hilal (last)
Historical era15th-16th centuries
• Established
1417
• Disestablished
1524
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jarwanid Dynasty
Portuguese Empire
Al-Muntafiq
Lahsa Eyalet
Bani Khalid Emirate

The Jabrids (Arabic: الجبريون, romanizedal-Jabrīyūn) or Banu Jabr were an Arab dynasty that ruled all of Arabia except for Hejaz and Yemen, and expanded into Iran's southern coast, controlling the Strait of Hormuz[1][2]

Prominence

Their most prominent ruler was Ajwad ibn Zamil, who died in 1507. He was described by his contemporaries as having been "of Najdi origin." Ajwad's elder brother had earlier established the dynasty in the early 15th century by deposing and killing the last Jarwanid ruler in Qatif. At their height, the Jabrids controlled the entire Arabian coast on the Persian Gulf, including the islands of Bahrain, and regularly led expeditions into central Arabia and Oman. One contemporary scholar described Ajwad ibn Zamil as "the king of al-Ahsa and Qatif and the leader of the people of Najd." Following his death, his kingdom was divided among some of his descendants, with Migrin ibn Zamil (possibly his grandson) inheriting al-Hasa, Qatif, and Bahrain. Migrin fell in battle in Bahrain in a failed attempt to repel an invasion of Bahrain by the Portuguese in 1521.[3]

Fall

The Jabrid kingdom collapsed soon afterwards on the mainland, after an invasion of al-Hasa by Rashid Ibn Mughamis, the chief of Muntafiq Bedouins.[4] One branch of the Jabrids remained active in Oman, however, for nearly another three centuries. It is unknown for sure what became of the non-Omani Jabrids. Some believe they left to Iraq, while others believe they are identical with the Jubur section of the Banu Uqayl confederation, who took control of the region before the Jabrids by around 200 years.

See also

References

  1. ^ Al-Khalifa (2014-10-17). Bahrain Through The Ages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-14650-3.
  2. ^ Al-Juhany, Uwidah Metaireek (2002). Najd Before the Salafi Reform Movement: Social, Political and Religious Conditions During the Three Centuries Preceding the Rise of the Saudi State. Ithaca Press. ISBN 978-0-86372-401-5.
  3. ^ Floor, Willem M.; Hakimzadeh, Farhad (2007). The Hispano-Portuguese Empire and Its Contacts with Safavid Persia, the Kingdom of Hormuz and Yarubid Oman from 1489 to 1720: A Bibliography of Printed Publications, 1508-2007. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-1952-5.
  4. ^ Al-Juhany, Uwidah Metaireek (2002). Najd Before the Salafi Reform Movement: Social, Political and Religious Conditions During the Three Centuries Preceding the Rise of the Saudi State. Ithaca Press. ISBN 978-0-86372-401-5.