Launch of an Soyuz-2.1v carrying Kosmos 2525 military satellite on 28 March 2018.
FunctionLight carrier rocket
ManufacturerTsSKB Progress
Country of originRussia
Height44 m (144 ft)
Diameter3 m (9.8 ft)
Mass158,000 kg (348,000 lb)
Payload to 200 km x 51.8° LEO
Mass2,850 kg (6,280 lb)
Payload to 200 km x 62.8° LEO
Mass2,800 kg (6,200 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyR-7 / Soyuz-2
ComparableLong March 2C
Launch history
Launch sitesPlesetsk, Site 43
Total launches12
Partial failure(s)1
First flight28 December 2013
Last flight9 February 2024

The Soyuz-2.1v (Russian: Союз 2.1в, Union 2.1v), GRAU index 14A15,[1] known earlier in development as the Soyuz-1 (Russian: Союз 1, Union 1), is a Russian expendable launch vehicle. It is a heavily modified derivative of the Soyuz-2.1b, and is a member of the R-7 family of rockets. It is built by TsSKB Progress, at Samara in Russia. Launches are conducted from existing facilities at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northwest Russia, with pads also available at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan,[2] and new facilities at the Vostochny Cosmodrome in Eastern Russia.[3]


Base of first stage, with NK-33 & RD-0110R engines

The Soyuz-2.1v represents a major departure from earlier Soyuz rockets. Unlike the Soyuz-2.1b upon which it is based, it does away with the four boosters used on all other R-7 vehicles. The first stage of the Soyuz-2.1v is based on the Soyuz-2 second stage, with a single-chamber NK-33 engine replacing the four-chamber RD-108 along with structural modifications. Since the NK-33 is fixed, the stage is also equipped with an RD-0110R engine for thrust vector control. The RD-0110R also adds 230.5 kN (51,800 lbf) thrust and heats the pressurization gases.[4]

The NK-33 engine, originally built for the N1 programme, offers increased performance over the RD-107; however, only a limited number of engines are available. Once the supply is exhausted, the NK-33 will be replaced by the RD-193. In April 2013, it was announced that the RD-193 engine had completed testing. The RD-193 is a lighter and shorter engine based on the Angara's RD-191, which is itself a derivative of the Zenit's RD-170.[5]

The second stage of the Soyuz-2.1v is the same as the third stage of the Soyuz-2.1b;[6] powered by an RD-0124 engine. Most missions will use a Volga upper stage to transfer the payload from an initial parking orbit to its final destination. The Volga is derived from the propulsion system of the Yantar reconnaissance satellite, and was developed as a lighter and cheaper alternative to the Fregat.

The Soyuz-2.1v was designed as a light-class carrier rocket, and has a payload capacity of 2,850 kg (6,280 lb) to a 200 km (120 mi) circular low Earth orbit with an inclination of 51.8° from Baikonur, and 2,800 kg (6,200 lb) to a 200 kilometre orbit at 62.8° from Plesetsk.[2][7]

List of launches

Flight number Date (UTC) Launch site Upper stage Payload Orbit Remarks Outcome
1 28 December 2013
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Aist 1, SKRL-756 #1/2 LEO Maiden flight of Soyuz-2.1v Success
2 5 December 2015
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Kosmos 2511 and 2512 LEO Earth observation Radar calibration Partial failure
3 23 June 2017
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Kosmos 2519 LEO Military satellite, possibly geodesy project Nivelir [ru]-ZU Success
4 29 March 2018
Plesetsk Site 43/4 None Kosmos 2525 (EMKA) SSO Military Satellite Success
5 10 July 2019
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Kosmos 2535 to 2538 LEO Geodesy Success
6 25 November 2019
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Kosmos 2542 & 2543 LEO Satellite inspection Success
7 9 September 2021
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Kosmos 2551 (EMKA No.2) SSO Reconnaissance Success
8 1 August 2022
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Kosmos 2558 (Nivelir No.3) PO Surveillance Success
9 21 October 2022
Plesetsk Site 43/4 Volga Kosmos 2561 & 2562[8] SSO Surveillance Success
10 29 March 2023
Plesetsk Site 43/4 None Kosmos 2568 (EO MKA #4) SSO Reconnaissance Success
11 27 December 2023
Plesetsk Site 43/4 None Kosmos 2574 (Razbeg No.1) SSO Reconnaissance Success
12 9 February 2024
Plesetsk Site 43/4 None Kosmos 2575 (Razbeg No. 2) SSO Reconnaissance Success

Photogallery from Paris Air Show 2011

Russia exhibited a model of the Soyuz-2.1v during the 2011 Paris Air Show at Le Bourget.

See also


  1. ^ "Rus/Souyz-2 launch vehicle" (in Russian). Plesetsk Cosmodrome. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  2. ^ a b ""Soyuz-1" middle class launch vehicle". Samara Space Centre. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  3. ^ Peslyak, Alexander (24 July 2013). "Vostochny Cosmodrome clears the way to deep space". Russia Beyond The Headlines. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Steering engine RD0110R (14D24) Carrier rocket "Soyuz-2.1v"" (in Russian). KBKhA. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  5. ^ "New engine for light rocket "Soyuz" prepare for mass production at the end of the year" (in Russian). Новости космонавтики. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
  6. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Origin of the Soyuz-1 project". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  7. ^ "Soyuz -2.1 B". 10 November 2014.
  8. ^ "Ракета «Союз-2.1в» с секретными военными спутниками стартовала с космодрома Плесецк". 21 October 2022.