Terran 1
ManufacturerRelativity Space
Country of originUnited States
Cost per launchUS$12 million[1]
Height35.2 m (115 ft)
Diameter2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
Payload to LEO
Altitude300 km (190 mi)
Orbital inclination28.5°
Mass1,479 kg (3,261 lb)
Payload to SSO
Altitude500 km (310 mi)
Mass898 kg (1,980 lb)
Launch history
Launch sitesCCSFS LC-16
VSFB Building 330
First stage
Height24.3 m (80 ft)
Diameter2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
Powered by9× Aeon 1
Maximum thrust920 kN (207,000 lbf)
PropellantLCH4 / LOX
First stage – Block 2
Powered by1× Aeon R
Maximum thrust1,300 kN (300,000 lbf)
PropellantLCH4 / LOX
Second stage
Height8.1 m (27 ft)
Diameter2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
Powered by1× AeonVac
Maximum thrust126 kN (28,300 lbf)
PropellantLCH4 / LOX

Terran 1 is an expendable two-stage small-lift launch vehicle developed by Relativity Space since 2017.[2] Unique to Relativity, most structures and components in the vehicle are manufactured with 3D printing processes.

The maximum payload was expected to be 1,250 kg (2,760 lb) to 185 km (115 mi) low Earth orbit (LEO). Relativity's advertised launch price was $12 million USD per Terran 1 mission.

Terran 1's first flight is scheduled for 11 March, 2023 after a scrub on 8 March.


Terran 1 consists of two stages. The first stage is powered by nine Aeon 1 engines burning methane and oxygen propellants in a gas-generator cycle, each producing 100 kN (23,000 lbf) of thrust. The second stage is powered by a single vacuum-optimized version of Aeon 1,[3] known as AeonVac, producing 126 kN (28,300 lbf) of thrust in vacuum.[4] Both stages will be autogenously pressurized.[5]

The payload fairing measures 6.8 m (22 ft) long and has a diameter of 3 m (9.8 ft). Terran 1 is capable of up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) to low Earth orbit.[6] However, Relativity commonly states a payload capacity of 1,250 kg (2,760 lb) to lower inclination low-Earth orbits and 900 kg (2,000 lb) to a sun-synchronous orbit (SSO).[4][7]

The primary and secondary structures of Terran 1 are manufactured with Relativity's Stargate 3D printer out of a proprietary aluminum alloy.[6] 90% of Terran 1 by mass consists of printed components;[6] Relativity claims that they can reduce the part count in the vehicle by 100 times compared to traditionally-manufactured rockets and manufacture an entire flight article from raw materials in 60 days.[6][8] Relativity's in-development Terran R launch vehicle will utilize the same tooling used to manufacture Terran 1.[3][9]

Relativity advertised a price per launch for Terran 1 of US$10 million in 2019.[10] The advertised price per launch had been increased to $12 million USD in 2021.[3]

Planned upgrades

In February 2022, Relativity CEO Tim Ellis stated in an interview with Ars Technica that the current configuration of Terran 1, with nine Aeon 1 engines on the first stage, will be replaced after the third flight with a stage featuring a single Aeon R engine with substantially higher thrust. The Aeon R engine is planned to be used on Relativity's much larger Terran R rocket.[11]


Relativity received a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) launch license to conduct the first launch of Terran 1, not-earlier-than (NET) 8 March 2023 from Cape Canaveral Space Force Station's Launch Complex 16.[12] Originally, another static fire was planned with the full rocket stack before first launch. However, Relativity decided it performed enough tests and instead decided to go for a launch attempt.[5]

Flight No. Date and

time (UTC)

Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit Customer Launch


1 11 March 2023, 18:00[2] LC-16 None LEO Test flight Planned
First flight of the Terran 1 launch vehicle, with mission name "Good Luck, Have Fun". Will carry no payload.[11]
2 March 2023 LC-16 VCLS Demo-2R LEO NASA Planned
$3 million contract for unspecified payload(s) in NASA's Venture Class Launch Services (VCLS) 2 program.[13] The ELaNa 42 mission, consisting of three CubeSats, will launch on this flight.[14]
3 2023 LC-16 Undisclosed Undisclosed Planned
Third flight of Terran 1, as detailed by Tim Ellis in an interview, will carry a payload for an undisclosed customer.[11] Last flight of Terran 1 before planned block upgrade.
NET 2023 Rideshare LEO Spaceflight, Inc. Planned
Contract with Spaceflight includes first flight in Q3 2021, with option for additional flights in the future.[15]
NET 2023 Rideshare 10–350 kg GEO Momentus Planned
The 2019 contract with Momentus included a first flight originally scheduled for 2021, with option for five additional flights in the future. The five flights will include launch of a Momentus Vigoride Extended space tug.[16]
NET 2023 LEO Mu Space Planned
Dedicated launch for mu Space, will carry a single payload.[17]
NET 2023 LC-16 / B330 Rideshare LEO TriSept Planned
Launch site will either be Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg. TriSept stated that the launch will feature one large primary payload accompanied with several smaller payloads.[18]
2023 LEO DoD (STP) Planned
Single flight carrying "small U.S. military payload", price not disclosed.[7]
NET 2023[19] B330 Iridium NEXT × 1 LEO (86.4°) Iridium Planned
Iridium has ordered a Terran to launch one of the 6 on-orbit spares for their satellite constellation.

(unspecified quantity)

LEO Telesat Planned
Unspecified number of launches for an unspecified number of satellites.[10]


  1. ^ Clark, Stephen (24 June 2020). "Relativity books up to six launches for Iridium, reveals plans for Vandenberg pad". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b Baylor, Michael. "Terran-1 - Good Luck, Have Fun". Next Spaceflight. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  3. ^ a b c Sheetz, Michael (25 February 2021). "Relativity Space unveils a reusable, 3D-printed rocket to compete with SpaceX's Falcon 9". CNBC. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Rockets". Relativity Space. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  5. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (22 February 2023). "Relativity sets launch date for first flight of Terran 1 rocket". Spaceflight Now. Pole Star Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d Relativity Space (August 2020). Terran 1 : Payload User's Guide Version 2.0 (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 August 2021.
  7. ^ a b Erwin, Sandra (15 March 2021). "Relativity Space wins U.S. military contract for 2023 launch". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  8. ^ Berger, Eric (3 March 2020). "Relativity Space has big dreams. Is the company for real?". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  9. ^ Burghardt, Thomas (8 June 2021). "Relativity Space reveals fully reusable medium lift launch vehicle Terran R". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  10. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (5 April 2019). "Relativity signs contract with Telesat for launching LEO constellation". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  11. ^ a b c Berger, Eric (22 February 2022). "With eyes on reuse, Relativity plans rapid transition to Terran R engines". Ars Technica. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  12. ^ Kelly, Emre (22 February 2023). "Relativity Space's first launch of 3D-printed Terran rocket scheduled for March". Florida Today. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  13. ^ Foust, Jeff (12 December 2020). "Three companies win NASA small launch contracts". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  14. ^ Higginbotham, Scott (9 August 2021). "CubeSat Launch Initiative – Upcoming Flights" (PDF). NASA. p. 3. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  15. ^ "Relativity Signs Launch Services Agreement for Multiple Launches with Spaceflight on Terran 1, World's First 3D Printed Rocket". Relativity Space (Press release). 6 May 2019. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  16. ^ "Relativity Space Signs Launch Services Agreement for Multiple Launches with Momentus on Terran 1, World's First 3D Printed Rocket". Relativity Space (Press release). Business Wire. 11 September 2019. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  17. ^ "Relativity's 3D Printed Terran 1 Rocket to Launch mu Space's Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite". Relativity Space. 23 April 2019. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  18. ^ Foust, Jeff (10 December 2020). "TriSept purchases Relativity launch for rideshare mission". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  19. ^ Henry, Caleb [@CHenry_QA] (26 July 2022). "Iridium says it will launch up to five spare satellites in 2023, but not with Relativity Space. That leaves only one spare for Relativity to (maybe) launch with Terran 1. The launch provider for the other five hasn't been disclosed, only that it will be a single rocket" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 August 2022 – via Twitter.