Apollo 7 heads into orbit with its crew of three, 1968

This is a list of all crewed spaceflights throughout history. Beginning in 1961 with the flight of Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, crewed spaceflight occurs when a human crew flies a spacecraft into outer space. Human spaceflight is distinguished from spaceflight generally, which entails both crewed and uncrewed spacecraft.

There are two definitions of spaceflight. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), an international record-keeping body, defines the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space at 100 kilometres (62 mi) above sea level. This boundary is known as the Kármán line. Additionally, the United States awards astronaut wings to qualified personnel who pilot a spaceflight above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km).

As of the launch of SpaceX Crew-8 on 3 March 2024, there have been 382 human spaceflight launches. Two missions did not cross either the Kármán line or the U.S. definition of space and therefore do not qualify as spaceflights. These were the fatal STS-51-L (Challenger disaster), and the non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission T-10a. Two aborted missions did cross either the Kármán line or the U.S. definition of space. These were the non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission MS-10 which did not reach the Kármán line but did pass the 80 km (50 mi) line. The other was the non-fatal Soyuz mission, 18a which crossed the Kármán line. Four missions successfully achieved human spaceflight, yet ended as fatal failures as their crews died during the return. These were Soyuz 1, X-15 flight 191, Soyuz 11, and STS-107 (Columbia disaster). Twenty one flights in total reached an apogee beyond 50 miles (80 km), but failed to go beyond 62 miles (100 km), so therefore do not qualify as spaceflights under the FAI definition.


Since 1961, three countries (China, Russia, and the United States) and one former country (Soviet Union) have conducted human spaceflight using fourteen different spacecraft series, or: "programs", "projects".

Entity  Soviet Union (1961–1991) /
 Russia (1992–present)
 United States  China Subtotals
by decade
Agency Soviet space program
NASA Scaled Composites (2004)
Virgin Galactic (2018–present)
SpaceX Blue Origin CMSA
Decades Program Dates[a] No.[b][c] Program[d] Dates No.[e] Program Dates No.[f] Program Dates No. Program Dates No. Program Dates No.
1961–1970 Vostok 1961–1963 6 Mercury 1961–1963 6 52
Voskhod 1964–1965 2 X-15 1962–1968 13
Soyuz 1967–1991 66 Gemini 1965–1966 10
Apollo 1968–1972 11
1971–1980 38
Skylab 1973–1974 3
Apollo–Soyuz 1975 1
1981–1990 Space
1981–2011 135 63
1991–2000 Soyuz 1992–present 85 83
2001–2010 SpaceShipOne 2004 3 Shenzhou 2003–present 12 61
2011–2020 SpaceShipTwo 2018–present 11 Crew Dragon 2020–present 13 47
2021–2030 New Shepard 2021–present 6 38
by entity
158 179 14 13 6 12 Total 382

Human spaceflights

The Salyut series, Skylab, Mir, ISS, and Tiangong series space stations, with which many of these flights docked in orbit, are not listed separately here. See the detailed lists (links below) for information.


Vostok 1Mercury-Redstone 3Mercury-Redstone 4Vostok 2
Mercury-Atlas 6Mercury-Atlas 7X-15 Flight 62* — Vostok 3Vostok 4Mercury-Atlas 8
X-15 Flight 77* — Mercury-Atlas 9Vostok 5Vostok 6X-15 Flight 87* — X-15 Flight 90X-15 Flight 91
Voskhod 1
Voskhod 2Gemini 3Gemini 4X-15 Flight 138* — X-15 Flight 143* — Gemini 5X-15 Flight 150* — X-15 Flight 153* — Gemini 7Gemini 6A
Gemini 8Gemini 9AGemini 10Gemini 11X-15 Flight 174* — Gemini 12
Soyuz 1† — X-15 Flight 190* — X-15 Flight 191*†
X-15 Flight 197* — Apollo 7Soyuz 3Apollo 8
Soyuz 4Soyuz 5Apollo 9Apollo 10Apollo 11Soyuz 6Soyuz 7Soyuz 8Apollo 12
Apollo 13Soyuz 9


Apollo 14Soyuz 10Soyuz 11† — Apollo 15
Apollo 16Apollo 17
Skylab 2Skylab 3Soyuz 12Skylab 4Soyuz 13
Soyuz 14Soyuz 15Soyuz 16
Soyuz 17Soyuz 18aSoyuz 18Soyuz 19Apollo-Soyuz
Soyuz 21Soyuz 22Soyuz 23
Soyuz 24Soyuz 25Soyuz 26
Soyuz 27Soyuz 28Soyuz 29Soyuz 30Soyuz 31
Soyuz 32Soyuz 33
Soyuz 35Soyuz 36Soyuz T-2Soyuz 37Soyuz 38Soyuz T-3


Soyuz T-4Soyuz 39STS-1Soyuz 40STS-2
STS-3Soyuz T-5Soyuz T-6STS-4Soyuz T-7STS-5
STS-6Soyuz T-8STS-7Soyuz T-9STS-8Soyuz T-10aSTS-9
STS-41-BSoyuz T-10Soyuz T-11STS-41-CSoyuz T-12STS-41-DSTS-41-GSTS-51-A
STS-51-CSTS-51-DSTS-51-BSoyuz T-13STS-51-GSTS-51-FSTS-51-ISoyuz T-14STS-51-JSTS-61-ASTS-61-B
STS-61-CSTS-51-L† — Soyuz T-15
Soyuz TM-2Soyuz TM-3Soyuz TM-4
Soyuz TM-5Soyuz TM-6STS-26Soyuz TM-7STS-27
STS-29STS-30STS-28Soyuz TM-8STS-34STS-33
STS-32Soyuz TM-9STS-36STS-31Soyuz TM-10STS-41STS-38STS-35Soyuz TM-11


STS-37STS-39Soyuz TM-12STS-40STS-43STS-48Soyuz TM-13STS-44
STS-42Soyuz TM-14STS-45STS-49STS-50Soyuz TM-15STS-46STS-47STS-52STS-53
STS-54Soyuz TM-16STS-56STS-55STS-57Soyuz TM-17STS-51STS-58STS-61
Soyuz TM-18STS-60STS-62STS-59Soyuz TM-19STS-65STS-64STS-68Soyuz TM-20STS-66
STS-63STS-67Soyuz TM-21STS-71STS-70Soyuz TM-22STS-69STS-73STS-74
STS-72Soyuz TM-23STS-75STS-76STS-77STS-78Soyuz TM-24STS-79STS-80
STS-81Soyuz TM-25STS-82STS-83STS-84STS-94Soyuz TM-26STS-85STS-86STS-87
STS-89Soyuz TM-27STS-90STS-91Soyuz TM-28STS-95STS-88
Soyuz TM-29STS-96STS-93STS-103
STS-99Soyuz TM-30STS-101STS-106STS-92Soyuz TM-31STS-97


STS-98STS-102STS-100Soyuz TM-32STS-104STS-105Soyuz TM-33STS-108
STS-109STS-110Soyuz TM-34STS-111STS-112Soyuz TMA-1STS-113
STS-107† — Soyuz TMA-2Shenzhou 5Soyuz TMA-3
Soyuz TMA-4SpaceShipOne Flight 15PSpaceShipOne Flight 16PSpaceShipOne Flight 17PSoyuz TMA-5
Soyuz TMA-6STS-114Soyuz TMA-7Shenzhou 6
Soyuz TMA-8STS-121STS-115Soyuz TMA-9STS-116
Soyuz TMA-10STS-117STS-118Soyuz TMA-11STS-120
STS-122STS-123Soyuz TMA-12STS-124Shenzhou 7Soyuz TMA-13STS-126
STS-119Soyuz TMA-14STS-125Soyuz TMA-15STS-127STS-128Soyuz TMA-16STS-129Soyuz TMA-17
STS-130Soyuz TMA-18STS-131STS-132Soyuz TMA-19Soyuz TMA-01MSoyuz TMA-20


STS-133Soyuz TMA-21STS-134Soyuz TMA-02MSTS-135Soyuz TMA-22Soyuz TMA-03M
Soyuz TMA-04MShenzhou 9Soyuz TMA-05MSoyuz TMA-06MSoyuz TMA-07M
Soyuz TMA-08MSoyuz TMA-09MShenzhou 10Soyuz TMA-10MSoyuz TMA-11M
Soyuz TMA-12MSoyuz TMA-13MSoyuz TMA-14MSoyuz TMA-15M
Soyuz TMA-16MSoyuz TMA-17MSoyuz TMA-18MSoyuz TMA-19M
Soyuz TMA-20MSoyuz MS-01Shenzhou 11Soyuz MS-02Soyuz MS-03
Soyuz MS-04Soyuz MS-05Soyuz MS-06Soyuz MS-07
Soyuz MS-08Soyuz MS-09Soyuz MS-10Soyuz MS-11VSS Unity VP-03*
VSS Unity VF-01* — Soyuz MS-12Soyuz MS-13Soyuz MS-15
Soyuz MS-16Crew Dragon Demo-2Soyuz MS-17SpaceX Crew-1


Soyuz MS-18SpaceX Crew-2Virgin Galactic Unity-21* — Shenzhou-12Virgin Galactic Unity-22* — Blue Origin NS-16SpaceX Inspiration4Soyuz MS-19Blue Origin NS-18Shenzhou-13SpaceX Crew-3Soyuz MS-20Blue Origin NS-19
Soyuz MS-21Blue Origin NS-20Axiom Mission 1SpaceX Crew-4Blue Origin NS-21Shenzhou-14Blue Origin NS-22Soyuz MS-22SpaceX Crew-5Shenzhou-15
SpaceX Crew-6Axiom Mission 2Virgin Galactic Unity 25* — Shenzhou-16Galactic 01* — Galactic 02* — SpaceX Crew-7Galactic 03* — Soyuz MS-24Galactic 04* — Shenzhou-17Galactic 05*
Axiom Mission 3Galactic 06* - SpaceX Crew-8


Tiangong space stationTiangong-2Tiangong-1ISSSkylabMirSalyut 7Salyut 6Salyut 5Salyut 4Salyut 3Salyut 1Shenzhou programShenzhou 17Shenzhou 16Shenzhou 15Shenzhou 14Shenzhou 13Shenzhou 12Shenzhou 11Shenzhou 10Shenzhou 9Shenzhou 7Shenzhou 6Shenzhou 5New ShepardBlue Origin NS-22Blue Origin NS-21Blue Origin NS-20Blue Origin NS-19Blue Origin NS-18Blue Origin NS-16SpaceShipOneSpaceShipOne flight 17PSpaceShipOne flight 16PSpaceShipOne flight 15PSpace Shuttle EndeavourSTS-134STS-130STS-127STS-126STS-123STS-118STS-113STS-111STS-108STS-100STS-97STS-99STS-88STS-89STS-77STS-72STS-69STS-67STS-68STS-59STS-61STS-57STS-54STS-47STS-49Crew Dragon FreedomAxiom Mission 3Axiom Mission 2SpaceX Crew-4Space Shuttle AtlantisSTS-135STS-132STS-129STS-125STS-122STS-117STS-115STS-112STS-110STS-104STS-98STS-106STS-101STS-86STS-84STS-81STS-79STS-76STS-74STS-71STS-66STS-46STS-45STS-44STS-43STS-37STS-38STS-36STS-34STS-30STS-27STS-61-BSTS-51-JX-15X-15 Flight 91X-15 Flight 90Crew Dragon EnduranceSpaceX Crew-7SpaceX Crew-5SpaceX Crew-3Space Shuttle DiscoverySTS-133STS-131STS-128STS-119STS-124STS-120STS-116STS-121STS-114STS-105STS-102STS-92STS-103STS-96STS-95STS-91STS-85STS-82STS-70STS-63STS-64STS-60STS-51STS-56STS-53STS-42STS-48STS-39STS-41STS-31STS-33STS-29STS-26STS-51-ISTS-51-GSTS-51-DSTS-51-CSTS-51-ASTS-41-DApollo ProgramApollo-Soyuz Test ProjectApollo 17Apollo 16Apollo 15Apollo 14Apollo 13Apollo 12Apollo 11Apollo 10Apollo 9Apollo 8Apollo 7Crew Dragon ResilienceInspiration4SpaceX Crew-1Space Shuttle ChallengerSTS-51-LSTS-61-ASTS-51-FSTS-51-BSTS-41-GSTS-41-CSTS-41-BSTS-8STS-7STS-6Project GeminiGemini XIIGemini XIGemini XGemini IX-AGemini VIIIGemini VI-AGemini VIIGemini VGemini IVGemini IIIGemini 2Gemini 1Crew Dragon EndeavourSpaceX Crew-6Axiom Mission 1SpaceX Crew-2Crew Dragon Demo-2Space Shuttle ColumbiaSTS-107STS-109STS-93STS-90STS-87STS-94STS-83STS-80STS-78STS-75STS-73STS-65STS-62STS-58STS-55STS-52STS-50STS-40STS-35STS-32STS-28STS-61-CSTS-9STS-5STS-4STS-3STS-2STS-1SkylabSkylab 4Skylab 3Skylab 2Project MercuryMercury-Atlas 9Mercury-Atlas 8Mercury-Atlas 7Mercury-Atlas 6Mercury-Redstone 4Mercury-Redstone 3Soyuz programmeSoyuz MS-24Soyuz MS-23Soyuz MS-22Soyuz MS-21Soyuz MS-20Soyuz MS-19Soyuz MS-18Soyuz MS-17Soyuz MS-16Soyuz MS-15Soyuz MS-13Soyuz MS-12Soyuz MS-11Soyuz MS-09Soyuz MS-08Soyuz MS-07Soyuz MS-06Soyuz MS-05Soyuz MS-04Soyuz MS-03Soyuz MS-02Soyuz MS-01Soyuz TMA-20MSoyuz TMA-19MSoyuz TMA-18MSoyuz TMA-17MSoyuz TMA-16MSoyuz TMA-15MSoyuz TMA-14MSoyuz TMA-13MSoyuz TMA-12MSoyuz TMA-11MSoyuz TMA-10MSoyuz TMA-09MSoyuz TMA-08MSoyuz TMA-07MSoyuz TMA-06MSoyuz TMA-05MSoyuz TMA-04MSoyuz TMA-03MSoyuz TMA-22Soyuz TMA-02MSoyuz TMA-21Soyuz TMA-20Soyuz TMA-01MSoyuz TMA-19Soyuz TMA-18Soyuz TMA-17Soyuz TMA-16Soyuz TMA-15Soyuz TMA-14Soyuz TMA-13Soyuz TMA-12Soyuz TMA-11Soyuz TMA-10Soyuz TMA-9Soyuz TMA-8Soyuz TMA-7Soyuz TMA-6Soyuz TMA-5Soyuz TMA-4Soyuz TMA-3Soyuz TMA-2Soyuz TMA-1Soyuz TM-34Soyuz TM-33Soyuz TM-32Soyuz TM-31Soyuz TM-30Soyuz TM-29Soyuz TM-28Soyuz TM-27Soyuz TM-26Soyuz TM-25Soyuz TM-24Soyuz TM-23Soyuz TM-22Soyuz TM-21Soyuz TM-20Soyuz TM-19Soyuz TM-18Soyuz TM-17Soyuz TM-16Soyuz TM-15Soyuz TM-14Soyuz TM-13Soyuz TM-12Soyuz TM-11Soyuz TM-10Soyuz TM-9Soyuz TM-8Soyuz TM-7Soyuz TM-6Soyuz TM-5Soyuz TM-4Soyuz TM-3Soyuz TM-2Soyuz T-15Soyuz T-14Soyuz T-13Soyuz T-12Soyuz T-11Soyuz T-10Soyuz T-10-1Soyuz T-9Soyuz T-8Soyuz T-7Soyuz T-6Soyuz T-5Soyuz 40Soyuz 39Soyuz T-4Soyuz T-3Soyuz 38Soyuz 37Soyuz T-2Soyuz 36Soyuz 35Soyuz 34Soyuz 33Soyuz 32Soyuz 31Soyuz 30Soyuz 29Soyuz 28Soyuz 27Soyuz 26Soyuz 25Soyuz 24Soyuz 23Soyuz 22Soyuz 21Soyuz 19Soyuz 18Soyuz 18aSoyuz 17Soyuz 16Soyuz 15Soyuz 14Soyuz 13Soyuz 12Soyuz 11Soyuz 10Soyuz 9Soyuz 8Soyuz 7Soyuz 6Soyuz 5Soyuz 4Soyuz 3Soyuz 1Voskhod programmeVostok programme

List by decades

Decade Total flights Major milestones First by nationality



Soviet Union Yuri Gagarin, first human in space.
Soviet Union Valentina Tereshkova, first woman in space.
Soviet Union Alexei Leonov, first EVA.
United States Neil Armstrong, first human on the Moon.

Soviet Union Yuri Gagarin
United States Alan Shepard



United States Alfred Worden, first deep space EVA.

Czechoslovakia Vladimír Remek
Poland Mirosław Hermaszewski
East Germany Sigmund Jähn
Bulgaria Georgi Ivanov
Hungary Bertalan Farkas
Vietnam Phạm Tuân
Cuba Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez



United States Bruce McCandless II, first untethered spacewalk.

Mongolia Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa
Romania Dumitru Prunariu
France Jean-Loup Chrétien
Germany Ulf Merbold
India Rakesh Sharma
Canada Marc Garneau
Saudi Arabia Sultan Salman Al Saud
Netherlands Wubbo J. Ockels
Syria Mohammed Faris
Afghanistan Abdul Ahad Mohmand
Mexico Rodolfo Neri Vela
Japan Toyohiro Akiyama



Russia Yuri Gidzenko, Russia Sergei Krikalev and United States William M. Shepherd, first crew on ISS.

United Kingdom Helen Sharman
Austria Franz Viehböck
Belgium Dirk Frimout
Russia Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Kaleri
Switzerland Claude Nicollier
Italy Franco Malerba
Ukraine Leonid Kadeniuk
Spain Pedro Duque
Slovakia Ivan Bella

2000s 61

United States Dennis Tito, first paying space tourist.
SpaceShipOne flight 16P, first private suborbital flight

South Africa Mark Shuttleworth
Israel Ilan Ramon
China Yang Liwei
Sweden Christer Fuglesang
Malaysia Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor
South Korea Yi So-yeon



Denmark Andreas Mogensen
Kazakhstan Aidyn Aimbetov
United Arab Emirates Hazza Al Mansouri


26 Inspiration4, first private orbital flight Pakistan Namira Salim
Turkey Alper Gezeravcı

See also


  1. ^ Dates in this table refer only to actual flights, and not the broader duration of their associated programs. For example, while Project Gemini was begun in 1961 and concluded in 1966, its crewed spaceflights occurred only from 1965–1966.
  2. ^ Soyuz missions include the following: two fatal missions, Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11, both of which reached space; Soyuz 18a, a non-fatal aborted mission which reached space as a sub-orbital flight; Soyuz 19, the Soviet participant in the Apollo–Soyuz; and Soyuz T-10a, a non-fatal accident in which the crewed launch was aborted due to a fire, failing to reach space.
  3. ^ Soyuz missions include Soyuz MS-10.
  4. ^ Following the Apollo program, the Skylab and Apollo–Soyuz flights also used Apollo hardware.
  5. ^ includes two fatal missions, STS-51-L, and STS-107. The former did not reach space, while the latter did. Includes X-15 flights over 80 km (50 miles).
  6. ^ Includes VP-03 and VF-01