Boeing Starliner
Starliner SC-2 approaching the ISS in May 2022, during OFT2
Country of originUnited States
ApplicationsISS crew and cargo transport
Spacecraft typeCrewed capsule
Launch mass13,000 kg (29,000 lb)
Crew capacityUp to 7
  • Diameter (CM): 4.56 m (15.0 ft)[3]
  • Length (CM and SM): 5.03 m (16.5 ft)[3]
Volume11 m3 (390 cu ft)[4]
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Design life
  • 60 hours (free flight)[1]
  • 210 days (docked)[1][2]
StatusIn development and testing
Maiden launchDecember 20, 2019, 11:36:43 UTC (uncrewed)

The Boeing Starliner (or CST-100[a], or simply Starliner) is a class of two partially reusable spacecraft designed to transport crew to the International Space Station (ISS) and other low-Earth-orbit destinations.[5][6][7] It is manufactured by Boeing, with the Commercial Crew Program (CCP) of NASA as the anchor customer.[8] The spacecraft consists of a reusable crew capsule and an expendable service module.

The capsule has a diameter of 4.56 m (15.0 ft), slightly larger than either the Apollo command module or SpaceX Crew Dragon and smaller than the Artemis Orion capsule.[3] Starliner can hold a crew of up to seven people and can remain docked to the ISS for up to seven months. The Starliner capsule is designed for reuse on up to ten missions.[9] Starliner is launched on Atlas V from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida.

After several rounds of competitive development contracts within the Commercial Crew Program starting in 2010, NASA selected Starliner, along with the SpaceX Crew Dragon, for the Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contract round.[10][11][12][13] The first crewed test flight test was initially planned to occur in 2017.[13]

After a lengthy development process with multiple delays, Boeing flew the Orbital Flight Test 2 on May 19, 2022. As of November 20, 2023, the Crewed Flight Test has been delayed until no earlier than April 14, 2024.[14] This is expected to be the last test flight before Starliner enters operational service with the Starliner-1 mission in 2025.

Spacecraft characteristics

Starliner mockup, capsule without service module

Starliner is designed for missions to low Earth orbit and accommodates seven passengers, or a mix of crew and cargo. For NASA missions to the ISS it will carry four passengers and a small amount of cargo. The Starliner capsule uses a weldless structure and is reusable up to 10 times with a six-month turnaround time. Boeing plans to alternate between two reusable crew modules for all planned Starliner missions. Each flight uses a new service module, which provides propulsion and power-generation capacity for the spacecraft. Starliner features wireless Internet and tablet technology for crew interfaces.[15]

Starliner uses the NASA Docking System.[16][17][18] Boeing modified the design of the Starliner docking system prior to OFT-2, adding a re-entry cover below the expendable nosecone for additional protection during atmospheric entry, similar to the one used in the SpaceX Dragon 2 nosecone. This was tested on the OFT-2 mission. As in the SpaceX design this re-entry cover is hinged.[19][20][21]

The capsule uses the Boeing Lightweight Ablator for its re-entry heat shield.[22]

Solar cells provided by Boeing subsidiary Spectrolab are installed onto the aft face of the service module, providing 2.9 kW of electricity.[23] The service module includes four Rocketdyne RS-88 engines burning hypergolic propellants, which will be used for launch escape capability in the event of an abort.[24]

In addition to the capsule and service module, a 1.78 m-long (5 ft 10 in) structure called an aeroskirt is integrated into the launch vehicle adapter of Atlas V. The aeroskirt provides aerodynamic stability and dampens the shock waves that come from the front of the rocket.[25]


Further information: Development of the Commercial Crew Program

Starliner was unveiled in 2010 as the CST-100, as Boeing's first commercially developed space capsule, where the company would take on the financial risk for development, rather than the US government under cost-plus contracting. The company stated that the capsule would draw upon Boeing's experience with NASA's Apollo, Space Shuttle and ISS programs as well as the Orbital Express project sponsored by the Department of Defense.[26] The new design was intended to be compatible with multiple launch vehicles, including the ULA Atlas V and Delta IV, and the SpaceX Falcon 9 at the time,[27][28] In July 2010, Boeing stated that the capsule could be operational as early as 2015 with sufficient near-term approvals and funding.[26]

In October 2011, NASA announced that the Orbiter Processing Facility-3 at Kennedy Space Center would be leased to Boeing for manufacture and test of Starliner, through a partnership with Space Florida.[29]

On September 16, 2014, NASA chose Boeing (Starliner) and SpaceX (Crew Dragon) as the two companies to be funded to develop systems to transport U.S. government crews to and from the International Space Station. Boeing won a US$4.2 billion contract to complete and certify the Starliner by 2017, while SpaceX won a US$2.6 billion contract to complete and certify their crewed Dragon spacecraft. The contracts include at least one crewed flight test with at least one NASA astronaut aboard. Once the Starliner achieves NASA certification, the initial contract required Boeing to conduct at least two, and as many as six, crewed missions to the space station.[30] NASA's William H. Gerstenmaier had considered the Starliner proposal as stronger than the Crew Dragon and Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser spacecraft.[31] As of 2014, the capsule was to include one space tourist seat, and the Boeing contract with NASA would allow Boeing to price and sell passage to low-Earth orbit using that seat.[32]

On September 4, 2015, Boeing announced that the spacecraft would officially be called the CST-100 Starliner, following the naming conventions of the 787 Dreamliner produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.[33] In November 2015, NASA announced that it had dropped Boeing from consideration in the multibillion-dollar Commercial Resupply Services second-phase competition to fly cargo to the International Space Station.[34]

In May 2016, Boeing delayed its first scheduled Starliner launch from 2017 to early 2018.[35][36] Then in October 2016, Boeing delayed its program by six months, from early 2018 to late 2018, following supplier holdups and a production problem on the Spacecraft 2. By 2016, they were hoping to fly NASA astronauts to the ISS by December 2018.[35][37]

In April 2018, NASA suggested that the first planned two-person flight of the Starliner, then slated for November 2018, would likely be in 2019 or 2020. It was expected to carry one additional crew member and extra supplies. Instead of staying for two weeks, as originally planned, NASA said that the expanded crew could stay at the station for as long as six months as a normal rotational flight.[38]

In November 2019, NASA's Office of Inspector General released a report revealing that a change to Boeing's contract had occurred in 2016,[39] stating: "For Boeing’s third through sixth crewed missions, we found that NASA agreed to pay an additional $287.2 million above Boeing’s fixed prices to mitigate a perceived 18-month gap in ISS flights anticipated in 2019 and to ensure the contractor continued as a second commercial crew provider", and NASA and Boeing committed to six missions instead of the last four being optional.[40]

After the failure of its first uncrewed orbital test flight in late 2019, NASA agreed that Boeing would fund another uncrewed orbital test, OFT-2, in August 2021. That launch was stopped late in the countdown due to valve problems. By late September 2021, Boeing had not determined the root cause of the problem, and the flight was delayed indefinitely.[41] After analysis and corrective actions it was launched on May 19, 2022, and completed a successful mission to the ISS, clearing the way for the crewed flight test.[42]

After various delays pushed the planned launch of the Crewed Flight Test to 21 July 2023,[43] Boeing announced in June 2023 that it would delay indefinitely due to issues with the parachute system and wiring harnesses.[44] The mission entails flying a crew of two NASA astronauts to the International Space Station for a one-week test flight.


Boeing funded development of Starliner in 2010 only after both commercial space station opportunities and NASA commercial crew contracts on offer allowed the business case to close. While the company had received $18 million under the NASA Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) contract by 2010 for early design work, substantial Boeing private funds would be required to complete development, even with Boeing competing for additional NASA contracts.[26] This exposed Boeing to ordinary business financial risk that had not been a large part of traditional cost-plus contracting that Boeing had previously done for work on space capsules.

Boeing was awarded a US$92.3 million contract by NASA in April 2011 to continue to develop the CST-100 under CCDev phase 2.[45] On August 3, 2012, NASA announced the award of US$460 million to Boeing to continue work on the CST-100 under the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) program.[12]

Due to delays and technical problems, Boeing has taken a number of charges against earnings for the Starliner program by 2022. This includes $410 million in 2020, $185 million in October 2021,[46] and $288 million through the third quarter of 2022.[47]

Launch profile

The Atlas V N22 (no fairing, two SRBs, and 2 Centaur engines) launches the Starliner. After passing through the stages of max q, SRB jettison, booster separation, Centaur ignition, nosecone and aeroskirt jettison, it finally releases the Starliner spacecraft at stage separation, nearly 15 minutes after lift-off on a 181 km-high (112 mi) suborbital trajectory, just below the orbital velocity needed to enter a stable orbit around Earth. After separating from the Dual Engine Centaur, the Starliner's own thrusters, mounted on its service module, boost the spacecraft into orbit to continue its journey to the International Space Station.

The suborbital trajectory is unusual for a satellite launch, but it is similar to the technique used by the Space Shuttle and Space Launch System. It makes sure the upper stage of the rocket re-enters the atmosphere in a controlled way. The Starliner's orbit insertion burn begins about 31 minutes into the mission and lasts 45 seconds.[48]

The N22 configuration is specific to Starliner. All other Atlas V payloads require fairings, but Starliner cannot use a fairing because it must be able to perform a "launch abort". In addition, all other Atlas V payloads use the single-engine version of the Centaur upper stage, but Starliner uses the two-engine version to provide more flexible abort options in the case of failures in the later phases of the launch. These changes increase crew safety. Starliner is the only crewed payload for Atlas V.


Starliner pressure vessel at the former Orbiter Processing Facility in October 2011, showing its isogrid construction
Wind-tunnel testing of Starliner's outer mold line in December 2011

The CST-100 (Crew Space Transportation-100) name was first used when the capsule was revealed to the public by Bigelow Aerospace CEO Robert Bigelow in June 2010.[49] The letters CST stand for Crew Space Transportation.[50] It was often reported that the number 100 in the name stands for 100 km (62 mi), the height of the Kármán line, which is one of several definitions of the boundary of space.[51][52] The design draws upon Boeing's experience with NASA's Apollo, Space Shuttle and ISS programs, as well as the Orbital Express project sponsored by the Department of Defense.[26] (Starliner has no Orion heritage, but it is sometimes confused with the earlier and similar Orion-derived Orion Lite proposal that Bigelow Aerospace was reportedly working on with technical assistance from Lockheed Martin.[53])

Receiving the full fixed-price payments for the Commercial Crew Program Phase 1 Space Act Agreement required a set of specific milestones to be met during 2010:[54]

Part of the agreement with NASA allows Boeing to sell seats for space tourists on CCP flights to the ISS. Boeing proposed including one seat per flight for a space-flight participant at a price that would be competitive with what Roscosmos charges tourists.[55] Under the contract the Starliners are owned and operated by Boeing, not NASA, and Boeing is free to offer non-CCP commercial flights if they do not interfere with the contracted CCP flights.

Boeing designed the capsule to make airbag-cushioned landings on the ground rather than into water like earlier US space capsules, with five landing areas planned in the Western United States, enabling ≈450 landing opportunities each year.[56]


Test of Starliner's airbags in April 2012
Starliner ignites its RS-88 abort engines during a pad abort test in November 2019.

A variety of validation tests began on test articles in 2011 and continued on actual spacecraft starting in 2019.

In September 2011, Boeing announced the completion of a set of ground drop tests to validate the design of the airbag cushioning system. The airbags are located underneath the heat shield of the Starliner, which is designed to be separated from the capsule while under parachute descent at about 1,500 m (4,900 ft) altitude. The airbags, manufactured by ILC Dover, are deployed by filling with a mixture of compressed nitrogen and oxygen gas, not with the pyro-explosive mixture sometimes used in automotive airbags. The tests were carried out in the Mojave Desert of southeast California, at ground speeds between 16 and 48 km/h (10 and 30 mph) in order to simulate crosswind conditions at the time of landing. Bigelow Aerospace built the mobile test rig and conducted the tests.[50]

In April 2012, Boeing dropped a mock-up of its Starliner over the Nevada desert at the Delamar Dry Lake, Nevada, successfully testing the craft's three main landing parachutes from 3,400 m (11,200 ft).[57]

In August 2013, Boeing announced that two NASA astronauts evaluated communications, ergonomics, and crew-interface aspects of the Starliner, showing how future astronauts will operate in the spacecraft as it transports them to the International Space Station and other low Earth orbit destinations.[58]

Boeing reported in May 2016 that its test schedule would slip by eight months in order to reduce the mass of the spacecraft, address aerodynamics issues anticipated during launch and ascent on the Atlas V rocket, and meet new NASA-imposed software requirements.[59] The Orbital Flight Test was scheduled for spring 2019. The booster for this Orbital Flight Test, an Atlas V N22 rocket, was assembled at United Launch Alliance's (ULA) facility at Decatur, Alabama by the end of 2017.[60] The first crewed flight (Boe-CFT) was scheduled for summer 2019, pending test results from Boe-OFT. It was planned to last 14 days and carry one NASA astronaut and one Boeing test pilot to the ISS.[61] On April 5, 2018, NASA announced that the first planned two-person flight, originally slated for November 2018, was likely to occur in 2019 or 2020.[62] In July 2018, Boeing announced the assignment of former NASA astronaut Christopher Ferguson to the Boe-CFT mission. On August 3, 2018, NASA named its first Commercial Crew astronaut cadre of four veteran astronauts to work with SpaceX and Boeing: Robert Behnken, Eric Boe, Sunita Williams, and Douglas Hurley.[63]

In July 2018, a test anomaly was reported in which there was a hypergolic propellant leak due to several faulty abort-system valves. Consequentially, the first unpiloted orbital mission was delayed to April 2019, and the first crew launch rescheduled to August 2019.[64][65] In March 2019, Reuters reported that these test flights had been delayed by at least three months,[66] and in April 2019 Boeing announced that the unpiloted orbital mission was scheduled for August 2019.[67]

In May 2019, all major hot-fire testing, including simulations of low-altitude abort-thruster testing, was completed using a full up to service module test article that was "flight-like", meaning that the service module test rig used in the hot-fire testing included fuel and helium tanks, reaction control system, orbital maneuvering, and attitude-control thrusters, launch abort engines and all necessary fuel lines and avionics that will be used for crewed missions. This cleared the way for the pad abort test and the subsequent uncrewed and crewed flights.[68]

A pad abort test took place on November 4, 2019.[69] The capsule accelerated away from its pad, but then one of the three parachutes failed to deploy, and the capsule landed with only two parachutes.[70][71] Landing was, however, deemed safe, and the test a success. Boeing did not expect the malfunction of one parachute to affect the Starliner development schedule.[72]

First orbital flight test

Main article: Boeing Orbital Flight Test

Starliner landed at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico following OFT in December 2019.

OFT-1 an uncrewed orbital flight test launched on December 20, 2019, but after deployment, an 11-hour offset in the mission clock of Starliner caused the spacecraft to compute that "it was in an orbital insertion burn", when it was not. This caused the attitude control thrusters to consume more fuel than planned, precluding a docking with the International Space Station.[73][74] The spacecraft landed at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, two days after launch.[75] After the successful landing, the spacecraft was named Calypso (after the research vessel RV Calypso for the oceanographic researcher Jacques-Yves Cousteau) by the commander of the Boeing Starliner-1 mission, NASA astronaut Sunita Williams.[76] The flight carried an Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) wearing Boeing's blue IVA spacesuit, named "Rosie the Rocketeer".[77]

Two software errors detected during the test, one of which prevented a planned docking with the International Space Station, could each have led to the destruction of the spacecraft, had they not been caught and corrected in time, NASA said on February 7, 2020. A joint NASA–Boeing investigation team found that "the two critical software defects were not detected ahead of flight despite multiple safeguards", according to an agency statement. "Ground intervention prevented the loss of the vehicle in both cases". Before re-entry, engineers discovered the second critical software error that affected the thruster firings needed to safely jettison the Starliner's service module. The service module software error "incorrectly translated" the jettison thruster firing sequence.[78]

With the completion of the NASA/Boeing investigation into the Starliner OFT-1 flight of December 2019, the review team identified 80 recommendations that Boeing, in collaboration with NASA, was addressing in 2020, when action plans for each were already well under way. Since the full list of these recommendations are company-sensitive and proprietary, only those changes publicly disclosed are known.[79]

Second orbital flight test

Main article: Boeing Orbital Flight Test 2

Because OFT-1 did not achieve its objectives, Boeing officials said on April 6, 2020 that the Starliner crew capsule would fly a second uncrewed demonstration mission, Orbital flight test 2 (OFT-2), before flying astronauts. NASA said that it had accepted a recommendation from Boeing to fly a second unpiloted mission. The Washington Post reported that the second orbital flight test, with much the same objectives as the first, was expected to launch from Cape Canaveral "sometime in October or November 2020". Boeing said that it would fund the unplanned crew capsule test flight "at no cost to the taxpayer". Boeing told investors earlier in 2020 that it was taking a US$410 million charge against its earnings to cover the expected costs of a second unpiloted test flight.[80] Boeing officials said on August 25, 2020 that they set the stage for the first Starliner demonstration mission with astronauts in mid-2021.[19] Boeing modified the design of the Starliner docking system prior to OFT-2 to add a re-entry cover for additional protection during the capsule's fiery descent through the atmosphere. This re-entry cover is hinged, like the SpaceX design. Teams also installed the OFT-2 spacecraft's propellant heater, thermal-protection tiles, and the airbags used to cushion the capsule's landing. The crew module for the OFT-2 mission began acceptance testing in August 2020, which is designed to validate the spacecraft's systems before it is mated with its service module, according to NASA.[19][20][21] On November 10, 2020, NASA's Commercial Crew Program manager Steve Stich said that the second orbital flight test would be delayed until first quarter 2021 due to software issues.[81] The uncrewed test continued to slip, with the OFT-2 uncrewed test flight being scheduled for March 2021 and the crewed flight targeted for a launch the following summer.[82] The launch date of OFT-2 moved again with the earliest estimated launch date set for August 2021.[83]

During the August 2021 launch window some issues were detected with 13 propulsion-system valves in the spacecraft prior to launch. The spacecraft had already been mated to its launch rocket, United Launch Alliance's (ULA) Atlas V, and taken to the launchpad. Attempts to fix the problem while on the launchpad failed, and the rocket was returned to the ULA's VIF (Vertical Integration Facility). Attempts to fix the problem at the VIF also failed, and Boeing decided to return the spacecraft to the factory, thus cancelling the launch at that launch window.[84][85] There was a commercial dispute between Boeing and Aerojet Rocketdyne over responsibility for fixing the problem.[86] The valves had been corroded by intrusion of moisture, which interacted with the propellant, but the source of the moisture was not apparent. By late September 2021, Boeing had not determined the root cause of the problem, and the flight was delayed indefinitely.[41] Through October 2021, NASA and Boeing continued to make progress and were "working toward launch opportunities in the first half of 2022",[87] In December 2021, Boeing decided to replace the entire service module and anticipated OFT-2 to occur in May 2022.[88][89]

The OFT-2 mission launched on May 19, 2022.[90] It again carried Rosie the Rocketeer test dummy suited in the blue Boeing inflight spacesuit.[91][92] Two Orbital Maneuvering and Attitude Control System (OMACS) thrusters failed during the orbital insertion burn, but the spacecraft was able to compensate using the remaining OMACS thrusters with the addition of the Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters. A couple of RCS thrusters used to maneuver Starliner also failed during docking due to low chamber pressure. Some thermal systems used to cool the spacecraft showed extra cold temperatures, requiring engineers to manage it during the docking.[93][94]

On May 22, the capsule docked with the International Space Station.[95] On May 25, the capsule returned from space and landed successfully.[96] During reentry one of the navigation systems dropped communication with the GPS satellites, but Steve Stich, program manager for NASA's Commercial Crew Program, said this is not unexpected during reentry.[97]

Crewed flight test

Main article: Boeing Crewed Flight Test

The last planned test flight is the crewed flight test. The Crewed Flight Test will send a crew of two to the ISS for a short stay. This is the final test flight of Starliner, which will be cleared to begin operational flights after the results of this test are evaluated.[98]

Although it had an original goal of 2017,[13] various delays pushed this back to no earlier than July 2023.[43] Then on June 1, 2023, Boeing announced the flight was indefinitely delayed, due to problems with the parachute harness and flammable tape on wiring.[99] On August 7, 2023, Boeing announced their plans for the launch. They intend to address the issue with the flammable tape by September 2023, while the work on the parachute harness is expected to finish in November 2023. As of 12 October 2023 Boeing is confident that the spacecraft will be ready by March 2024, but NASA stated that it cannot launch before mid-April due to the ISS docking schedule.[14]

Commercial use

On October 25, 2021, Blue Origin, Boeing, and Sierra Nevada Corporation's Sierra Space subsidiary for commercial space activities and space tourism released their plan for a commercial space station.[100] The station, called Orbital Reef, is intended as a "mixed-use business park".[101] Boeing was announced as a partner and Starliner, along with the Sierra Nevada Corporation's Dream Chaser, was chosen as one of the commercial spacecraft to transport commercial crew to and from the space station.[102]

Launch vehicle availability

Starliner is compatible with Atlas V, Delta IV, Falcon 9, and Vulcan Centaur. Delta IV is retired and no longer available.[103] ULA has announced that Atlas V is retiring and all remaining Atlas V launchers have been allocated to customers.[104] As of 2 July 2022, seven of these have been allocated to Starliner flights; enough for the crewed flight test and six operational missions. ULA plans to have Vulcan Centaur available in time for any additional flights.

List of spacecraft

As of January 2020, Boeing planned to have three Boeing Starliner spacecraft in service to fulfill the needs of the Commercial Crew Program with each spacecraft expected to be capable of being reused up to ten times with a six-month refurbishment time.[105][106] On August 25, 2020, Boeing announced its plan to alternate between just two capsules for all planned Starliner missions instead of three.[19]

Image Designation Name Status Flights Time in flight Notes Cat.
Spacecraft 1 None Retired 1 0 d, 00:01:35 Test article.
Retired after the Pad Abort Test.[107][108][109]
Spacecraft 2 TBA Active 1 5 d, 23:55 Completed the OFT-2 flight.[109]
Spacecraft 3 Calypso Active 1 2 d, 01:22:10 Named after Calypso.[108]
First Starliner to orbit, OFT.[108][109]

List of flights

List includes only completed or currently manifested missions. Launch dates are listed in UTC.

Mission Patch Vehicle Launch date, UTC Crew Remarks Duration Outcome
Boe-PAT S1 November 4, 2019, 14:15:00 Pad abort test at White Sands. Two of three parachutes opened and the system functioned adequately.[72] 95 seconds Success
Boe-OFT S3.1
December 19, 2019, 11:36:43 First uncrewed orbital test flight of Starliner. Orbited but failed to rendezvous with ISS. Landed successfully.[110][111][112][75] 2 days Partial failure
Boe-OFT 2 S2.1 May 19, 2022, 22:54:47[113] Second uncrewed orbital test flight of Starliner. Docked with the ISS.[114] Valve problems stopped an August 3, 2021 launch attempt.[41][88][89][115] 6 days Success
Boe-CFT S3.2 ♺
14 April 2024[14] First crewed test flight of Boeing Starliner. 7 days Planned
Starliner-1 S2.2 ♺ NET 2025[117] First operational flight of Boeing Starliner.[120] 6 months Planned
Starliner-2 to Starliner-6 Alternating S2 and S3 ♺ 2026–2030
  • United States TBA
  • United States TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA
NASA contracted Boeing for five more operational flights to the ISS.[121][122] 6 months Planned

Hardware on display

A full-scale model of the Capsule is on display at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex.[123]

Technology partners

See also


  1. ^ CST is an initialism for Crew Space Transportation.


  1. ^ a b Reiley, Keith; Burghardt, Michael; Wood, Michael; Ingham, Jay; Lembeck, Michael (2011). "Design Considerations for a Commercial Crew Transportation System" (PDF). AIAA SPACE 2011 Conference & Exposition. AIAA SPACE 2011 Conference & Exposition. September 27–29, 2011. Long Beach, California. doi:10.2514/6.2011-7101. ISBN 978-1-60086-953-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 1, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  2. ^ Carreau, Mark (July 24, 2013). "Boeing Refines CST-100 Commercial Crew Capsule Approach". Aviation Week. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Burghardt, Mike (August 2011). "Boeing CST-100: Commercial Crew Transportation System" (PDF). Boeing. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 1, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  4. ^ Krebs, Gunther (April 2017). "Starliner (CST-100)". Gunther's Space Page. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  5. ^ Memi, Edmund G.; Morgan, Adam K. (September 23, 2009). "Boeing Submits Proposal for NASA Commercial Crew Transport System" (Press release). Boeing.
  6. ^ "Boeing's New CST-100 'Starliner' Processing Facility Taking Shape at KSC". September 4, 2015.
  7. ^ NASA.govPublic Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ "CST-100 Starliner - Customers". Boeing.
  9. ^ "Boeing: Crew Space Transportation (CST) System". Boeing. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  10. ^ Memi, Edmund G.; Gold, Michael N. (February 2, 2010). "NASA Selects Boeing for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Award to Study Crew Capsule-based Design" (Press release). Boeing.
  11. ^ Morring, Jr., Frank (April 25, 2011). "Five Vehicles Vie For Future Of U.S. Human Spaceflight". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on May 9, 2014. "the CCDev-2 awards... went to Blue Origin, Boeing, Sierra Nevada Corp. and Space Exploration Technologies Inc. (SpaceX)
  12. ^ a b "Boeing, SpaceX and Sierra Nevada Win CCiCAP Awards". SpaceNews. August 3, 2012. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013.
  13. ^ a b c "Boeing and SpaceX Selected to Build America's New Crew Space Transportation System". NASA. September 16, 2014. Retrieved April 6, 2015. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ a b c Sturm, Karin (November 20, 2023). "Stars aligning for Boeing crew launch in April". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved November 21, 2023.
  15. ^ "A 21st Century Space Capsule". Boeing. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
  16. ^ Grondin, Yves-A. (August 5, 2013). "NASA Outlines its Plans for Commercial Crew Certification".
  17. ^ Commercial Space Flight Panel. SpaceUp Houston. 2011. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  18. ^ Messier, Doug (March 23, 2011). "Update on Boeing CST-100 Crew program". Parabolic Arc.
  19. ^ a b c d Clark, Stephen (August 25, 2020). "Boeing plans second Starliner test flight in December 2020 or January 2021". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
  20. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (January 18, 2021). "Boeing making progress on Starliner software for test flight in March". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  21. ^ a b Howell, Elizabeth (January 21, 2021). "Boeing's Starliner spacecraft software passes qualification review for next NASA test flight". Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  22. ^ Latrell, Joe (July 28, 2015). "Boeing's CST-100 takes shape at former NASA facility". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  23. ^ "Spectrolab Solar Cells to Power Boeing's Starliner Spacecraft". November 17, 2016. Archived from the original on August 5, 2018. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  24. ^ Weitering, Hanneke (April 24, 2019). "The Emergency Launch Abort Systems of SpaceX and Boeing Explained". Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  25. ^ Mike Wall (December 19, 2019). "Boeing's Starliner Atlas V Rocket Ride Is Wearing a 'Skirt' for Launch. Here's Why". Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  26. ^ a b c d Clark, Stephen (July 21, 2010). "Boeing space capsule could be operational by 2015". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  27. ^ Lindenmoyer, Alan (2010). Commercial Crew and Cargo Program (PDF). 13th Annual FAA Commercial Space Transportation Conference February 10–11, 2010 Arlington, Virginia. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2010.
  28. ^ Wall, Mike (August 3, 2018). "Crew Dragon and Starliner: A Look at the Upcoming Astronaut Taxis". Retrieved August 29, 2020.
  29. ^ Weaver, David; Curie, Michael; Philman, Amber; Lange, Tina; Korn, Paula (October 31, 2011). "NASA Signs Agreement with Space Florida to Reuse Kennedy Facilities" (Press release). NASA. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  30. ^ Schierholz, Stephanie; Martin, Stephanie (September 16, 2014). "NASA Chooses American Companies to Transport U.S. Astronauts to International Space Station". NASA. Retrieved September 18, 2014. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  31. ^ Norris, Guy (October 11, 2014). "Why NASA Rejected Sierra Nevada's Commercial Crew Vehicle". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  32. ^ "Boeing space taxi has tourist seat". Canadian Broadcasting Company. Thomson Reuters. September 18, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  33. ^ Clark, Stephen (September 4, 2015). "Enter the Starliner: Boeing names its commercial spaceship". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  34. ^ Rhian, Jason (November 6, 2015). "NASA delays CRS 2 awards again, drops Boeing from consideration". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  35. ^ a b Berger, Eric (October 11, 2016). "Boeing delays Starliner again, casting doubt on commercial flights in 2018". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  36. ^ Berger, Eric (May 11, 2016). "Boeing's first crewed Starliner launch slips to 2018". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  37. ^ Norris, Guy (October 10, 2016). "Boeing Delays CST-100, Still Targets 2018 ISS Mission". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  38. ^ Pasztor, Andy (April 5, 2018). "NASA, Boeing Signal Regular Missions to Space Station to Be Delayed". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  39. ^ Foust, Jeff (November 14, 2019). "NASA inspector general criticizes additional Boeing commercial crew payments". Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  40. ^ "NASA's Management of Crew Transportation to the International Space Station" (PDF). November 14, 2019. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  41. ^ a b c Davenport, Christian (September 24, 2021). "Nearly two months after discovering a problem with its Starliner spacecraft, Boeing is still searching for answers". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  42. ^ Berger, Eric (July 1, 2022). "Yes, Boeing's Starliner spacecraft really could fly astronauts this year". Ars Technica. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  43. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (March 29, 2023). "Starliner crewed test flight delayed to July". SpaceNews. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  44. ^ Berger, Eric (June 1, 2023). "Boeing finds two serious problems with Starliner just weeks before launch". Ars Technica.
  45. ^ Dean, James (April 18, 2011). "NASA awards US$270 million for commercial crew efforts". Florida Today. The Flame Trench. Archived from the original on April 19, 2011.
  46. ^ Smith, Marcia (October 27, 2021). "Boeing Takes Additional $185 Million Earnings Charge For Starliner". Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  47. ^ Foust, Jeff (October 26, 2022). "Boeing's Starliner charges approach $900 million". SpaceNews. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  48. ^ Stephen Clark (May 19, 2022). "Boeing's Starliner crew capsule takes off on long-awaited test flight". Spaceflight Now.
  49. ^ a b Gedmark, John; Gold, Mike (June 16, 2010). "Bigelow Aerospace Joins the Commercial Spaceflight Federation" (Press release). Commercial Spaceflight Federation.
  50. ^ a b Memi, Edmund G. (September 12, 2011). "Space capsule tests aim to ensure safe landings". Boeing. Archived from the original on September 24, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  51. ^ Memi, Edmund G.; Morgan, Adam K. (July 19, 2010). "Boeing CST-100 Spacecraft to Provide Commercial Crew Transportation Services" (Press release). Boeing.
  52. ^ Chow, Denise (July 19, 2010). "New Spaceship Could Fly People to Private Space Stations".
  53. ^ Klamper, Amy (August 14, 2009). "Company pitches 'lite' spaceship to NASA". NBC News. Retrieved September 7, 2009.
  54. ^ CCDev (February 2010). "Space Act Agreement Between NASA and The Boeing Company for Commercial Crew Development (CCDev)" (PDF). NASA. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  55. ^ Klotz, Irene (September 17, 2014). "Boeing's 'space taxi' includes seat for a tourist". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
  56. ^ Clark, Stephen (September 22, 2015). "Boeing identifies CST-100 prime landing sites". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
  57. ^ Clark, Stephen (April 3, 2012). "Parachutes for Boeing crew capsule tested over Nevada". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  58. ^ "Boeing Space Capsule One Step Closer to Orbit". NYSE Big Stage. August 19, 2013. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013.
  59. ^ Foust, Jeff (May 12, 2016). "Boeing delays first crewed CST-100 flight to 2018". SpaceNews.
  60. ^ Rhian, Jason (January 4, 2018). "Boeing CST-100 Starliner one step closer to flight with completion of DCR". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  61. ^ Bergin, Chris (November 27, 2017). "Boeing Starliner trio preparing for test flights". Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  62. ^ Pasztor, Andy (April 5, 2018). "NASA, Boeing Signal Regular Missions to Space Station to Be Delayed". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  63. ^ NASA Commercial Crew (August 3, 2018). "NASA Assigns Crews to First Test Flights, Missions on Commercial Spacecraft". NASA. Retrieved August 3, 2018. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  64. ^ "NASA's Commercial Crew Program Target Test Flight Dates". October 4, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2018. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  65. ^ "Commercial Crew Program – February 6, 2019". Retrieved February 6, 2019. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  66. ^ Eric M. Johnson (March 20, 2019). "Boeing delays by months test flights for U.S. human space program: sources". Reuters. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  67. ^ Clark, Stephen (April 2, 2019). "Boeing delays first Starliner test flight to August, NASA extends duration of first crew mission". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  68. ^ Clark, Stephen (May 25, 2019). "Boeing's Starliner crew capsule completes major propulsion test". Spaceflight Now.
  69. ^ Clark, Stephen. "Boeing tests crew capsule escape system". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  70. ^ Berger, Eric (November 4, 2019). "Starliner flies for the first time, but one of its parachutes failed to deploy". Ars Technica.
  71. ^ "Boeing statement regarding CST-100 Starliner pad abort test". Boeing. November 4, 2019. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  72. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (November 4, 2019). "Boeing tests crew capsule escape system". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
  73. ^ "Starliner suffers "off-nominal" orbital insertion after launch". SpaceNews. December 20, 2019. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  74. ^ Sheetz, Michael (December 20, 2019). "Boeing Starliner fails mission, can't reach space station after flying into wrong orbit". CNBC. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  75. ^ a b Amos, Jonathan (December 20, 2019). "Boeing astronaut ship stalls in orbit". BBC News.
  76. ^ Lewis, Marie (December 22, 2019). "Tune in for Starliner Postlanding News Conference". NASA Commercial Crew Program. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  77. ^ Rachael Joy (November 21, 2019). "Remember Rosie the Riveter? Meet Rosie the Rocketeer". Florida Today.
  78. ^ Harwood, William (February 7, 2020). "NASA, Boeing managers admit problems with Starliner software verification". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
  79. ^ "NASA and Boeing Complete Orbital Flight Test Reviews". NASA. July 7, 2020. Retrieved August 29, 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  80. ^ Clark, Steven (April 7, 2020). "After problem-plagued test flight, Boeing will refly crew capsule without astronauts". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
  81. ^ Malik, Tariq (November 11, 2020). "NASA says Boeing's next Starliner test flight won't launch until 2021". Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  82. ^ "NASA and Boeing Target New Launch Date for Next Starliner Flight Test". Boeing. December 9, 2020. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  83. ^ "Boeing and NASA Update Launch Target for Next Starliner Test Flight". Boeing. May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  84. ^ "Starliner Returning to Factory to Resolve Valve Issue". Boeing. August 13, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  85. ^ Sheetz, Michael (August 13, 2021). "Boeing delays test flight of Starliner crew spacecraft for at least two months after valve problems". CNBC. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  86. ^ "Boeing's Starliner capsule docks for first time with International Space Station". The Guardian. Reuters. May 21, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  87. ^ Wall, Mike (October 9, 2021). "Boeing's next Starliner test launch for NASA slips to 2022". Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  88. ^ a b "Boeing Starliner test flight planned for spring 2022". SpaceNews. December 20, 2021. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
  89. ^ a b Berger, Eric (December 14, 2021). "Leaky valve issue forces Boeing to swap out Starliner's service module". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
  90. ^ William Graham (May 19, 2022). "Starliner OFT-2 launch makes it to orbit, heading to ISS".
  91. ^ @BoeingSpace (May 21, 2022). "@NASA_Astronauts open Starliner's hatch on @Space_Station for the first time and welcome #RosieTheRocketeer and Jebediah Kerman" (Tweet). Archived from the original on May 23, 2022 – via Twitter.
  92. ^ Elizabeth Howell (May 16, 2022). "Rosie the Rocketeer: Meet the dummy flying on Boeing's OFT-2 test flight this week".
  93. ^ Grush, Loren (May 25, 2022). "Boeing's Starliner spacecraft returns to Earth, wrapping up critical test mission - The Verge". The Verge. The Verge. Retrieved September 19, 2022.
  94. ^ Rabie, Passant (May 20, 2022). "Boeing's Starliner On Track to Reach ISS Despite Propulsion Glitch". Gizmodo. Gizmodo. Retrieved September 19, 2022.
  95. ^ Eric Mack (May 21, 2022). "Boeing Successfully Docks Starliner Capsule With ISS Years After Failed First Try". CNET.
  96. ^ "Boeing Starliner completes Orbital Flight Test-2 with safe touchdown". CollectSpace. May 25, 2022.
  97. ^ Steve, Stich (May 25, 2022). "NASA Boeing Starliner OFT-2 Post-Landing Press Conference, May 25, 2022". YouTube. Space SPAN. Retrieved September 19, 2022.
  98. ^ Foust, Jeff (November 3, 2022). "First Starliner crewed flight further delayed". SpaceNews. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  99. ^ Berger, Eric (June 1, 2023). "Boeing finds two serious problems with Starliner just weeks before launch". Ars Technica. Retrieved June 2, 2023.
  100. ^ Davenport, Justin (October 27, 2021). "Blue Origin, Sierra Space, and Boeing announce Orbital Reef". Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  101. ^ Chappell, Bill (October 25, 2021). "Blue Origin says it will build an orbiting mixed-use business park in space". NPR. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  102. ^ Grush, Loren (October 25, 2021). "Blue Origin reveals plans for future commercial space station called Orbital Reef". The Verge. Retrieved November 29, 2021.
  103. ^ Berger, Eric (August 22, 2019). "The last single-stick Delta rocket launched Thursday, and it put on a show". Ars Technica. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
  104. ^ Roulette, Joey (August 26, 2021). "ULA stops selling its centerpiece Atlas V, setting path for the rocket's retirement". The Verge. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  105. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Starliner (CST-100)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
  106. ^ "CST-100 Starliner". Boeing.
  107. ^ Siceloff, Steven (April 6, 2017). "Boeing Powers On Starliner Spacecraft For First Time". NASA. Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2020. Once completed, Spacecraft 1 will be launched without a crew on a flight test to demonstrate its capability to abort a mission from the launch pad in the unlikely event of an emergency Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  108. ^ a b c Clark, Stephen (December 22, 2019). "Boeing's first commercial crew capsule christened "Calypso"". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2020. The Starliner vehicle that landed Sunday in New Mexico, designated Spacecraft 3 [...] Spacecraft 1 was built for Boeing's pad abort test and is not intended to fly in space. [...] she has named the Starliner vehicle that returned Sunday "Calypso" in an ode to the research vessel used by French explorer Jacques Cousteau
  109. ^ a b c "Reporter's Starliner Notebook" (PDF). Boeing. 2019. p. 9. Retrieved March 9, 2020. Spacecraft 1 was used for testing the launch abort system during the program's Pad Abort Test in New Mexico. Spacecraft 2 [is] being prepared to fly the first people on Starliner's Crew Flight Test. Spacecraft 3 [is] slated for the uncrewed Orbital Flight Test...
  110. ^ Halaschak, Zachary (December 20, 2019). "Boeing Starliner spacecraft goes off course and fails mission". Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  111. ^ Bridenstine, Jim [@JimBridenstine] (December 20, 2019). "Update: #Starliner had a Mission Elapsed Time (MET) anomaly causing the spacecraft to believe that it was in an orbital insertion burn, when it was not" (Tweet). Retrieved December 20, 2019 – via Twitter. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  112. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (December 20, 2019). "Starliner suffers mission-shortening failure after successful launch". Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  113. ^ Clark, Stephen (May 19, 2022). "Live coverage: Atlas 5 rocket sends Starliner toward space station". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  114. ^ Davenport, Christian (April 6, 2020). "After botched test flight, Boeing will refly its Starliner spacecraft for NASA". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  115. ^ Herridge, Linda (October 8, 2021). "NASA, Boeing Update Starliner Orbital Flight Test-2 Status". NASA. Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  116. ^ a b Potter, Sean (June 16, 2022). "NASA Updates Astronaut Assignments for Boeing Starliner Test Flight". NASA. Retrieved February 18, 2024.
  117. ^ Sheetz, Michael (August 7, 2023). "Boeing resets Starliner plan to be ready for first NASA crew flight by March". CNBC. Retrieved August 7, 2023.
  118. ^ a b "NASA Updates Crew Assignments for First Starliner Crew Rotation Flight". NASA (Press release). September 30, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  119. ^ Cawley, James (November 22, 2023). "Mission Specialist Assigned to NASA's Boeing Starliner-1 Mission". NASA. Retrieved November 22, 2023.
  120. ^ Williams, Sunita [@Astro_Suni] (December 22, 2019). "A couple of the awesome people who brought Calypso home! Thank you Steve and Kayva!" (Tweet). Retrieved December 22, 2019 – via Twitter. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  121. ^ Siceloff, Steven (January 3, 2017). "NASA Secures Crew Rotation Flights Through 2024". NASA.
  122. ^ "Boeing Commercial Crew Transportation Capability Contract" (PDF). Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  123. ^ "NASA Now at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex". Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  124. ^ "Aerojet Rocketdyne gears up for first flight of Boeing's Starliner Spacecraft". Aerojet Rocketdyne. December 12, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  125. ^ "Boeing Tests Parachute System for CST-100 Spacecraft". NASA. May 4, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  126. ^ "Collins Aerospace to provide Earth-like atmosphere on Boeing's new 'space taxi' for NASA". April 8, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  127. ^ Leon Spencer (May 22, 2014). "Samsung and Boeing collaborate on mobile tech in space". Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  128. ^ "Building a better spaceship". July 20, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  129. ^ "ILC Dover becomes a provider of spacesuits for Boeing's Starliner". May 31, 2022. Retrieved May 6, 2023.