It has been suggested that this article be merged into List of space travellers by first flight. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2021.
Countries (and successor states) whose citizens have flown in space as of September 2019.
Countries (and successor states) whose citizens have flown in space as of September 2019.
Nations' attempts of human spaceflight. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Currently have human spaceflight programs.   Confirmed and dated plans for human spaceflight programs.   Plans for human spaceflight on the simplest form (suborbital spaceflight, etc.).   Plans for human spaceflight on the extreme form (space stations, etc.).   Once had official plans for human spaceflight programs, but have since been abandoned.
Nations' attempts of human spaceflight.
  Currently have human spaceflight programs.
  Confirmed and dated plans for human spaceflight programs.
  Plans for human spaceflight on the simplest form (suborbital spaceflight, etc.).
  Plans for human spaceflight on the extreme form (space stations, etc.).
  Once had official plans for human spaceflight programs, but have since been abandoned.

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.

The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.

Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne and Blue Origin pilots).

Statistics

As of January 2018, people from 37 countries have traveled in space.[1] 553 people have reached Earth orbit. 556 have reached the altitude of space according to the FAI definition of the boundary of space, and 562 people have reached the altitude of space according to the American definition. 24 people have traveled beyond low Earth orbit and either circled, orbited, or walked on the Moon.

Of the 37 countries whose citizens have traveled into Earth orbit, 25 have flown a single space traveler, and four others (Belgium, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) have flown two each. 94% of all space travelers have been contributed by the following eight nations:

 United States
  
  
339 (61.08%; ♀️45)
 Russia1
  
  
121 (21.8%; ♀️4)
 China
  
  
13 (2.34%; ♀️2)
 Japan
  
  
12 (2.16%; ♀️2)
 Germany2,3
  
  
11 (1.98%; ♀️0)
 France2
  
  
10 (1.8%; ♀️1)
 Canada
  
  
9 (1.62%; ♀️2)
 Italy2
  
  
7 (1.26%; ♀️1)
- Other countries
  
  
33 (5.94%; ♀️3)

1 Includes 72 Soviet cosmonauts and 49 Russian cosmonauts.
2 Includes both national space programme activity and European Space Agency participation.
3 Includes astronauts from the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

Suborbital space fliers

Australia

The following person flew or was launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 kilometres (62 mi), which counts as a space flight by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale guidelines:

Canada

The following person flew or was launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 kilometres (62 mi), which counts as a space flight by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale guidelines:

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The Soviet Union never launched a spaceflight intended as suborbital. The following persons were launched aboard Soyuz 7K-T No.39 (also Soyuz 18a), intended as orbital, but which was forced to abort before reaching orbit, after reaching suborbital space.[2]

United States

The following persons flew or were launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 kilometres (62 mi), which counts as a space flight by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale guidelines:

The following persons flew into the upper atmosphere between 80 and 100 kilometres (50 and 62 mi), which counts as space flight by United States guidelines:

The Netherlands

The following person flew or was launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 kilometres (62 mi), which counts as a space flight by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale guidelines:

United Kingdom

The following persons flew into the upper atmosphere between 80 and 100 kilometres (50 and 62 mi), which counts as space flight by United States guidelines:

Orbital space travelers

Afghanistan

Australia

Brazil

Bulgaria

Canada

China

See also: List of Chinese astronauts

Cuba

Czechoslovakia


European Space Agency members

See also: European Astronaut Corps

Some of these astronauts participated in national space programme activity unrelated to their home country's contemporary or subsequent membership of the European Space Agency.

Austria

Belgium

Denmark

France

Germany

See also: List of German astronauts

Italy

Netherlands

See also: List of Dutch astronauts

Poland

Romania

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

United Kingdom

Additionally, Michael Foale was born in England to a British father and American mother. He is a dual citizen of the United Kingdom and the United States, and was raised and educated in England. He flew as a member of NASA's Astronaut Corps with dual British American citizenship.[4] Gregory H. Johnson has foreign (US) citizenship, having been born in the UK to American parents, while Piers Sellers, Nicholas Patrick, Richard Garriott and Mark Shuttleworth have dual nationalities.


Hungary

India

Israel

Japan

See also: List of Japanese astronauts

Kazakhstan

Malaysia

Mexico

Mongolia

Poland

Russia and the Soviet Union

Main article: Roscosmos Cosmonaut Corps

The Soviet space program came under the control of the Russian Federation in December 1991; the new program, now called the Russian Federal Space Agency, retained continuity of equipment and personnel with the Soviet program. While all Soviet and RKA cosmonauts were born within the borders of the U.S.S.R., many were born outside the boundaries of Russia, and may be claimed by other Soviet successor states as nationals of those states. These cosmonauts are marked with an asterisk * and their place of birth is shown in an appended list. All, however, claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights.

A

B

D

F

G

I

K

L

M

N

O

P

R

S

T

U

V

Y

Z

Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia

All of the locations below were part of the former U.S.S.R. at the time of the cosmonauts' birth.

Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / Azerbaijan
Byelorussian S.S.R. / Belarus
Georgian S.S.R. / Georgia
Kazakh S.S.R. / Kazakhstan
Kirghiz S.S.R. / Kyrgyzstan
Latvian S.S.R. / Latvia
Turkmen S.S.R. / Turkmenistan
Ukrainian S.S.R. / Ukraine
Uzbek S.S.R. / Uzbekistan

Saudi Arabia

Slovakia

South Africa

South Korea

Syria

Ukraine

United Arab Emirates

United States

* Asterisked space travelers were born outside the United States

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

R

S

T

V

W

Y

Z

Americans born abroad

  1. William Anders, born in Hong Kong to American parents.
  2. Canada Gregory Chamitoff, born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  3. Italy Michael Collins, born in Rome, Italy to American parents.
  4. United Kingdom Richard Garriott, born in Cambridge, England.
  5. United Kingdom Gregory H. Johnson, born in South Ruislip, England.
  6. Panama Frederick W. Leslie, born in Ancón, Panama Canal Zone (now Panama).
  7. Taiwan Kjell N. Lindgren, born in Taipei, Taiwan.
  8. China Shannon Lucid
    , born in Shanghai, China (then under Japanese rule) to American parents.
  9. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands James H. Newman, born in the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (now Micronesia).

Naturalized Americans

  1. Iran Anousheh Ansari
    , born in Mashhad, Iran. First Iranian-American in space. Fourth space tourist and first female space tourist.
  2. Costa Rica Franklin Chang-Diaz, born in San José, Costa Rica. First Costa Rican-American in space.
  3. India Kalpana Chawla
    , born in Karnal, India. First Indian-American in space.
  4. United Kingdom Michael Foale, born in Louth, England, dual British and American citizen.
  5. Spain Michael Lopez-Alegria, born in Madrid, Spain.
  6. Peru Carlos I. Noriega, born in Lima, Peru. First Peruvian-born person in space.
  7. United Kingdom Nicholas Patrick, born in Saltburn-by-the-Sea, England, dual UK-US citizen.
  8. Australia Paul Scully-Power, born in Sydney, Australia.
  9. United Kingdom Piers Sellers, born in Crowborough, England, dual UK-US citizen.
  10. Hungary Charles Simonyi, born in Budapest, Hungary. Fifth space tourist.
  11. Australia Andrew Thomas, born in Adelaide, Australia.
  12. South Vietnam Eugene Trinh, born in Saigon, State of Vietnam (now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). First Vietnamese-American in space.
  13. Netherlands Lodewijk van den Berg, born in Sluiskil, the Netherlands.
  14. China Taylor Wang, born in Shanghai, China. First Chinese American in space.

Vietnam

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Other Wikipedia articles count Anousheh Ansari as an Iranian-American dual citizen; they may also consider Russia and the Soviet Union, or East, West, and even united Germany as distinct countries, resulting in counts of 40 or more countries.
  2. ^ "Soyuz 18-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  3. ^ EVA-22: Cassidy and Parmitano complete ISS spacewalk July 9, 2013
  4. ^ "Astronaut Michael Foale retires from Nasa". BBC News. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  5. ^ Bukharbayeva, Bagila (20 June 2004). "Kazakhstan Gets a Bigger Say in Space Launch Site" – via LA Times.
  6. ^ "Kazakh cosmonaut to replace Brightman on space station trip - Sen.com".
  7. ^ Akopian, Aram (2001). Armenians and the World: Yesterday and Today. Yerevan: Noyan Tapan. p. 61. ISBN 9789993051299. James Bagian, an engineer and physician, is the first, but surely not the last, Armenian astronaut.