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Terran 1
ManufacturerRelativity Space
Country of originUnited States
Cost per launchUS$12 million[1]
Size
Height35 m (115 ft)
Diameter3 m (9.8 ft)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to LEO
Altitude300 km (190 mi)
Orbital inclination28.5°
Mass1,479 kg (3,261 lb)
Payload to SSO
Altitude500 km (310 mi)
Mass898 kg (1,980 lb)
Launch history
StatusIn development
Launch sitesCCSFS LC-16
VSFB Building 330
First stage
Height24.3 m (80 ft)
Diameter2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
Powered by9× Aeon 1
Maximum thrust207,000 lbf (920 kN)
PropellantLCH4 / LOX
Second stage
Height8.1 m (27 ft)
Diameter2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
Powered by1× AeonVac
Maximum thrust28,300 lbf (126 kN)
PropellantLCH4 / LOX

Terran 1 is a two-stage, 3D printed, expendable, small-lift launch vehicle under development since 2017[2] by Relativity Space.[3][4]

Design

Terran 1 consists of two stages. The first stage is powered by nine Aeon 1 engines burning methane and oxygen propellants in a gas-generator cycle, each producing 23,000 lbf (100 kN) of thrust each. The second stage is powered by a single vacuum-optimized version of Aeon 1,[2] known as AeonVac, producing 28,300 lbf (126 kN) of thrust in vacuum.[5] Both stages will be autogenously pressurized.[citation needed]

The payload fairing measures 6.8 m (22 ft) long and has a diameter of 3 m (9.8 ft). Terran 1 is capable of up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) to low Earth orbit,[6] although Relativity commonly states a payload capacity of 1,250 kg (2,760 lb).[5]

The primary and secondary structures of Terran 1 are manufactured with Relativity's Stargate 3D printer out of a proprietary aluminum alloy.[6] 90% of Terran 1 by mass consists of printed components;[6] Relativity claims that they can reduce the part count in the vehicle by 100 times compared to traditionally-manufactured rockets and manufacture an entire flight article from raw materials in 60 days.[6][7] Relativity's in-development Terran R launch vehicle will utilize the same tooling used to manufacture Terran 1.[3][2]

Relativity advertised a price per launch for Terran 1 of US$10 million in 2019.[8] By 2021, the advertised price per launch had been increased to US$12 million in 2021.[2][5]

Launches

Relativity is hoping to conduct the first launch of Terran 1 in early 2022.

Flight No. Date and

time (UTC)

Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit Customer Launch

outcome

1 Early 2022[9][7] LC-16 None LEO Test flight Planned
First flight of the Terran 1 launch vehicle. Will carry no payload.
2 NLT June 2022[9] LC-16 VCLS Demo-2R LEO NASA Planned
$3 million contract for unspecified payload(s) in NASA's Venture Class Launch Services (VCLS) 2 program.[10] The ELaNa 42 mission, consisting of three CubeSats, will launch on this flight.[11]
2022 Rideshare LEO Spaceflight, Inc. Planned
Contract with Spaceflight includes first flight in Q3 2021, with option for additional flights in the future.[12]
2022 Rideshare 10–350 kg GEO Momentus Planned
The 2019 contract with Momentus included a first flight originally scheduled for 2021, with option for five additional flights in the future. The five flights will include launch of a Momentus Vigoride Extended space tug.[13]
2022 LEO Mu Space Planned
Dedicated launch for mu Space, will carry a single payload.[14]
NET 2022 LC-16 / B330 Rideshare LEO TriSept Planned
Launch site will either be Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg. TriSept stated that the launch will feature one large primary payload accompanied with several smaller payloads.[15]
2023 LEO DoD (STP) Planned
Single flight carrying "small U.S. military payload", price not disclosed.[16]
2023–2030 B330 Iridium ×6 LEO (86.4°) Iridium Planned
Iridium has ordered up to six Terran 1 flights to launch on-orbit spares for their satellite constellation.
Telesat

(unspecified quantity)

LEO Telesat Planned
Unspecified number of launches for an unspecified number of satellites.[8]

References

  1. ^ Stephen, Clark (24 June 2020). "Relativity books up to six launches for Iridium, reveals plans for Vandenberg pad". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Sheetz, Michael (25 February 2021). "Relativity Space unveils a reusable, 3D-printed rocket to compete with SpaceX's Falcon 9". CNBC. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  3. ^ a b Burghardt, Thomas (8 June 2021). "Relativity Space reveals fully reusable medium lift launch vehicle Terran R". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  4. ^ "Terran". Relativity Space. Archived from the original on 27 March 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  5. ^ a b c "Rockets". Relativity Space. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d Relativity Space (August 2020). Terran 1 : Payload User's Guide Version 2.0 (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-08-23.
  7. ^ a b Berger, Eric (3 March 2020). "Relativity Space has big dreams. Is the company for real?". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  8. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (5 April 2019). "Relativity signs contract with Telesat for launching LEO constellation". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  9. ^ a b Alamalhodaei, Aria (20 August 2021). "Relativity is pushing back the demo launch of its Terran 1 rocket to early 2022". TechCrunch. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  10. ^ Foust, Jeff (12 December 2020). "Three companies win NASA small launch contracts". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  11. ^ Higginbotham, Scott (9 August 2021). "CubeSat Launch Initiative – Upcoming Flights" (PDF). NASA. p. 3. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  12. ^ "Relativity Signs Launch Services Agreement for Multiple Launches with Spaceflight on Terran 1, World's First 3D Printed Rocket". Relativity Space (Press release). 6 May 2019. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  13. ^ "Relativity Space Signs Launch Services Agreement for Multiple Launches with Momentus on Terran 1, World's First 3D Printed Rocket". Relativity Space (Press release). Business Wire. 11 September 2019. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  14. ^ "Relativity's 3D Printed Terran 1 Rocket to Launch mu Space's Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite". Relativity Space. 23 April 2019. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  15. ^ Foust, Jeff (10 December 2020). "TriSept purchases Relativity launch for rideshare mission". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  16. ^ Erwin, Sandra (15 March 2021). "Relativity Space wins U.S. military contract for 2023 launch". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.