LandSpace Technology Corporation
Native name
FoundedJune 2015; 8 years ago (2015-06)[1]
FounderZhang Changwu (张昌武)[2]
Footnotes / references
LandSpace Technology Corporation
Simplified Chinese蓝箭航天空间科技股份有限公司
Traditional Chinese藍箭航天空間科技股份有限公司
Traditional Chinese藍箭航天

LandSpace Technology Corporation (doing business as LandSpace)[4][5][6] is a Chinese private space launch provider based in Beijing.[7] It was founded in 2015 by Zhang Changwu.[7][8]

Since its founding, the company has established several aerospace infrastructure sites in Zhejiang, including a $1.5 billion medium and large-scale liquid rocket assembly and test plant in Jiaxing and an intelligent manufacturing base in Huzhou.[9]

LandSpace developed its first launch vehicle Zhuque-1, powered by solid-propellant motors. Zhuque-1 was launched on 27 October 2018, however the payload failed to reach orbit due to an issue with the third stage.[10][11] The company also developed the liquid-fueled Zhuque-2, based on its methalox TQ-11 and TQ-12 engines, whose maiden launch (failed to orbit) occurred in December 2022.[12][13] Zhuque-2 became the first methalox rocket in the world to reach orbit after a successful second flight on 12 July 2023.[14]

Launch vehicles



Zhuque-1 (ZQ-1, Chinese:朱雀一号 or 朱雀·南太湖号), also called LandSpace-1 or LS-1 (the name LandSpace-1 or LS-1 was originally reserved for a different rocket that did not in the end materialize;[15] after cancellation of the rocket, the name LandSpace-1 was then affiliated to LandSpace's rocket-to-be-developed at the time, the Zhuque-1), is a 19 m (62 ft)-tall, three-stage solid-propellant rocket. All stages have a diameter of 1.35 m. It is likely based on the DF-26 missile's rocket motor.[16] Zhuque-1 has a takeoff mass of 27 t (30 tons) and a thrust of 45 tf (99,000 lbf), and is able to carry 300 kg (660 lb) of payload into a 300 km (190 mi) low Earth orbit.[10]

The maiden flight of Zhuque-1 was on 27 October 2018 from a mobile platform at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, carrying Weilai-1 satellite for China Central Television. After a successful first- and second-stage firing, and fairing separation, the payload failed to reach orbit due to an issue with the third stage.[10][11] Zhuque-1 was the first Chinese private orbital rocket to attempt an orbital launch.[17]

According to news reports, the manufacturer of the solid rocket motors has ended its contract with LandSpace. This raised doubts as to whether there will be a second flight of Zhuque-1.[16] Following the launch, Landscape announced it would advance its focus from Zhuque-1's simple solid-propellant towards the development of a methane-fuelled Zhuque-2.[18]


It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Zhuque-2. (Discuss) (July 2023)

LandSpace developed a liquid-fuelled rocket called Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2).[7] Zhuque-2 is a medium-sized rocket powered by liquid oxygen and methane capable of lifting 6,000 kg of payload into a 200 km low Earth orbit, or 4,000 kg of payload into a 500 km Sun-synchronous orbit.[19] The rocket was initially planned to be launched in 2020,[20] however by 2019 this had slipped to 2021,[21] and later to December 2022.

Zhuque-2 has a liftoff weight of 216 metric tons and use 4 TQ-12 methalox engines on the first stage each with a thrust of 67 metric tonnes.[22][23] The second stage utilizes one vacuum optimised TQ-12 with a thrust of 80 metric tonnes in combination with an 8 metric tonnes thrust TQ-11 engine which acts as a vernier thruster.[24]

In May 2019, LandSpace performed test firings of its liquid methane and LOX fuelled TQ-12 rocket engine at its test facility at Huzhou, Zhejiang province. LandSpace's head of research and development, Ge Minghe, says the engine has a thrust of 80 tonnes. The Huzhou facility will be able to produce about 15 ZQ-2 rockets and 200 TQ-12 engines starting in 2022, according to CEO, Zhang Changwu.[25][26]

On 14 December 2022, LandSpace conducted the debut flight of Zhuque-2, but failed to reach orbit due to an early shutdown of its second stage vernier engines after the second stage main engines apparently completed a successful burn. It was the world's first orbital launch attempt by a methane-fueled launch vehicle,[27] and was the first methane launch vehicle to reach space.

In March 2023, LandSpace confirmed that the second Zhuque-2 launch vehicle had completed assembly and was undergoing preparations for a launch attempt in the coming months.[28]

On 12 July 2023, Zhuque-2 became the first methane-fueled launch vehicle to reach orbit after a successful second flight.[19][29] Following the successful flight, CEO Zhang Changwu announced that the company could now begin its mass production process for Zhuque-2, with the launch having finalized and verified its design.[30]


Rocket & Serial Flight No. Date Payload Orbit Launch Site Outcome Notes
Zhuque-1[10][11] 27 October 2018,
08:00 UTC
Weilai-1 (‘Future’) satellite LEO Jiuquan Failure
Zhuque-2[12] Y1 14 December 2022,
08:30 UTC
Various SSO Jiuquan, Site 96 Failure First methane launch vehicle to reach space.
Zhuque-2[19] Y2 12 July 2023,
01:00 UTC
No payload (Flight test) SSO Jiuquan, Site 96 Success First methane launch vehicle to reach orbit.


LandSpace is in competition with several other Chinese space rocket startups, being LinkSpace, Galactic Energy, ExPace, i-Space, OneSpace and Deep Blue Aerospace.[31]


  1. ^ "LANDSPACE 关于我们". Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  2. ^ "Zhang Changwu". APSCC Satellite Conference.
  3. ^ "About Us - Landspace". Landspace. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  4. ^ 蓝箭官网
  5. ^ "北京蓝箭空间科技有限公司(landspace)" (in Chinese). China Spaceflight. 30 September 2017.
  6. ^ Henri Kenhamn (2017). "LandSpace: le futur SpaceX chinois" (in French). East Pendulum.
  7. ^ a b c Jeffrey Lin; P.W. Singer (23 January 2017). "A private Chinese space company just scored a foreign contract for the first time". Popular Science.
  8. ^ Clay Dillow (28 March 2017). "China's secret plan to crush SpaceX and the US space program". CNBC.
  9. ^ Jones, Andrew (2023-07-12). "China's Landspace reaches orbit with methane-powered Zhuque-2 rocket". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2023-07-12.
  10. ^ a b c d Barbosa, Rui C. (27 October 2018). "Chinese commercial provider LandSpace launches Weilai-1 on a Zhuque-1 rockets – fails to make orbit". Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Jones, Andrew (27 October 2018). "Landspace fails to reach orbit with milestone private Chinese launch". Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  12. ^ a b Fernholz, Tim. "The SpaceX of China aims to commercialize a mysterious rocket on the world stage". Quartz (publication).
  13. ^ Jones, Andrew (18 January 2022). "China's Landspace appears to be preparing to launch its new methane-fueled rocket". SpaceNews. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  14. ^ "China launches first globally successful orbital mission for methane-fueled rocket". 12 July 2023.
  15. ^ "Landspace fails to reach orbit with milestone private Chinese launch". SpaceNews. 27 October 2018.
  16. ^ a b "ZhuQue-1 (ZQ-1, LandSpace-1, LS-1)".
  17. ^ Clark, Stephen. "LandSpace falls short of orbit in private Chinese launch attempt". Spaceflight Now.
  18. ^ Jones, Andrew (2023-07-12). "China's Landspace reaches orbit with methane-powered Zhuque-2 rocket". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2023-07-12.
  19. ^ a b c Beil, Adrian (12 July 2023). "LandSpace claims win in the methane race to orbit via second ZhuQue-2 launch". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  20. ^ "Landspace - ZQ-2 / Suzaku No. 2".
  21. ^ "Chinese space launch firm Landspace raises $71 million". 10 December 2019.
  22. ^ Advanced rocket engine ready for space mission May 2019
  23. ^ LandSpace Completes Hot Fire Test of Groundbreaking TQ-12 Methalox Engine May 2019
  24. ^ Lan, Chen; Myrrhe, Jacqueline (3 September 2019). "Will LandSpace be China's SpaceX?". The Space Review. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  25. ^ Advanced rocket engine ready for space mission, Space Daily, 2019-05-21
  26. ^ Jones, Andrew (5 June 2020). "Chinese private launch firms advance with methane engines, launch preparations and new funding". SpaceNews. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  27. ^ Beil, Adrian (14 December 2022). "Chinese Zhuque-2 fails during first methalox orbital launch attempt". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  28. ^ Beil, Adrian (31 March 2023). "LandSpace readies for second flight of ZhuQue-2 amid launch salvo". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  29. ^ "China's Landspace reaches orbit with methane-powered Zhuque-2 rocket". Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  30. ^ Jones, Andrew (2023-07-12). "China's Landspace reaches orbit with methane-powered Zhuque-2 rocket". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2023-07-12.
  31. ^ Doug Messier (20 December 2017). "EXPACE Raises US$182 Million for Small Satellite Launchers". Parabolic Arc.