This article is a comprehensive list of all the actual possessions of the Portuguese Empire.[1][2]

Territories of the Portuguese empire

In Africa

Portuguese presence in Africa started in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta and is generally viewed as ending in 1975, with the independence of its later colonies, although the present autonomous region of Madeira is located in the African Plate, some 650 km (360 mi) off the North African coast, Madeira belongs and has always belonged ethnically, culturally, economically and politically to Europe, some 955 km (583 mi) from the European mainland.[3]

From Cantino planisphere of 1502.

North Atlantic and North America

From Reinel-Lopo Homem Atlantic chart of 1519.

The Azores were discovered early in the Discovery Ages. Labrador and Corte-Real brothers later explored and claimed Greenland and eastern modern Canada from 1499 to 1502.

In Central and South America

From Vaz Dourado atlas of c. 1576

Brazil was explored and claimed in 1500, and become independent in 1822. Unlike the Spanish, the Portuguese did not divide their possession in South America in several vice-royalties.

In Asia and Oceania

India was reached by the Portuguese in 1498 by Vasco da Gama. Macau was the last possession in Asia and was handed over to the People's Republic of China in 1999.

From an anonymous atlas c.1550

Present-day countries with territories once part of the Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese empire spread over time throughout a vast number of Territories that are now part of more than 70 different Sovereign States, many of which did not exist as they are, at the time.

Region States Countries with Territories part of the Portuguese Empire
Africa 38 States
Countries with at least one territory (anachronistic) part of the Portuguese Empire
Countries with at least one territory (anachronistic) part of the Portuguese Empire
Dark Blue: Countries with at least one Territory (anachronistic) part of the Portuguese Empire.
Light Blue: Countries with at least one Claimed territory (anachronistic) part of the Portuguese Empire
North America 3 States
Central and South America 7 States
Europe 2 States
Asia and Oceania 23 States

In Europe

Now part of Name of territory
Portugal Portugal Portugal
Spain Spain Cáceres, Trujillo, somes parts of Galiza (lost by 1168); Hermisende (lost in 1640); Olivenza, Táliga and Villareal (lost in 1801).

In Africa

Now part of Name of territory
Angola Angola Portuguese West Africa
Benin Benin Ouidah, Grande Popo
Cameroon Cameroon Douala (Rio dos Camarões)
Cape Verde Cape Verde Cape Verde
Comoros Comoros Grande Comore
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Kingdom of Kongo
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Territories in the vicinity of the mouth of the Congo River as part of Portuguese Congo, Kingdom of Kongo, Boma, Banana
Egypt Egypt El Tor, Alcocer[4][5]
Eritrea Eritrea Massawa (Maçuá)[6]
Ethiopia Ethiopia Amba Senayt
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Bioko, Annobón (Fernando Pó and Annobón)
The Gambia The Gambia James Island, Albreda, San Domingo,[7][8] Cantor[9]
Mali Mali Bambouk (pt)
Burkina Faso BurkinaFaso Farabana[10][11]
Ghana Ghana Accra, Elmina, Portuguese Gold Coast
Gabon Gabon Kingdom of Kongo, Outposts at the mouth of the Ogooué River,[12] Île Coniquet
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Portuguese Guinea
Guinea Guinea Area in the vicinity of Portuguese Guinea (claimed)
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Sassandra
Kenya Kenya Malindi, Mombassa
Liberia Liberia Cabo das Palmas[13]
Madagascar Madagascar Madagascar (southern part), Tôlanaro
Malawi Malawi Southern Malawi, lost by 1890
Mauritania Mauritania Arguin, Ouadane
Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius, Rodrigues
Morocco Morocco Tanger, Souira Guedima, Alcacer Ceguer, Arzila, Azamor, Mazagan, Mogador, Safim, Agadir
Mozambique Mozambique Portuguese East Africa
Namibia Namibia Cape Cross (claimed). Later Caprivi Strip claimed as part of the Pink Map[14]
Nigeria Nigeria Benin City, Warri, Forçados
France France Réunion
Senegal Senegal Ziguinchor, Rufisque, Gorée, Portudal
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Freetown, Aberdeen, Bunce Island, Banana Islands, Tumbu Island
Somalia Somalia Mogadishu, Barawa, Zeila (Somaliland), Berbera (Somaliland)
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe
Sudan Sudan Suakin[4]
Tanzania Tanzania Kilwa Kisiwani, Zanzibar
Togo Togo Porto Seguro, Pequeno Popo
Western Sahara Western Sahara Rio de Ouro[15]
Zambia Zambia Luangwa, Portuguese Prazos in the beyond Zumbo upstream Kafue and Luangwa rivers
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Mutapa, Manicaland, Massi Kessi, Nyanga, Portuguese ruins in Zimbabwe, Mashonaland,Matabeleland
Botswana Botswana Tati Concession area[16]
Seychelles Seychelles Amirante Islands (claimed)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Saint Helena, Ascension Island
South Africa South Africa Mossel Bay (claimed), KwaZulu-Natal (claimed), Santa Lucia (claimed), Rio Infante (claimed)
Spain Spain Ceuta, Canary Islands

North Atlantic and North America

Now part of Name of territory
Canada Canada Terra Nova (Newfoundland), Labrador, Nova Scotia (St. Peter's, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Conception Bay)
France France Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Denmark Denmark Greenland

In Central and South America

Now part of Name of territory
Argentina Argentina Area east of Paraná river, today Misiones, Entre Ríos and Corrientes provinces.
Barbados Barbados Barbados
Ecuador Ecuador Franciscana (pt)
Chile Chile Upper Peru (pt)
Bolivia Bolivia Upper Peru (pt)
Peru Peru Upper Peru (pt), Pebas[17]
Brazil Brazil Brazil
Colombia Colombia Vaupés valley (colonial Brazil by 1750). Also, area south of Rio Negro up to Japurá River (claimed, border undefined), Area south of Guayabero River and Guaviare River up to Putumayo River
Guyana Guyana Branco River valley (Roraima), Fort Kyk-Over-Al
French Guiana France French Guiana
Suriname Suriname Apetina, Paramaribo during the Guiana Campaign (pt).
Paraguay Paraguay Missiones, Itapúa, Alto Paraná and Ñeembucú departments. Lost to Spain by the Treaty of El Pardo
Uruguay Uruguay Uruguay

In Asia and Oceania

Now part of Name of territory
Bahrain Bahrain Bahrain
Bangladesh Bangladesh Chittagong
Myanmar Burma Sirião, Martaban, Tenasserim, Pegu
Cambodia Cambodia Ba Phnom
East Timor East Timor East Timor
Hong Kong Hong Kong Tuen Mun District
India India Portuguese India (Vasai, Bombaím/Mumbai, Calicut/Kozhikode, Cambay/Khambhat, Cannanore/Kolathunadu, Chaul, Cochin/Kochi, Cranganore/Kodungallur, Damão/Daman, Diu, Dadra, Goa, Hughli/Hugli, Nagar Haveli, Masulipatnam/Machilipatnam, Mangalore, Negapatam/Nagapattinam, Paliacate/Pulicat, Coulão/Kollam, Salsette Island, São Tomé de Meliapore/Mylapore, Surat, Tuticorin/Thoothukudi), Laccadive Islands/Lakshadweep
Indonesia Indonesia Flores, Solor, Makassar, Ambon, Ternate, Tidore, West Timor
Iran Iran Bandar-Abbas, Hormuz, Qeshm, Larak
Iraq Iraq Basra
Japan Japan Dejima,Nagasaki, Yokoseura
Kuwait Kuwait Kuwait, Failaka Island
Macau Macau Macau
Malaysia Malaysia Malacca
Maldives Maldives Maldives
Oman Oman Muscat, Muttrah, Sohar, Qurayyat, Qalhat, Barka, As Sib, Khasab, Madha, Bukha
Pakistan Pakistan Guadel, Thatta
China People's Republic of China Hengqin New Area, São João, Liampó
Qatar Qatar Qatar
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Qatif, Tarut
Singapore Singapore Temasek
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Portuguese Ceylon
Thailand Thailand Junkceylon, Portuguese Village in Ayutthaya, Patani
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Dibba Al-Hisn, Khor Fakkan, Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah), Bidiyah, Kalba
Vietnam Vietnam Hoi An
Yemen Yemen Socotra, Xael, Ilha do Camarão

See also


  1. ^ Norrie MacQueen, The Decolonization of Portuguese Africa: Metropolitan Revolution and the Dissolution of Empire (1997).
  2. ^ John Springhall, Decolonization since 1945: the collapse of European overseas empires (2001).
  3. ^ Filipe Ribeiro De Meneses and Robert McNamara, eds. The White Redoubt, the Great Powers and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1960-1980 (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2017.)
  4. ^ a b "The Portuguese expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543 as narrated by Castanhoso". Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  5. ^ "Tor (At Tûr) - EGIPTO". Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  6. ^ "Massawa". Retrieved 2013-04-06.
  7. ^ "James Island and Related Sites - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Chronica do descobrimento e conquisita de Guiné". Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  10. ^ "Farabana". Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  11. ^ "Portuguese in West Africa and Slavery". Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  12. ^ "Gabon - History". Retrieved 2012-01-03.
  13. ^ "Cabo das Palmas (Cape Palmas) - LIBÉRIA".
  14. ^ "Mappa (esboço) do territorio portuguez em Africa, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal".
  15. ^ "Chronology of the PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS in AFRICA (1415-1800)". Retrieved 2018-02-24.
  16. ^ "old-portuguese-ruins-southern-rhodesia-zimbabwe". Retrieved 2017-12-31.
  17. ^ "Ouro Vermelho:A Conquista dos Índios Brasileiros Vol. 27". Retrieved 2017-12-28.

Further reading