Portuguese Fortres of Dibba Al-Hisn (Doba) in the 17th century - Lyvro de Plantaformas e Fortalezas da India.
Purple - Portuguese in Persian Gulf in the 16th and 17th century. Main cities, ports and routes.
Dibba Al-Hisn (Arabic: دبا الحصن, white Dibba) is a pene-exclave of the emirate of Al-Sharjah, one of the seven United Arab Emirates. It is bordered by the Gulf of Oman from the East, Dibba Al-Baya (a province of Oman in Musandam) from the North, and Dibba Al-Fujairah from the South. It is also geographically part of the Dibba region. It is the smallest in size among the Dibbas. It is mostly known for its fish market and the ancient fortress from which it got its name. Also, it is known for its high density of population relative to the other Dibbas.
Dibba Al-Hisn has been an important site of maritime trade and settlement since the pre-Islamic era. Although there is slight information, mainly from tombs, of settlement during the later second millennium and early first millennium BCE, contemporary with such sites as Shimal, Tell Abraq and Rumeilah, and of scattered occupation during the period of al-Dur and Mileiha, most mention of Dibba is in the period just prior to and after the coming of Islam. Under the Sasanians and their Omani clients the Al-Juland, an important market existed at Dibba. Dibba was sometimes the capital of Oman. According to Ibn Habib, "merchants from Sindh, India, China, people of the East and West came to it."
(632 - 633 CE) Soon after the death of Muhammad, a rebellion broke out at Dibba, and a faction of the Azd, led by Laqit bin Malik, nicknamed ذو التاجThu at-Taj ("The Crowned"), rejected Islam by refusing to pay the Zakat — the Islamic principle of giving a percentage of one's income to charity. Since Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam, this faction committed an act of Ridda (apostasy), according to Islamic beliefs. Laqit was killed by an envoy of the caliph Abu Bakr, in accord with one tradition, in what may have been a relatively small struggle; however, other sources, including Al-Tabari, say that at least 10,000 rebels were killed in one of the biggest battles of the Ridda wars (حروب الردة). The plain behind the Omani part of Dibba, Dibba Al-Baya, still contains a large cemetery, which, according to local tradition, represents the fallen apostates of Dibba (المرتدينAl-Murtaddeen).
Dibba Al-Hisn is believed to be the site where the Portuguese during the Habsburg Dynasty built a fort and a wall around the city. In August 1648, the Arabs besieged Muscat, Oman, and on October 31, 1648, a treaty was signed between the two opponents. The terms required the Portuguese to build the fortress of Kuriyat, Dibba Al-Hisn and Matrah (Oman).
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List of rulers of Dibba
Under a Hakim
Sheikh Ahmad ibn Sultan al-Qasimi (1871–1883).
Sheikh Rashid ibn Ahmad al-Qasimi (1883–1937)
— with Sheikh Khalid II ibn Ahmad al-Qasimi (1903–1924)
September 10, 1974: Mohammad Khalifa Al Kindi signed a AED 52 million contract for the construction and surfacing of the road between Khor Fakkan and Dibba (the E99 road).
June 9, 1975: The Ministry of Communication in a memorandum asked the Supreme Council of the Federation for the authority to supervise transportation, the control of air space in all airports and all agreements made with airline companies in all the emirates. The Council of Ministers approved the construction of the highway between Dibba Al-Fujairah and Masafi at a cost of AED 94.5 Million.