New Shepard
New shepard launch june 19 2016.jpg
New Shepard 2 lifting off from Corn Ranch
ManufacturerBlue Origin (Blue Origin West Texas planet)
Country of originUnited States
Size
Height18 m (59 ft)[1]
Stages1
Launch history
StatusActive
Launch sitesLaunch Site One
Total launches23
Success(es)21
Failure(s)1[2]
Partial failure(s)1
Landings21
First flight29 April 2015
Last flight12 September 2022
Single stage
Powered by1 BE-3
Maximum thrust490 kN (110,000 lbf)
Burn time141 seconds
PropellantLH2 / LOX

New Shepard is a vertical-takeoff, vertical-landing (VTVL),[3] crew-rated suborbital launch vehicle developed by Blue Origin as a commercial system for suborbital space tourism.[4] Blue Origin is owned and led by Amazon founder and former CEO Jeff Bezos.

The name New Shepard makes reference to the first American astronaut in space, Alan Shepard, one of the original NASA Mercury Seven astronauts, who ascended to space in 1961 on a suborbital trajectory similar to that of New Shepard.[5]

Prototype engine and vehicle flights began in 2006, while full-scale engine development started in the early 2010s and was complete by 2015.[6] Uncrewed flight testing of the complete New Shepard vehicle (propulsion module and space capsule) began in 2015.

On 23 November 2015, after reaching 100.5 km (62.4 mi) altitude (outer space), the suborbital New Shepard booster successfully performed a powered vertical soft landing, the first time a suborbital booster rocket had returned from space to make a successful vertical landing.[7][8] The test program continued in 2016 and 2017 with four additional test flights made with the same vehicle (NS-2) in 2016 and the first test flight of the new NS-3 vehicle made in 2017.[9][10]

Blue Origin planned its first crewed test flight to occur in 2018, which was however delayed until 2021, and has since announced that tickets would begin to be sold for commercial flights of up to six people.[11][12][13] The first crewed flight took place on 20 July 2021. An anonymous buyer (later revealed to have been Justin Sun) purchased one seat for the 20 July 2021 flight at auction for $28 million[14] but this person did not fly on said flight due to scheduling problems; the anonymous buyer was rescheduled for a later flight. Instead of the auction winning passenger, 18-year-old Oliver Daemen was selected to fly. Daemen's father paid for his flight, thus Daemen was the first customer (i.e. person whose flight has been paid for) passenger of New Shepard, and became the youngest person and first teenager to fly into space.

As of 4 August 2022, New Shepard has flown 32 passengers into space (31 first time spaceflight participants).

On 12 September 2022, the RSS H. G. Wells capsule had to abort during the NS-23 mission mid-flight over the Texas desert due to a propulsion failure.[15]

History

Early Blue Origin vehicle and engine development

The first development vehicle of the New Shepard development program was a sub-scale demonstration vehicle named Goddard, built in 2006 following earlier engine development efforts by Blue Origin. Goddard made its first flight on 13 November 2006.[16]

The Goddard launch vehicle was assembled at the Blue Origin facility near Seattle, Washington. Also in 2006, Blue Origin started the process to build an aerospace testing and operations center on a portion of the Corn Ranch, a 670 km2 (165,000 acres) land parcel Bezos purchased 40 km (25 mi) north of Van Horn, Texas.[17] Blue Origin Project Manager Rob Meyerson has said that they selected Texas as the launch site particularly because of the state's historical connections to the aerospace industry, although that industry is not located near the planned launch site, and the vehicle will not be manufactured in Texas.[18]

On the path to developing New Shepard, a crew capsule was also needed, and design was begun on a space capsule in the early 2000s. One development milestone along the way became public. On 19 October 2012, Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape of a full-scale suborbital crew capsule at its West Texas launch site. For the test, the capsule fired its pusher escape motor and launched from a launch vehicle simulator. The Crew Capsule traveled to an altitude of 703 m (2,307 ft) under active thrust vector control before descending safely by parachute to a soft landing 500 m (1,630 ft) downrange.[19][20]

In April 2015, Blue Origin announced that they had completed acceptance testing of the BE-3 engine that would power the larger New Shepard vehicle. Blue also announced that they intended to begin flight testing of the New Shepard later in 2015, with initial flights occurring as frequently as monthly, with "a series of dozens of flights over the extent of the suborbital test program [taking] a couple of years to complete".[6] The same month, the FAA announced that the regulatory paperwork for the test program had already been filed and approved, and test flights were expected to begin before mid-May 2015.[21]

By February 2016, three New Shepard vehicles had been built. The first was lost in a test in April 2015, the second had flown twice (see below), and the third was completing manufacture at the Blue factory in Kent, Washington.

In 2016, the Blue Origin team were awarded the Collier Trophy for demonstrating rocket booster reusability with the New Shepard human spaceflight vehicle.[22]

Flight test program

A multi-year program of flight tests was begun in 2015[23] and continued into 2021.[24][12] By mid-2016, the test program was sufficiently advanced that Blue Origin began flying suborbital research payloads for universities and NASA.[25] The flight-test program was completed in early 2021 and the first flight carrying passengers to suborbital space occurred in July 2021.[26]

Timeline of Space­Ship­One, Space­Ship­Two, CSXT and New Shepard sub-orbital flights. Where booster and capsule achieved different altitudes, the higher is plotted. In the SVG file, hover over a point to show details.

New Shepard 1

The first flight of the full-scale New Shepard vehicle – NS1[27] – also called "Tail 1"[28] – was conducted on 29 April 2015 during which an altitude of 93.5 km (58.1 mi) was attained. While the test flight itself was deemed a success, and the capsule was successfully recovered via parachute landing, the booster crash landed and was not recovered due to a failure of hydraulic pressure in the vehicle control system during descent.[29][30] The capsule was called RSS Jules Verne.[31]

New Shepard 2

The New Shepard 2 (NS2), also called "Tail 2",[28] flight test article propulsion module made five successful flights in 2015 and 2016, being retired after its fifth flight in October 2016.

First vertical soft landing

After the loss of NS1, a second New Shepard vehicle was built, NS2. Its first flight,[27] and the second test flight of New Shepard overall, was carried out on 23 November 2015, reaching 100.5 km (62.4 mi) altitude with successful recovery of both capsule and booster stage.[7][8] The booster rocket successfully performed a powered vertical landing.[8] This was the first such successful rocket vertical landing on Earth after travelling higher than 3.140 km (1.951 mi) that the McDonnell Douglas DC-XA achieved in the 1990s, and first after sending something into space. Jeff Bezos was quoted as saying that Blue Origin planned to use the same architecture of New Shepard for the booster stage of their orbital vehicle.[32]

Second vertical soft landing

On 22 January 2016, Blue Origin successfully repeated the flight profile of 23 November 2015 launch with the same New Shepard vehicle. New Shepard launched, reached a maximum altitude of 101.7 km (63.2 mi), and, after separation, both capsule and launch vehicle returned to the ground intact. This accomplishment demonstrated re-usability of New Shepard and a turnaround time of 61 days.[33][34]

Third vertical soft landing

On 2 April 2016, the same New Shepard booster flew for a third time, reaching 103.381 km (64.2383 mi), before returning successfully.[35]

Fourth vertical soft landing

On 19 June 2016, the same New Shepard booster flew, now for a fourth time, again reaching over 100 km (63 mi), before returning successfully for a VTVL rocket-powered landing.[36]

The capsule returned once again under parachutes but, this time, did a test descent with only two parachutes before finishing with a brief pulse of retro rocket propulsion to slow the ground impact velocity to 4.8 km/h (3 mph). The two parachutes "slowed the descent to 23 mph, as opposed to the usual 16 mph with three parachutes". Crushable bumpers are used to further reduce the landing shock through energy-absorbing deformation.[37]

Fifth and final flight test

A fifth and final test flight of the NS2 propulsion module was conducted on 5 October 2016.[38] The principal objective was to boost the passenger module to the point of highest dynamic pressure at transonic velocity and conduct a flight test of the in-flight abort system. Due to subsequent buffet and forces that impact the propulsion module after the high-velocity separation of the passenger capsule that are outside the design region of the PM, NS2 was not expected to survive and land, and if it did, Blue had stated that NS2 would be retired and become a museum item.[9] In the event, the flight test was successful. The abort occurred, and NS2 remained stable after the capsule abort test, completed its ascent to space, and successfully landed for a fifth and final time.[38]

New Shepard 3

New Shepard 3 (NS3), also called "Tail 3",[28] along with capsule RSS H. G. Wells,[39] was modified for increased reusability and improved thermal protection; it includes a redesigned propulsion module and the inclusion of new access panels for more rapid servicing and improved thermal protection. NS3 is the third propulsion module built. It was completed and shipped to the launch site by September 2017,[40] although parts of it had been built as early as March 2016.[27] Flight tests began in 2017 and continued into 2019.[12] The new Crew Capsule 2.0, featuring windows, is integrated to the NS3.[40] NS3 will only ever be used to fly cargo; no passengers will be carried.[41]

Its initial flight test occurred on 12 December 2017.[10] This was the first flight flown under the regulatory regime of a launch license granted by the US Federal Aviation Administration. Previous test flights had flown under an experimental permit, which did not allow Blue to carry cargo for which it is paid for commercially. This made the flight of NS3 the first revenue flight for payloads, and it carried 12 experiments on the flight, as well as a test dummy given the moniker "Mannequin Skywalker."[42]

Since the maiden flight, "Blue Origin has been making updates to the vehicle ... intended primarily to improve operability rather than performance or reliability. Those upgrades took longer than expected" leading to a several-month gap in test flights.[12] The second test flight took place on 29 April 2018.[43] The 10th overall New Shepard flight, and the fourth NS3 flight, had originally been planned for December 2018, but was delayed due to "ground infrastructure issues." Following a diagnostics of the initial issue, Blue rescheduled the launch for early 2019, after discovering "additional systems" that needed repairs as well.[44] The flight launched on 23 January 2019 and successfully flew to space with a maximum altitude of 106.9 km (66.4 mi).[45] It has been used to test SPLICE ("Safe and Precise Landing – Integrated Capabilities Evolution"), a NASA lunar landing technology demonstration, on two separate flights in October 2020 (NS-13) and August 2021 (NS-17).[46]

New Shepard 3 was destroyed during the NS-23 mission once it impacted the ground on 12 September 2022 after a booster engine anomaly led to the activation of the in-flight abort system. This was the ninth flight of NS3, and the flight was not carrying any people on board.[2][47]

New Shepard 4

New Shepard 4 (NS4), also called "Tail 4",[28] which flies with capsule RSS First Step, was the fourth propulsion module to be built and the first to carry human passengers. Bezos himself was a passenger.[48] The vehicle was manufactured in 2018 and moved to the Blue Origin West Texas launch facility in December 2019.[49] The uncrewed maiden launch of NS4 occurred on 14 January 2021.[50] NS4 was successfully launched on 20 July 2021, with four passengers; Jeff Bezos was aboard this maiden crewed flight. On 13 October 2021, NS4 successfully launched and landed, carrying four passengers, including notable passenger William Shatner.[51] On 11 December 2021, the Blue Origin NS-19 successfully launched into space. The ship's passengers included NFL legend and television personality Michael Strahan, Alan Shepard's daughter Laura Shepard Churchley, who flew into space 60 years after her father's flight, and four other people.[52][53] This was the first time New Shepard carried six passengers, the full design passenger complement. The fourth crewed flight took place 31 March 2022, with a Blue Origin employee and five other passengers on board. The fifth crewed flight took place 4 June 2022, and the sixth crewed flight took place 4 August 2022.

Crewed flights

For many years, Blue Origin did not make any public statements about the date of the start of commercial crewed flights of New Shepard. But this changed in June 2018 when the company announced that while it continued to plan to fly initial internal passengers later in 2018, it would not be selling commercial tickets for New Shepard until 2019[13] but the first commercial crewed flight was delayed until 2021.[54]

Blue Origin commenced the first flight carrying passengers on the 16th flight of New Shepard (NS-16) on 20 July 2021.[54] One commercial seat was auctioned on 12 June 2021 for US$28 million which went to Blue Origin's foundation, Club for the Future, which inspires future generations to pursue careers in STEM. However, due to scheduling problems, the $28M auction winner did not participate in the NS-16 flight. The $28M auction winner was rescheduled to fly at a later flight. The passengers aboard the NS-16 flight on 20 July 2021 were Jeff Bezos, Mark Bezos, Wally Funk and Oliver Daemen. At 82 years old Funk was the oldest person, and at 18 Daemen was the youngest, to travel into space.[55][14][56] Daemen got the commercial seat that the $28M auction winner did not use. Daemen's flight was paid for by his father Joes Daemen, who, after the anonymous $28M auction winner dropped out of the flight, was able to secure the seat on the flight due to being the second highest bidder on the auction. Joes paid for the seat and gave it to his son, thus making Oliver Daemen the first commercial passenger of New Shepard.[57][58][59] On 22 December 2021, it was made public that the $28 million mystery auction winner was Justin Sun, a Chinese cryptocurrency entrepreneur. The $28 million he bid was paid to Blue Origin, who in turn gave it to their charity Club for the Future, which in turn distributed most of the money to other space-related nonprofit organizations. Instead of flying on the flight in July 2021 to which he won the auctioned seat, Mr. Sun has agreed with Blue Origin to Mr. Sun buying (presumably with the $28 million that has already been paid to Blue Origin) a dedicated New Shepard flight in 2022. Mr. Sun will choose five passengers to accompany him on this flight in late 2022.[60]

The second crewed flight took place on 13 October 2021, carrying four passengers, two of whom were paying passengers. The flight included the actor William Shatner who flew as "guest" of Blue Origin (i.e. he did not pay for his flight).[51] On 11 December 2021, the third crewed flight, Blue Origin NS-19, successfully launched into space. The ship's passengers included NFL legend and television personality Michael Strahan and Alan Shepard's daughter Laura Shepard Churchley as "guests" of Blue Origin (i.e. they did not pay for their flights), and four other people who were paying passengers.[52] The fourth crewed flight, Blue Origin NS-20, flew successfully on 31 March 2022. Onboard was Gary Lai, a Blue Origin employee and five paying passengers. This was the first flight with no celebrity passengers.[61][62] The fifth crewed flight, Blue Origin NS-21, flew successfully on 4 June 2022. Onboard was Katya Echazarreta, whose flight had been partly sponsored by Blue Origin, and partly by other sources, and five other paying passengers (it could be that it has been mistakenly claimed that Echazarreta's flight was sponsored by Blue Origin and instead it was fully sponsored by Space for Humanity, a nonprofit organization[63]). Also onboard was Blue Origin's first repeat customer for New Shepard launches, Evan Dick. The 6th crewed flight took place 4 August 2022. Among the passengers was Coby Cotton, whose flight was paid for by the organization MoonDAO, which usually works in cryptocurrency but had bought two seats from Blue Origin to fly to suborbital space, with one of the seats used by Cotton and one to be used in the future. It was reported that MoonDAO had paid about $2.5 million for the two seats on Blue Origin flights, or $1.25 million per seat. This is the first public figure available for the price to ride a Blue Origin rocket to suborbital space (not counting the $28 million winning bid in the auction for a seat on the first flight).[64] However, Blue Origin does not charge all their passengers the same price, but tailors the price individually to each passenger, so it is hard to define the "ticket price" for New Shepard.[63] Also on the 4 August 2022 flight were the first space travellers of Egyptian and Portuguese origin, and the flight was the first flight (it may have been that the previous flight Blue Origin NS-21 on 4 June 2022 was actually the first such flight, if Katya Echazarreta's flight was not sponsored by Blue Origin, see above) where all six passengers were paying passengers (i.e. their flights were financed by other entities than Blue Origin).[65][66]

Up to late June 2022 (after the fifth crewed flight Blue Origin NS-21), Blue Origin has generated more than $100 million from the New Shepard space tourism program.[63]

Flight list

Launch No. Date Vehicle Apogee Outcome Notes
0 19 October 2012
  • N/A
  • RSS Jules Verne
0.7 km (0.4369 mi) Success Pad abort test of the New Shepard crew capsule.
1 29 April 2015 93.5 km (58.1 mi) Partial success Flight to altitude 93.5 km, capsule recovered, booster crashed on landing.[67]
2 23 November 2015 100.535 km (62.4695 mi)[8] Success Sub-orbital spaceflight and landing.[68]
3 22 January 2016 101.676 km (63.1784 mi)[34] Success Sub-orbital spaceflight and landing of a reused booster.[69]
4 2 April 2016 103.381 km (64.2383 mi)[70] Success Sub-orbital spaceflight and landing of a reused booster.[35]
5 19 June 2016 101.042 km (62.7843 mi)[71] Success Sub-orbital spaceflight and landing of a reused booster: the fourth launch and landing of the same rocket. Blue Origin published a live webcast of the takeoff and landing.[71]
6 5 October 2016
  • Booster: 93.713 km (58.2307 mi)
  • Capsule: 7.092 km (4.4070 mi)[72]
Success Sub-orbital spaceflight and landing of a reused booster. Successful test of the in-flight abort system. The fifth and final launch and landing of the same rocket (NS2).[38]
7 12 December 2017
  • Booster: 98.155 km (60.9909 mi)
  • Capsule: 98.269 km (61.0616 mi)[73]
Success Flight to just under 100 km and landing. The first launch of NS3 and a new Crew Capsule 2.0.[74]
8 29 April 2018 107 km (66.5 mi)[75] Success Sub-orbital spaceflight and landing of a reused booster.[43]
9 18 July 2018 118.825 km (73.8345 mi)[39] Success Sub-orbital spaceflight and landing of a reused booster, with the Crew Capsule 2.0-1 RSS H.G.Wells, carrying a mannequin. Successful test of the in-flight abort system at high altitude. Flight duration was 11 minutes.[39]
10 23 January 2019 c. 106.9 km (66.4 mi)[45] Success Sub-orbital flight, delayed from 18 December 2018. Eight NASA research and technology payloads were flown.[76][77]
11 2 May 2019 c. 105 km (65.5 mi)[78] Success Sub-orbital flight. Maximum Ascent Velocity: 3,568 km/h (2,217 mph),[78] duration: 10 minutes, 10 seconds. Payload: 38 microgravity research payloads (nine sponsored by NASA).
12 11 December 2019 c. 104.5 km (64.9 mi)[79] Success Sub-orbital flight, Payload: Multiple commercial, research (8 sponsored by NASA) and educational payloads, including postcards from Club for the Future.[80][81] The sixth launch and landing of the same rocket.[79]
13 13 October 2020, 13:37 c. 107.0 km (66.52 mi) Success 7th flight of the same capsule/booster. Onboard 12 payloads include Space Lab Technologies, Southwest Research Institute, postcards and seeds for Club for the Future, and multiple payloads for NASA including SPLICE to test future lunar landing technologies in support of the Artemis program.[82]
14 14 January 2021, 16:57[83]
  • Booster: 106.942 km (66.4504 mi)
  • Capsule: 107.050 km (66.5180 mi)
Success Uncrewed qualification flight for NS4 rocket and capsule and maiden flight for NS4
15 14 April 2021
16:51[84][85]
  • Booster: 105.671 km (65.6612 mi)
  • Capsule: 106.300 km (66.0517 mi)
Success Second flight of NS4, first preflight human passenger process test where Blue Origin conducted an "Astronaut Rehearsal." Gary Lai, Susan Knapp, Clay Mowry, and Audrey Powers, all Blue Origin personnel, were “stand-in astronauts”. Lai and Powers briefly entered the capsule during the test.[24]
16 20 July 2021
13:12[86][87]
  • Booster: 105.823 km (65.7553 mi)
  • Capsule: 107.05 km (66.517 mi)
Success First crewed flight of New Shepard, with four passengers:[26]
* Jeff Bezos[88]
* Mark Bezos
* Wally Funk[56]
* Oliver Daemen
17 25 August 2021
14:31[89]
  • Booster: 105.775 km (65.7258 mi)
  • Capsule: 105.898 km (65.8019 mi)
Success Payload mission consisting of 18 commercial payloads inside the crew capsule, a NASA lunar landing technology demonstration installed on the exterior of the booster and an art installation installed on the exterior of the crew capsule.[90]
18 13 October 2021
14:49[91]
  • Booster: 106.926 km (66.4407 mi)
  • Capsule: 107.041 km (66.5125 mi)
Success Second crewed New Shepard flight. Crew of four included:[92][93]
* Chris Boshuizen
* Glen de Vries
* William Shatner
* Audrey Powers
19 11 December 2021[94] Success Third crewed New Shepard flight. Crew of six included:
* Lane Bess
* Cameron Bess
* Evan Dick
* Laura Shepard Churchley
* Michael Strahan
* Dylan Taylor
20 31 March 2022
13:57[95]
  • Booster: 106.964 km (66.4644 mi)
  • Capsule: 107.069 km (66.5295 mi)
Success Fourth crewed New Shepard flight. Crew of six included:
* Marty Allen
* Sharon Hagle
* Marc Hagle
* Jim Kitchen
* George Nield
* Gary Lai
21 4 June 2022
13:25[96]
  • Booster: 106.93 km (66.445 mi)
  • Capsule: 107.041 km (66.5123 mi)
Success Fifth crewed New Shepard flight. Crew of six included:
* Evan Dick
* Katya Echazarreta
* Hamish Harding
* Victor Correa Hespanha
* Jaison Robinson
* Victor Vescovo
22 4 August 2022
13:56[97]
  • Booster: 106.944 km (66.4519 mi)
  • Capsule: 107.056 km (66.5212 mi)
Success Sixth crewed New Shepard flight. Crew of six included:
* Coby Cotton
* Mário Ferreira
* Vanessa O'Brien
* Clint Kelly III
* Sara Sabry
* Steve Young
23 12 September 2022
14:27[2]
11.400 km (7.0835 mi)[2] Failure[2] Uncrewed research mission with 36 commercial payloads on board including two on the exterior of the booster.[98] The spacecraft's launch escape system activated after the booster's BE-3 main engine failed around a minute after liftoff leading to a loss of control. The capsule was safely recovered whilst the booster was lost as it impacted on ground.[99][2]

Design

New Shepard Crew Capsule RSS H. G. Wells after landing on 12 December 2017
New Shepard Crew Capsule RSS H. G. Wells after landing on 12 December 2017

The New Shepard is a fully reusable, vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) space vehicle composed of two principal parts: a pressurized crew capsule and a booster rocket that Blue Origin calls a propulsion module.[30] The New Shepard is controlled entirely by on-board computers, without ground control[6] or a human pilot.[23]

Crew capsule

The New Shepard Crew Capsule is a pressurized crew capsule that can carry six people, and supports a "full-envelope" launch escape system that can separate the capsule from the booster rocket anywhere during the ascent.[100] Interior volume of the capsule is 15 cubic meters (530 cu ft).[101] The Crew Capsule Escape Solid Rocket Motor (CCE-SRM) is sourced from Aerojet Rocketdyne.[102] After separation two or three parachutes deploy. Just before landing, retro rockets fire. (see Fourth vertical soft landing (19 June 2016) above)

New Shepard propulsion module
New Shepard propulsion module

Propulsion module

The New Shepard propulsion module is powered using a Blue Origin BE-3 bipropellant rocket engine burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen,[6] although some early development work was done by Blue Origin on engines operating with other propellants: the BE-1 engine using monopropellant hydrogen peroxide; and the BE-2 engine using high-test peroxide oxidizer and RP-1 kerosene fuel.[103][104]

Flight profile

The New Shepard is launched vertically from West Texas and then performs a powered flight for about 110 s and to an altitude of 40 km (25 mi). The craft's momentum carries it upward in unpowered flight as the vehicle slows, culminating at an altitude of about 100 km (62 mi). After reaching apogee the vehicle performs a descent and restart its main engines a few tens of seconds before vertical landing, close to its launch site.[105][better source needed] The total flight duration of the rocket is over 7 minutes.

The crewed variant features a separate crew module that separates close to peak altitude, and the propulsion module performs a powered landing while the crew module lands under parachutes. Total flight time is 10 minutes. The crew module can also separate in case of vehicle malfunction or other emergency using solid propellant separation boosters and perform a parachute landing.[23][better source needed]

Development

Initial low altitude flight testing (up to 600 m (2,000 ft)) with subscale prototypes of the New Shepard was scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2006.[18] This was later confirmed to have occurred in November 2006 in a press release by Blue Origin.[16] The prototype flight test program could involve up to ten flights. Incremental flight testing to 100 km altitude was planned to be carried out between 2007 and 2009 with increasingly larger and more capable prototypes. The full-scale vehicle was initially expected to be operational for revenue service as early as 2010,[18] though that goal was not met and the first full-scale test flight of a New Shepard vehicle was successfully completed 2015, with commercial service currently aimed for no earlier than 2020.[106] The vehicle could fly up to 50 times a year. Clearance from the FAA was needed before test flights began, and a separate license is needed before commercial operations begin. Blue held a public meeting on 15 June 2006 in Van Horn, as part of the public comment opportunity needed to secure FAA permissions.[18] Blue Origin projected in 2006 that once cleared for commercial operation, they would expect to conduct a maximum rate of 52 launches per year from West Texas. The RLV would carry three or more passengers per operation.[107]

Prototype test vehicle

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)

An initial flight test of a prototype vehicle took place on 13 November 2006 at 6:30 am local time (12:30 UTC);[108][109][110] an earlier flight on the 10th being canceled due to winds. This marked the first developmental test flight undertaken by Blue Origin. The flight was by the first prototype vehicle, known as Goddard.[111] The flight to 87 metres (285 ft) in altitude was successful. Videos are available on the Blue Origin website[112] and elsewhere.

Second test vehicle

A second test vehicle made two flights in 2011. The first flight was a short hop (low altitude, VTVL takeoff and landing mission) flown on 6 May 2011. The vehicle is known only as "PM2" as of August 2011, gleaned from information the company filed with the FAA prior to its late August high-altitude, high-velocity second test flight. Media have speculated this might mean "Propulsion Module".[113]

This vehicle was flown a second time[111] on a 24 August 2011 test flight, in west Texas. It failed when ground personnel lost contact and control of the vehicle. The company recovered remnants of the craft from ground search.[114] On 2 September 2011, Blue Origin released the results of the cause of the test vehicle failure. As the vehicle reached Mach 1.2 and 14 kilometres (8.5 mi) altitude, a "flight instability drove an angle of attack that triggered [the] range safety system to terminate thrust on the vehicle."[115]

Involvement with NASA Commercial Crew Development Program

Additionally, Blue Origin received US$3.7 million in Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) phase 1 to advance several development objectives of its innovative "pusher" Launch Abort System (LAS) and composite pressure vessel.[116]

As of February 2011, with the end of the second ground test, Blue Origin completed all work envisioned under the phase 1 contract for the pusher escape system. They also "completed work on the other aspect of its award, risk reduction work on a composite pressure vessel" for the vehicle.[117]

Commercial suborbital flights

Passenger flights

Following the fifth and final test flight of the NS2 booster and test capsule in October 2016, Blue Origin indicated that they were on track for flying test astronauts by the end of 2017, and beginning commercial suborbital passenger flights in 2018.[118] After fifteen test flights, the company flew its first four passengers in 2021 – Wally Funk, Jeff Bezos, Mark Bezos, and Oliver Daemen – on Blue Origin NS-16.[119][85][14]

NASA suborbital research payloads

As of March 2011, Blue Origin had submitted the New Shepard reusable launch vehicle for use as an uncrewed rocket for NASA's suborbital reusable launch vehicle (sRLV) solicitation under NASA's Flight Opportunities Program. Blue Origin projects 100 km (62 mi) altitude in flights of approximately ten minutes duration, while carrying an 11.3 kg (25 lb) research payload.[3] By March 2016, Blue noted that they are "due to start flying unaccompanied scientific payloads later [in 2016]."[23] On 12 September 2022, eighteen NASA payloads were flying on NS-23[98] when an in-flight failure of the booster's main engine caused an emergency ejection of the payload capsule. The payload capsule landed safely and was recovered whilst the booster was lost.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ "New Shepard: Rocket for space tourism". Space.com. 15 July 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Foust, Jeff (12 September 2022). "New Shepard suffers in-flight abort on uncrewed suborbital flight". SpaceNews. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  3. ^ a b "sRLV platforms compared". NASA. 7 March 2011. Archived from the original on 20 February 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2011. New Shepard: Type: VTVL/Unpiloted
  4. ^ Doug Mohney (7 May 2015). "Will Jeff Bezos Speed Past Virgin Galactic to Tourist Space?". TechZone360.
  5. ^ Jonathan Amos (30 April 2015). "Jeff Bezos conducts New Shepard flight". BBC.
  6. ^ a b c d Foust, Jeff (13 April 2015). "Blue Origin's suborbital plans are finally ready for flight". Retrieved 18 April 2015. We've recently completed acceptance testing, meaning we've accepted the engine for suborbital flight on our New Shepard vehicle, [the end of a] very, very long development program [of] 450 test firings of the engine and a cumulative run time of more than 500 minutes. The completion of those tests sets the stage for Blue Origin to begin test flights of the vehicle later this year at its facility in West Texas [where they] expect a series of flight tests with this vehicle ... flying in autonomous mode... We expect a series of dozens of flights over the extent of the test program [taking] a couple of years to complete.
  7. ^ a b "Blue Origin Makes Historic Rocket Landing". Blue Origin. 24 November 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d Amos, Jonathan (24 November 2015). "New Shepard: Bezos claims success on second spaceship flight". BBC News. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  9. ^ a b "Blue Origin plans next New Shepard test for October – SpaceNews.com". 8 September 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Jeff Bezos says Blue Origin gives test dummy 'a great ride' on New Shepard suborbital spaceship". GeekWire. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  11. ^ https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/11/blue-origin-new-glenn-overview-pad-landing-ship-dev/ Chris Bergin, NASASpaceflight.com, 28 November 2018
  12. ^ a b c d Foust, Jeff (19 April 2018). "Blue Origin expects BE-4 qualification tests to be done by year's end". SpaceNews. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  13. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (21 June 2018). "Blue Origin plans to start selling suborbital spaceflight tickets by next year". SpaceNews. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  14. ^ a b c "$28M is winning bid for seat aboard Blue Origin's 1st human space flight". ABC News. 12 June 2021.
  15. ^ "Jeff Bezos rocket malfunctions on trip to space". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  16. ^ a b "Blue Origin Flight Test Update". SpaceFellowship. 2 January 2007. Our first objective is developing New Shepard, a vertical take-off, vertical-landing vehicle designed to take a small number of astronauts on a sub-orbital journey into space. On the morning of 13 November 2006, we launched and landed Goddard – a first development vehicle in the New Shepard program.
  17. ^ Boyle, Alan (13 January 2006). "Amazon founder unveils space center plans". NBC News. Retrieved 28 June 2006.
  18. ^ a b c d David, Leonard (15 June 2006). "Public Meeting Details Blue Origin Rocket Plans". Space.com. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  19. ^ Lindsay, Clark (22 October 2012). "Blue Origin carries out crew capsule pad escape test". NewSpace Watch. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  20. ^ http://www.spacenews.com/launch/121022-blue-origin-escape-system-test.html[dead link]
  21. ^ Foust, Jeff (21 April 2015). "Blue Origin To Begin Test Flights Within Weeks". Space news. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  22. ^ Berry, Stephanie (29 March 2017). "Blue Origin New Shepard to Receive the 2016 Robert J. Collier Trophy" (PDF). NAA. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d Boyle, Alan (5 March 2016). "Jeff Bezos lifts curtain on Blue Origin rocket factory, lays out grand plan for space travel that spans hundreds of years". GeekWire. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  24. ^ a b Smith, Marcia (14 January 2021). "Dress Rehearsal Puts Blue Origin Closer to Human Spaceflight". spacepolicyonline.com. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  25. ^ David, Leonard (12 August 2016). "Blue Origin's Sweet Spot: An Untapped Suborbital Market for Private Spaceflight". Space.com. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  26. ^ a b "Winning Ticket to Join Jeff Bezos in Space Costs Nearly $30 Million in Blue Origin Auction". Wall Street Journal. 12 June 2021.
  27. ^ a b c Berger, Eric (9 March 2016). "Behind the curtain: Ars goes inside Blue Origin's secretive rocket factory". Ars Technica. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  28. ^ a b c d Richard Tribou (12 September 2022). "FAA grounds Blue Origin New Shepard after emergency abort during launch". Orlando Sentinel.
  29. ^ Bezos, Jeff (27 April 2015). "First Developmental Test Flight of New Shepard". Blue Origin. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  30. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (30 April 2015). "Blue Origin's New Shepard Vehicle Makes First Test Flight". Space News. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  31. ^ @BlueOrigin (30 April 2018). "The previous crew capsule was named "RSS Jules Verne" and "RSS" stands for "Reusable Space Ship". Thanks for asking!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  32. ^ Foust, Jeff (24 November 2015). "Blue Origin Flies – and Lands – New Shepard Suborbital Spacecraft". Space News. Retrieved 1 December 2015. We’re going to take that same exact architecture that was demonstrated and use it on our the booster stage of our orbital vehicle
  33. ^ Foust, Jeff (23 January 2016). "Blue Origin reflies New Shepard suborbital vehicle". SpaceNews. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  34. ^ a b Berger, Brian (23 January 2016). "Launch. Land. Repeat: Blue Origin posts video of New Shepard's Friday flight". SpaceNews. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  35. ^ a b Calandrelli, Emily (2 April 2016). "Blue Origin launches and lands the same rocket for a third time". Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  36. ^ Grush, Loren (19 June 2016). "Blue Origin safely launches and lands the New Shepard rocket for a fourth time". Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  37. ^ Boyle, Alan (20 July 2016). "Jeff Bezos touts results from Blue Origin spaceship's test, even with one less chute". GeekWire. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  38. ^ a b c Foust, Jeff (5 October 2016). "Blue Origin successfully tests New Shepard abort system". SpaceNews. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  39. ^ a b c Marcia Dunn (19 July 2018). "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin launches spacecraft higher than ever". Associated Press. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  40. ^ a b Blue Origin enlarges New Glenn’s payload fairing, preparing to debut upgraded New Shepard, Caleb Henry, SpaceNews, accessed 15 September 2017.
  41. ^ first time we've had two rockets in the barn in West Texas, Blue Origin, 17 December 2018, accessed 26 December 2018.
  42. ^ Foust, Jeff (19 December 2017). "Blue Origin a year away from crewed New Shepard flights". SpaceNews. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  43. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (29 April 2018). "Video: Blue Origin flies New Shepard rocket for eighth time". Spaceflight Now.
  44. ^ Bartels, Meghan (20 December 2019). "Blue Origin Delays Next New Shepard Launch to Early 2019". Space.com. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  45. ^ a b New Shepard makes 10th launch as Blue Origin aims to fly humans late in 2019. Eric Berger, Ars Technica. 23 January 2019, accessed 26 January 2019.
  46. ^ Newton, Laura (24 August 2021). "NASA Technologies Slated for Testing on Blue Origin's New Shepard". NASA. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  47. ^ https://twitter.com/blueorigin/status/1569389844316721152?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1569389844316721152%7Ctwgr%5E9a1b7156d8d855b7870a0327582d6c2f2fc71aac%7Ctwcon%5Es1_&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fforum.nasaspaceflight.com%2Findex.php%3Ftopic%3D57024.60. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  48. ^ Jackie Wattles. "Jeff Bezos is going to space". CNN. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  49. ^ Wall, Mike (4 October 2019). "Blue Origin Probably Won't Launch People to Space This Year". space.com. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  50. ^ Burghardt, Thomas (14 January 2021). "Blue Origin tests New Shepard capsule upgrades on NS-14 mission". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  51. ^ a b "William Shatner Completes Trip to Space Aboard Blue Origin Rocket". The New York Times. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  52. ^ a b "Watch Live: Michael Strahan and the daughter of astronaut Alan Shepard launch to space with Blue Origin". CBS News. 11 December 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  53. ^ Skipper, Joe; GormanZ, Steve (11 December 2021). "Daughter of pioneering astronaut Alan Shepard soars to space aboard Blue Origin rocket". Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  54. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (20 July 2021). "Blue Origin launches Bezos on first crewed New Shepard flight". SpaceNews. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  55. ^ "Blue Origin will launch an 18-year-old as its final passenger on 1st crewed flight". Space.com. 15 July 2021.
  56. ^ a b Blue Origin [@blueorigin] (1 July 2021). "Welcome aboard, Wally. Here's the moment Jeff Bezos asked Wally Funk to join our first human flight on July 20 as our honored guest" (Tweet). Retrieved 1 July 2021 – via Twitter.
  57. ^ "Bidder pays $28m for space trip with Amazon's Bezos". BBC News. 12 June 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021. After a nearly month-long bidding process the top bid had stood at just under $5m – but once Saturday's online auction got under way that figure rose more than five times. "The winning bid amount will be donated to Blue Origin's foundation, @ClubforFuture," Blue Origin tweeted....
  58. ^ Pesce, Nicole Lyn (16 July 2021). "Oliver Daemen, 18, is 'super excited' to join the Blue Origin crew and become the youngest person in space". MarketWatch. Retrieved 21 July 2021. The fully automated rocket and space capsule will carry six passengers, including Bezos, his brother – and now the son of Joes Daemen, founder and CEO of Somerset Capital Partners
  59. ^ "Meet Oliver Daemen, the Dutch teenager who will fly to space with Jeff Bezos after his hedge fund dad paid millions for the ticket". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 16 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  60. ^ "Crypto entrepreneur to go to space on New Shepard". 23 December 2021.
  61. ^ Gorman, Steve (29 March 2022). "Blue Origin's 4th astro-tourism flight set to launch without big names". Reuters.
  62. ^ Wall, Mike (21 March 2022). "Pete Davidson's spaceflight replacement is Blue Origin's Gary Lai". Space.com. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  63. ^ a b c "What You Pay for Blue Origin's Spaceflight Depends on Who You Are". The New York Observer. 23 June 2022.
  64. ^ "Blue Origin launches six more passengers to suborbital space – Spaceflight Now".
  65. ^ "Jeff Bezos' Blue origin sends first Egyptian national to space". 4 August 2022.
  66. ^ "Bezos' Blue Origin targets Aug 4 for third space tourism flight of 2022".
  67. ^ Harwood, Bill (30 April 2015). "Bezos' Blue Origin completes first test flight of "New Shepard" spacecraft". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  68. ^ Pasztor, Andy (24 November 2015). "Jeff Bezos's Blue Origin Succeeds in Landing Spent Rocket Back on Earth". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  69. ^ "Launch Land Repeat". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  70. ^ April 2016, Calla Cofield 04 (4 April 2016). "Launch Land Repeat Blue Origin's Amazing Rocket Liftoff and Landing in Pictures". space.com. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  71. ^ a b Boyle, Alan (19 June 2016). "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin live-streams its spaceship's risky test flight". GeekWire. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  72. ^ "New Shepard In-flight Escape Test". Blue Origin. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  73. ^ "Crew Capsule 2.0 First Flight". Blue Origin. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  74. ^ "Blue Origin flies next-generation New Shepard vehicle". SpaceNews.com. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  75. ^ "Apogee 351,000 Feet". Blue Origin. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  76. ^ Clark, Stephen. "Blue Origin reschedules New Shepard launch for Wednesday". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  77. ^ "Blue Origin New Shepard: Mission 10 (Q1 2019) - collectSPACE: Messages". www.collectspace.com. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  78. ^ a b Clark, Stephen. "Blue Origin "one step closer" to human flights after successful suborbital launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  79. ^ a b "New Shepard sets reusability mark on latest suborbital spaceflight". SpaceNews.com. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  80. ^ Boyle, Alan (8 December 2019). "Watch Blue Origin send thousands of postcards to space and back on test flight". Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  81. ^ "New Shepard Mission NS-12 Updates". Blue Origin. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  82. ^ Sheetz, Michael (13 October 2020). "Blue Origin launches and lands the 13th test flight of its space tourism rocket New Shepard". CNBC. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  83. ^ "FCC APPLICATION FOR SPECIAL TEMPORARY AUTHORITY".
  84. ^ "NS-15 (Suborbital)". RocketLaunch.live. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  85. ^ a b "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin launches and lands rocket New Shepard, as it prepares to launch people". CNBC. 14 April 2021.
  86. ^ "Bid for the very first seat on New Shepard". blueorigin.com. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  87. ^ "WATCH LIVE: First Human Flight (NS-16, Suborbital) Mission (New Shepard) - RocketLaunch.Live". www.rocketlaunch.live. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  88. ^ Bezos, Jeff [@jeffbezos] (7 June 2021). "Ever since I was five years old, I've dreamed of traveling to space. On July 20th, I will take that journey with my brother. The greatest adventure, with my best friend. #GradatimFerociter" – via Instagram.
  89. ^ Blue Origin [@blueorigin] (26 August 2021). "Capsule, touchdown! A wholly successful payload mission for New Shepard. A huge congrats to the entire Blue Origin team on another successful flight" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  90. ^ "New Shepard Payload Mission NS-17 to Fly NASA Lunar Landing Experiment and Art Installation". Blue Origin. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  91. ^ "Blue Origin successfully and safely completes second human flight to space and back". Blue Origin. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  92. ^ "Blue Origin announces next customers to fly on New Shepard's upcoming human flight on October 12". Blue Origin. Blue Origin. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  93. ^ "William Shatner and Blue Origin's Audrey Powers to fly on New Shepard's 18th mission". Blue Origin. Blue Origin. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  94. ^ Foust, Jeff (13 October 2021). "Blue Origin launches second crewed New Shepard mission". SpaceNews. Retrieved 13 October 2021. Company executives said in July that they expected to perform two more crewed flights this year, of which this one was the first. The second, projected for December, may be the first to carry six people, the full crew complement of New Shepard.
  95. ^ Sheetz, Michael (31 March 2022). "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin launches first New Shepard space crew of 2022". CNBC. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  96. ^ Davenport, Justin (4 June 2022). "Blue Origin launches NS-21 suborbital flight with six passengers". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  97. ^ navin, Joseph (4 August 202). "New Shepard launches sixth suborbital crewed flight". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  98. ^ a b Mike Wall (24 August 2022). "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin to launch next space mission on Aug. 31". Space.com. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  99. ^ Twitter https://twitter.com/blueorigin/status/1569389844316721152. Retrieved 13 September 2022. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  100. ^ Blue Origin. The New Shepard Crew Capsule. YouTube. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  101. ^ "Our Approach to Technology". Blue Origin. Blue Origin. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2015. The system consists of a pressurized capsule atop a booster. The combined vehicles launch vertically, accelerating for approximately two and a half minutes, before the engine cuts off. The capsule then separates from the booster to coast quietly into space. After a few minutes of free fall, the booster performs an autonomously controlled rocket-powered vertical landing, while the capsule lands softly under parachutes, both ready to be used again. Reusability allows us to fly the system again and again. ... The New Shepard capsule’s interior is ... 530 cubic feet – offering over 10 times the room Alan Shepard had on his Mercury flight. It seats six astronauts. Three independent parachutes [on the capsule] provide redundancy, while a retro-thrust system further cushions [the] landing. ... Full-envelope escape [system] is built around a solid rocket motor that provides 70,000 lb. of thrust in a two-second burn.
  102. ^ "Aerojet Rocketdyne Motor Plays Key Role in Successful Blue Origin In-Flight Crew Escape Test". SpaceRef.com. 6 October 2016.
  103. ^ Blue Origin, "Our Approach to Technology" Archived 10 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  104. ^ Morring, Frank Jr., "Blue Origin Developing Its Own Launch Vehicle", Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, 30 April 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  105. ^ www.faa.gov (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20090515030315/http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ast/media/20060829_Blue_Origin_EA_FONSI_signed.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2009. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  106. ^ Foust, Jeff (5 March 2016). "Blue Origin plans growth spurt this year". SpaceNews. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  107. ^ David, Leonard (13 June 2005). "Blue Origin: Rocket plans spotlighted". Space.com. Retrieved 28 June 2006.
  108. ^ Sigurd De Keyser (14 November 2006). "Blue Origin: Launches test rocket". spacefellowship.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  109. ^ AP (14 November 2006). "Private Texas spaceport launches test rocket". eastlandspin.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  110. ^ AP (14 November 2006). "Amazon Founder's Private Spaceport Launches First Rocket". foxnews.com. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  111. ^ a b Bezos, Jeff (2 September 2011). "Successful Short Hop, Set Back, and Next Vehicle". Letter. Blue Origin. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  112. ^ "Blue Origin". www.blueorigin.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2010.
  113. ^ "Blue Origin has a bad day (and so do some of the media)". NewSpace Journal. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  114. ^ "Bezos-Funded Spaceship Misfires". Wall Street Journal. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  115. ^ "Blue Origin Acknowledges Test Flight Failure", Space News, September 12, 2011, Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  116. ^ Jeff Foust. "Blue Origin proposes orbital vehicle". NewSpace Journal. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  117. ^ "CCDev awardees one year later: where are they now?". NewSpace Journal. 4 February 2011. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  118. ^ Foust, Jeff (14 October 2016). "Blue Origin on track for human suborbital test flights in 2017". SpaceNews. Retrieved 15 October 2016. We’re still on track to flying people, our test astronauts, by the end of 2017, and then starting commercial flights in 2018.
  119. ^ Sheetz, Michael (14 January 2021). "Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin aims to fly first passengers on its space tourism rocket as early as April". CNBC. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
Videos