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Labrador
Nickname(s): 
"The Big Land"
Motto(s): 
Latin: Munus splendidum mox explebitur, lit.'Our splendid task will soon be fulfilled'
Anthem: Ode to Labrador
Labrador (red) within Canada
Labrador (red) within Canada
Coordinates: 54°20′00″N 61°44′57″W / 54.33333°N 61.74917°W / 54.33333; -61.74917Coordinates: 54°20′00″N 61°44′57″W / 54.33333°N 61.74917°W / 54.33333; -61.74917
CountryCanada
ProvinceNewfoundland and Labrador
Founded1763
Area
 • Total294,330 km2 (113,640 sq mi)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total26,655
 • Density0.091/km2 (0.23/sq mi)
Time zonesUTC−4 (AST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−3 (ADT)
UTC−3:30 (NST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−2:30 (NDT)
MP1
MHA4
Ethnic groupsEnglish, Innu, Inuit, Métis

Labrador (/ˈlæbrədɔːr/ LAB-rə-dor) is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is the primarily continental portion of the province and constitutes 71% of the province's area but is home to only 6% of the province's population. It is separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada.

Labrador occupies most of the eastern part of the Labrador Peninsula. It is bordered to the west and the south by the Canadian province of Quebec. Labrador also shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut on Killiniq Island.

The aboriginal peoples of Labrador include the Northern Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Southern Inuit-Métis of NunatuKavut, and the Innu of Nitassinan.[1]

Etymology

Labrador is named after João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer who sailed along the coasts of the Peninsula in 1498–99.[2] Lavrador in Portuguese means 'farmer' (cognate with 'labourer').

Geography

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Map of Labrador.
Map of Labrador.

Labrador has a roughly triangular shape that encompasses the easternmost section of the Canadian Shield, a sweeping geographical region of thin soil and abundant mineral resources. Its western border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands that drain into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, while lands that drain into Hudson Bay are part of Quebec. Northern Labrador's climate is classified as polar, while Southern Labrador's climate is classified as subarctic.

Labrador can be divided into four geographical regions: the North Coast, Central Labrador, Western Labrador, and the South Coast. Each of those regions is described below.

North Coast

From Cape Chidley to Hamilton Inlet, the long, thin, northern tip of Labrador holds the Torngat Mountains, named after an Inuit spirit believed to inhabit them. The mountains stretch along the coast from Port Manvers to Cape Chidley, the northernmost point of Labrador. The Torngat Mountain range is also home to Mount Caubvick, the highest point in the province. This area is predominantly Inuit, with the exception of a small Innu community, Natuashish.[3][4][5][6][7] The North Coast is the most isolated region of Labrador, with snowmobiles, boats, and planes being the only modern modes of transportation. The largest community in this region is Nain.[8]

Nunatsiavut

Nunatsiavut is an Inuit self-government region in Labrador created on June 23, 2005.[9][10][11] The settlement area comprises the majority of Labrador's North Coast, while the land-use area also includes land farther to the interior and in Central Labrador. Nain is the administrative centre.

Icy Labrador coast and Kiglapait Mountains on the north coast of Labrador
Icy Labrador coast and Kiglapait Mountains on the north coast of Labrador

Central Labrador

Central Labrador extends from the shores of Lake Melville into the interior. It contains the Churchill River, the largest river in Labrador and one of the largest in Canada. The hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls is the second-largest underground power station in the world. Most of the supply is bought by Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract. The Lower Churchill Project will develop the remaining potential of the river and supply it to provincial consumers. Known as "the heart of the Big Land", the area's population comprises people from all groups and regions of Labrador.

Central Labrador is also home to Happy Valley – Goose Bay. Once a refuelling point for plane convoys to Europe during World War II, CFB Goose Bay is now operated as a NATO tactical flight training site.[12][13][14][15] It was an alternate landing zone for the United States' Space Shuttle. Other major communities in the area are North West River[16] and the large Innu reserve known as Sheshatshiu.[17]

Western Labrador

Open pit iron mine in Labrador West.
Open pit iron mine in Labrador West.

The highlands above the Churchill Falls were once an ancient hunting ground for the Innu First Nations and settled trappers of Labrador. After the construction of the hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls in 1970, the Smallwood Reservoir has flooded much of the old hunting land—submerging several grave sites and trapping cabins in the process.[18]

Western Labrador is also home to the Iron Ore Company of Canada, which operates a large iron ore mine in Labrador City. Together with the small community of Wabush, the two towns are known as "Labrador West".[19]

South Coast

NunatuKavut

From Hamilton Inlet to Cape St. Charles/St. Lewis, NunatuKavut is the territory of the NunatuKavummiut or Central-Southern Labrador Inuit (formerly known as the Labrador Métis).[20] It includes portions of Central and Western Labrador, but more NunatuKavummiut reside in its South Coast portion: it is peppered with tiny Inuit fishing communities, of which Cartwright is the largest.

The Labrador Straits

From Cape Charles to the Quebec/Labrador coastal border, the Straits is known for its Labrador sea grass (as is NunatuKavut) and the multitude of icebergs that pass by the coast via the Labrador Current.

Red Bay is known as one of the best examples of a preserved 16th-century Basque whaling station. It is also the location of four 16th-century Spanish galleons. The lighthouse at Point Amour is the second-largest lighthouse in Canada. MV Kamutik, a passenger ferry between the mainland and St. Barbe on the island of Newfoundland, is based in Blanc Sablon, Quebec, near the Labrador border.[21] L'Anse-au-Loup is the largest town on the Labrador Straits.[22] L'Anse-au-Clair is a small town on the Labrador side of the border.

Time zones of Labrador

Most of Labrador (from Cartwright north and west) uses Atlantic Time (UTC−4 in winter, UTC−3 in summer). The south eastern tip nearest Newfoundland uses Newfoundland Time (UTC−3:30 in winter, UTC−2:30 in summer) to stay co-ordinated with the more populous part of the province.

Climate of Labrador

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Further information: Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador

Most of Labrador has a subarctic climate (Dfc), but northern Labrador has a tundra climate (ET) and Happy Valley - Goose Bay has a humid continental (Dfb) microclimate. Summers are typically cool to mild across Labrador and very rainy, and usually last from late June to the end of August. Autumn is generally short, lasting only a couple of weeks and is typically cool and cloudy. Winters are long, cold, and extremely snowy, due to the Icelandic Low. Springtime most years does not arrive until late April, with the last snow fall usually falling during early June. Labrador is a very cloudy place, with sunshine levels staying relatively low during spring and summer due to the amount of rain and clouds, before sharply dropping off during September as winter draws nearer.

History

Innu making canoes ca. 1920
Innu making canoes ca. 1920

Early history

Model of Basque whale oil melting factory at Red Bay
Model of Basque whale oil melting factory at Red Bay

Early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais (or Innu) and Inuit, although these peoples also made significant forays throughout the interior.

It is believed that the Norsemen were the first Europeans to sight Labrador around 1000 AD. The area was known as Markland in Greenlandic Norse and its inhabitants were known as the Skræling.

In 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese explorers João Fernandes Lavrador and Pro de Barcelos reached what was probably now Labrador, which is believed to be the origin of its name.[23] Maggiolo's World Map, 1511, shows a solid Eurasian continent running from Scandinavia around the North Pole, including Asia's arctic coast, to Newfoundland-Labrador and Greenland. On the extreme northeast promontory of North America, Maggiolo place-names include Terra de los Ingres (Land of the English), and Terra de Lavorador de rey de portugall (Land of Lavrador of the King of Portugal). Further south, we notice Terra de corte real e de rey de portugall (Land of "Corte-Real" and of the King of Portugal) and terra de pescaria (Land for Fishing). In the 1532 Wolfenbüttel map, believed to be the work of Diogo Ribeiro, along the coast of Greenland, the following legend was added: As he who first sighted it was a farmer from the Azores Islands, this name remains attached to that country. This is believed to be João Fernandes. For the first seven decades or so of the sixteenth century, the name Labrador was sometimes also applied to what we know as Greenland.[24] Labrador ("lavrador" in Portuguese) means husbandman or farmer of a tract of land (from "labor" in Latin) – the land of the labourer. European settlement was largely concentrated in coastal communities, particularly those south of St. Lewis and Cape Charles, and are among Canada's oldest European settlements.

In 1542 Basque mariners came ashore at a natural harbour on the northeast coast of the Strait of Belle Isle. They gave this "new land" its Latin name Terranova. A whaling station was set up around the bay, which they called Butus and is now named Red Bay after the red terracotta roof tiles they brought with them. A whaling ship, the San Juan, sank there in 1565 and was raised in 1978.[25]

The Moravian Brethren of Herrnhut, Saxony, first came to the Labrador Coast in 1760 to minister to the migratory Inuit tribes there. They founded Nain, Okak, Hebron, Hopedale and Makkovik. Quite poor, both European and First Nations settlements along coastal Labrador came to benefit from cargo and relief vessels that were operated as part of the Grenfell Mission (see Wilfred Grenfell). Throughout the 20th century, coastal freighters and ferries operated initially by the Newfoundland Railway and later Canadian National Railway/CN Marine/Marine Atlantic became a critical lifeline for communities on the coast, which for the majority of that century did not have any road connection with the rest of North America.

Labrador was within New France mostly by 1748. However, the Treaty of Paris (1763) that ended the French and Indian War transferred New France (including Labrador though excluding the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon southwest of Newfoundland) to the British, which administered the area as the Province of Quebec until splitting it in two in 1791, with Labrador located in Lower Canada. However, in 1809 the British Imperial government detached Labrador from Lower Canada for transfer to the separate, self-governing Newfoundland Colony.

20th century

Further information: Newfoundland National Convention, 1948 Newfoundland referendums, and Canadian Confederation § Joining Confederation

As part of Newfoundland since 1809, Labrador was still being disputed by Quebec until the British resolved their border in 1927. In 1949, Newfoundland entered into confederation, becoming part of Canada (see above articles for full information).

Nain was established in 1771 by Moravian missionaries
Nain was established in 1771 by Moravian missionaries

Labrador played strategic roles during both World War II and the Cold War. In October 1943, a German U-boat crew installed an automated weather station on the northern tip of Labrador near Cape Chidley, code-named Weather Station Kurt; the installation of the equipment was the only-known armed German military operation on the North American mainland during the war. The station broadcast weather observations to the German navy for only a few days, but was not discovered until the 1980s when a historian, working with the Canadian Coast Guard, identified its location and mounted an expedition to recover it. The station is now exhibited in the Canadian War Museum.[26]

The Canadian government built a major air force base at Goose Bay, at the head of Lake Melville during the Second World War, a site selected because of its topography, access to the sea, defensible location, and minimal fog. During the Second World War and the Cold War, the base was also home to American, British, and later German, Dutch, and Italian detachments. Today, Serco, the company contracted to operate CFB Goose Bay is one of the largest employers for the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay.

Additionally, both the Royal Canadian Air Force and United States Air Force built and operated a number of radar stations along coastal Labrador as part of the Pinetree Line, Mid-Canada Line and DEW Line systems. Today the remaining stations are automated as part of the North Warning System, however the military settlements during the early part of the Cold War surrounding these stations have largely continued as local Innu and Inuit populations have clustered near their port and airfield facilities.

During the first half of the 20th century, some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world were discovered in the western part of Labrador and adjacent areas of Quebec. Deposits at Mont Wright, Schefferville, Labrador City, and Wabush drove industrial development and human settlement in the area during the second half of the 20th century.

The present communities of Labrador city and Wabush is entirely a result of the iron ore mining activities in the region. The Iron Ore Company of Canada operates the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway to transport ore concentrate 578 kilometres (359 miles) south to the port of Sept-Îles, Quebec, for shipment to steel mills in North America and elsewhere. Tacora resources inc has recently restarted the scully mine the priniciple mine for the town of Wabush and commonly called Wabush mines , the site was previously operated by Cleveland cliffs Canada who even rly became the owners from the original mine founders pickers & matthers

During the 1960s, the Churchill River (Labrador name: Grand River) was diverted at Churchill Falls, resulting in the flooding of an enormous area – today named the Smallwood Reservoir after Joey Smallwood, the first premier of Newfoundland. The flooding of the reservoir destroyed large areas of habitat for the threatened Woodland Caribou. A hydroelectric generating station was built in Labrador and a transmission line to the neighbouring province of Quebec.[27]

Construction of a large hydroelectric dam project at Muskrat Falls began in 2012 by Nalcor Energy and the Province of Newfoundland.[28][29][30][31][32] Muskrat Falls is 45 km (30 miles) west of Happy Valley-Goose Bay on the Grand River (Newfoundland name: Churchill River). A transmission line began construction in October 2014 and was completed in 2016 that will deliver power down to the southern tip of Labrador and underwater across the strait of Belle Isle to the Province of Newfoundland in 2018.[33]

From the 1970s to early 2000s, the Trans-Labrador Highway was built in stages to connect various inland communities with the North American highway network at Mont Wright, Quebec (which in turn is connected by a highway running north from Baie-Comeau, Quebec). A southern extension of this highway has opened in stages during the early 2000s and is resulting in significant changes to the coastal ferry system in the Strait of Belle Isle and southeastern Labrador. These "highways" are so called only because of their importance to the region; they would be better described as roads, and are not completely paved.

A study on a fixed link to Newfoundland, in 2004, recommended that a tunnel under the Strait of Belle Isle, being a single railway that would carry cars, buses and trucks, was technologically the best option for such a link.[34][35][36] However, the study also concluded that a fixed link was not economically viable.[37] Conceivably, if built with federal aid, the 1949 terms of union would be amended to remove ferry service from Nova Scotia to Port aux Basques across the Cabot Strait.

Although a highway link has, as of 16 December 2009,[38] been completed across Labrador, this route is somewhat longer than a proposed Quebec North Shore highway that presently does not exist. Part of the "highway", Route 389, starting approximately 212 kilometres (132 mi) from Baie-Comeau to 482 kilometres (300 mi), is of an inferior alignment, and from there to 570 kilometres (350 mi), the provincial border, is an accident-prone section notorious for its poor surface and sharp curves. Quebec in April 2009 announced major upgrades to Route 389 to be carried out.

Route 389 and the Trans-Labrador Highway were added to Canada's National Highway System in September 2005.

Labrador constitutes a federal electoral district electing one member to the House of Commons of Canada. Due to its size, distinct nature, and large Aboriginal population, Labrador has one seat despite having the smallest population of any electoral district in Canada.[39][40][41] Formerly, Labrador was part of a riding that included part of the Island of Newfoundland.[42] Labrador is divided into four provincial electoral districts in the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly.[43]

Boundary dispute

Further information: Border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador

Old Harry oil field [fr], on the boundary between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador
Old Harry oil field [fr], on the boundary between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador

In 1809 Labrador had been transferred from Lower Canada to the Newfoundland Colony but the inland boundary of Labrador had never been precisely stated.[44] Newfoundland argued it extended to the height of land, while Canada, stressing the historical use of the term "Coasts of Labrador", argued the boundary was 1 statute mile (1.6 km) inland from the high-tide mark. As Canada and Newfoundland were separate Dominions, but both within the British Empire, the matter was referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council[45] (in London). Their decision set the Labrador boundary mostly along the coastal watershed, with part being defined by the 52nd parallel north. One of Newfoundland's conditions for joining Confederation in 1949 was that this boundary be entrenched in the Canadian constitution.[45] While this border has not been formally accepted by the Quebec government, the Henri Dorion Commission (Commission d'étude sur l'intégrité du territoire du Québec) concluded in the early 1970s that Quebec no longer has a legal claim to Labrador.[46]

Prior to the 1995 Quebec sovereignty referendum, Parti Québécois Premier Jacques Parizeau indicated that, in the event of a "yes" vote, a sovereign Quebec under his leadership would recognise the 1927 border.[citation needed] However, in 2001, Parti Québécois cabinet ministers Jacques Brassard and Joseph Facal reasserted that Québec has never recognised the 1927 border:

Les ministres rappellent qu'aucun gouvernement québécois n'a reconnu formellement le tracé de la frontière entre le Québec et Terre-Neuve dans la péninsule du Labrador selon l'avis rendu par le comité judiciaire du Conseil privé de Londres en 1927. Pour le Québec, cette frontière n'a donc jamais été définitivement arrêtée.[47] [The ministers reiterate that no Quebec government has ever formally recognised the drawing of the border between Quebec and Newfoundland in the Labrador peninsula according to the opinion rendered by the London Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1927. For Quebec, this border has thus never been definitively defined.]

Self-government

A Royal Commission in 2002 determined that there is some public pressure from Labradorians to break from Newfoundland and become a separate province or territory.[48]

Indigenous self-government

Some of the Innu nation would have the area become a homeland for them, much as Nunavut is for the Inuit, as a good portion of Nitassinan falls within Labrador's borders; a 1999 resolution of the Assembly of First Nations claimed Labrador as a homeland for the Innu and demanded recognition in any further constitutional negotiations regarding the region.[49]

Labrador's Innu became status Indians under the Indian Act in 2002. Natuashish became a federal Indian reserve in 2003.[50][51] Sheshatshiu became a federal reserve in 2006.[17]

The Labrador Inuit Association had filed a land claim for portions of Labradorian land in 1977.[52] In 1988, the Labrador Inuit Association, the government of the province of Newfoundland, and the government of Canada began negotiations based on the land claim.[53] An agreement-in-principle was achieved in 2001, and on May 26, 2004, the agreement was ratified by over 75% of eligible voters subject to the land claim.[53] On January 22, 2005, the Inuit of Nunatsiavut signed the Labrador Inuit Lands Claims Agreement[11] with the federal and provincial governments covering 72,520 km2 (28,000 sq mi) of land,[52] including the entire northern salient of Labrador north of Nain as well as a portion of the Atlantic coast south of there. The agreement also includes 44,030 km2 (17,000 sq mi) of sea rights.[52] Although the Inuit will not own the whole area, they were granted special rights related to traditional land use, and they will own 15,800 km2 (6,100 sq mi) designated Labrador Inuit Lands.[52] The agreement also establishes the Torngat Mountains National Park in the northern area of the land claim. The agreement was ratified by the Labrador Inuit, the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, and the Parliament of Canada, where it received Royal Assent on June 23, 2005.[9]

In the late 1970s, the Labrador Metis Association was created by the inhabitants of Labrador's southern coast to gain recognition as a distinct ethnocultural group,[20] as at the time despite a pre-existing treaty protected under the constitution, the "Inuit-Metis" were considered to be merely the descendants of Inuit who had joined Western society.[54] Little was known about the history of the "Inuit-Metis" of the time. In 2006, the Labrador Metis Association initiated a project with Memorial University of Newfoundland to better understand their past through the Community-University Research Association (CURA).[20] Following research by CURA, the "Labrador Metis" were understood to be a continuation of the Inuit people of southern Labrador.[54] In 2010, the Labrador Metis Association changed its name to reflect their newly discovered heritage, and became the NunatuKavut Community Council.[55] The Southern Inuit of NunatuKavut,[56] who are also seeking self-government, have their land claim before the Government of Canada. The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador refuses to recognise or negotiate with the Inuit of NunatuKavut until their claim has been accepted by the Government of Canada.[57]

Demographics

Battle Harbour, traditional outport fishing community
Battle Harbour, traditional outport fishing community
This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2020)
Population of largest communities in Labrador
Town 2016[58]
Happy Valley-Goose Bay 8,109
Labrador City 7,220
Wabush 1,906
Nunainguk 1,125
Sheshatshiu 1,023
Natuashish 925
L'Anse-au-Loup 558
Churchill Falls 705
Cartwright 427
Agvituk 574
North West River 547
Port Hope Simpson 412
Forteau 409
Maggovik 377
Mary's Harbour 341
Red Bay 169
Tikigâksuagusik 305
Charlottetown 290
L'Anse au Clair 216
St. Lewis 194
Postville 177
Black Tickle 150
West St. Modeste 111
Pinware 88
Lodge Bay 65
Pinsent's Arm 65
Mud Lake 50
Capstan Island 41
Norman's Bay 25
Paradise River 10
Demographic Factors (2014 Census)[59]
Factor Labrador Canada
Male/Female split 50.7/49.3% 49.0/51.0%
Median age 38 CD10 /28 CD11 39.5
Aboriginal pop. 22% 3.8%
Non-immigrant pop. 95.8% 78.3%
Median family income 171k$ CD10 /47k$ CD11 61k$
Unemployment rate 11.3% 6.6%

(CD10, CD11 refer to Census Divisions)

According to the 2011 Census, Labrador was 55.1% White, 18.5% Inuit, 15.6% Metis, and 8.6% First Nations (Innu).

Natural features

Labrador is home to a number of flora and fauna species. Most of the Upper Canadian and Lower Hudsonian mammalian species are found in Labrador.[60] Notably the Polar bear, Ursus maritimus, reaches the southeast of Labrador on its seasonal movements.[61]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Kevin Major, As Near to Heaven by Sea: A History of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2001, ISBN 0-14-027864-8
  3. ^ "The Innu of Labrador: From Davis Inlet to Natuashish". CBC News. December 14, 2004. Archived from the original on Dec 17, 2004. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  4. ^ "Natuashish: Struggling with the hangovers of old Davis Inlet". CBC. Feb 8, 2005. Retrieved Oct 16, 2020.
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  12. ^ "NATO's Invasion: Air Combat Training and its Impact on the Innu". culturalsurvival.org. December 1986.
  13. ^ "When Outrage Is A Scarce Commodity: Low-flying Maneuvers over Innu lands in Labrador". culturalsurvival.org. December 2000.
  14. ^ Gaudi, John (Dec 14, 2019). "New children's book is based on Innu protests of low-level flying in Labrador". CBC News.
  15. ^ Swardson, Anne (March 17, 1994). "Indians in Labrador Press for End to Low-Level Flight Training". Washington Post. Retrieved Nov 27, 2020.
  16. ^ Watts, Beatrice (1984). Cable Car of North River & Sheshatshit. Them Days (booklet). p. 8.
  17. ^ a b "Reserve Creation at Sheshatshiu". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 25 May 2021.
  18. ^ "Churchill River". Canadian Geographic Education. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
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  20. ^ a b c Clarke, D. Bruce; Mitchell, Gregory E. (2010). "Unveiling Nunatukavut" (PDF). NunatuKavut Community Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 28, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
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  24. ^ See Williamson, James A. (1962). The Cabot Voyages and Bristol Discovery under Henry VII. London. pp. 98, 120–1, 312–17. OCLC 808696.
  25. ^ Richardson, Nigel (1 June 2015). "A corner of Canada that is forever Basque". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Weather station Kurt erected in Labrador in 1943". Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  27. ^ Churchill, Jason L. (1999). "Pragmatic Federalism: The Politics Behind the 1969 Churchill Falls Contract". Newfoundland and Labrador Studies. 15 (2). Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  28. ^ "Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Announces Sanction of the Muskrat Falls Development". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. December 17, 2012. Retrieved Nov 29, 2020.
  29. ^ "$1.5B Maritime Link approved by Emera Inc". CBC News. Dec 18, 2012. Retrieved Nov 29, 2020.
  30. ^ "Maritime Link energy project approved by Nova Scotia's UARB". CBC News. Nov 29, 2013. Retrieved Nov 29, 2020.
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  32. ^ "Muskrat Falls Generating Project". Nalcor Energy.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ "Teamwork and dedication brings the Link to completion | Nalcor Energy – Lower Churchill Project".
  34. ^ "Fixed link feasible, Williams says". CBC News. February 28, 2005. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
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  37. ^ "Government of Newfoundland and Labrador releases Fixed Link Pre-Feasibility Report". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. February 28, 2005. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  38. ^ "Tenders Called for More Paving on Phase I of Trans Labrador Highway". Transportation and Works. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  39. ^ "Peter Penashue quits over campaign donations". CBC News, March 14, 2013.
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Further reading