Terran R
Terran R diagram.svg
ManufacturerRelativity Space
Country of originUnited States
Height66 m (216 ft)
Diameter5.5 m (18 ft)
Payload to LEO
Mass~20,000 kg (44,000 lb)
Launch history
Launch sitesCCSFS LC-16
First flightNET 2024
First stage
Powered by>7 Aeon R
Maximum thrust2,114,000 lbf (9,400 kN)
PropellantLCH4 / LOX
Second stage
Powered by1 AeonVac
Maximum thrust28,300 lbf (126 kN)
PropellantLCH4 / LOX

Terran R is a medium-lift two-stage, fully reusable launch vehicle under development by Relativity Space. The vehicle is primarily constructed with 3D printing technologies, much like its predecessor, the small-lift Terran 1.[1]


Terran R is an evolution of the Terran 1, with a maximum payload capacity of 20,000 kg (44,000 lb) to low Earth orbit. The first stage will use seven Aeon R engines, producing an estimated thrust of 1.33 MN (300,000 lbs) each.[2] The second stage will use an upgraded Aeon 1 engine with a copper chamber. With this design, Relativity is aiming to exceed the Falcon 9 payload to low-Earth orbit by approximately 20 percent, with a target payload mass as of June 2021 of approximately 20 tonnes (44,000 lb). Relativity Space CEO Tim Ellis has compared the design of Terran R to SpaceX's Starship vehicle.[3] In July 2022, Relativity announced it partnered with Impulse Space to send a payload to Mars in 2025.[4]


  1. ^ Burghardt, Thomas (June 8, 2021). "Relativity Space reveals fully reusable medium lift launch vehicle Terran R". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
  2. ^ Berger, Eric (22 February 2022). "With eyes on reuse, Relativity plans rapid transition to Terran R engines". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  3. ^ Sheetz, Michael (February 25, 2021). "Relativity Space unveils a reusable, 3D-printed rocket to compete with SpaceX's Falcon 9". CNBC. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  4. ^ Chang, Kenneth (19 July 2022). "Two Companies Aim to Beat SpaceX to Mars with 'Audacious' Landing". The New York Times.