Long March 1
Changzheng-1 (CZ-1)
upright=0.4 Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry
ManufacturerMAI, CASC, CAST
Country of originChina
Height29.86 m (98.0 ft)
Diameter2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)
Mass81,570 kg (179,830 lb)
Payload to Low Earth orbit
Mass300 kg (660 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyLong March
Launch history
Launch sitesJiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Total launches2
First flight24 April 1970
Last flight3 March 1971
Type of passengers/cargoDong Fang Hong I
First stage
Height17.835 m (58.51 ft)
Diameter2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)
Empty mass4,180 kg (9,220 lb)
Gross mass65,250 kg (143,850 lb)
Powered by1 YF-2A (4 x YF-1A)
Maximum thrust1,101.2 kN (247,600 lbf) (sea level)
1,214.4 kN (273,000 lbf) (vacuum level)
Specific impulse242.5 s (2.378 km/s) (sea level)
267.4 s (2.622 km/s) (vacuum level)
Burn timeAbout 130 seconds [1]
Second stage
Height7.486 m (24.56 ft)
Diameter2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)
Empty mass2,340 kg (5,160 lb)
Gross mass13,550 kg (29,870 lb)
Powered byYF-3A
Maximum thrust320.2 kN (72,000 lbf)
Specific impulse286.9 s (2.814 km/s)
Burn timeAbout 126 seconds
Third stage – FG-02
Height4.565 m (14.98 ft)
Diameter0.77 m (2 ft 6 in)
Empty mass400 kg (880 lb)
Gross mass2,200 kg (4,900 lb)
Powered byFG-02
Maximum thrust181 kN (41,000 lbf)
Specific impulse254 s (2.49 km/s)
Burn time38 seconds
PropellantSolid: Polysulfide/AP

The Long March 1 (长征一号), also known as the Changzheng-1 (CZ-1),[3] was the first member of China's Long March rocket family.[4] Like the U.S.'s and the Soviet Union's first rockets, it was based on a class of ballistic missiles, namely the DF-4 class.[5]


Development started in January 1965 as the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry issued a design task. The two stage liquid fueled DF-4 was modified by adding a third stage in order to make it to the desired orbit. Long March 1's second flight launched China's first satellite Dong Fang Hong 1 to space on 24 April 1970. The rocket was operational during 1970–1971. Wang Xiji was the chief designer of the rocket.[6]

Launch History

Main article: List of Long March launches

Long March 1 (Launch history)
Date and time (GMT) Launch site Payload Orbit Function Decay Outcome Notes
24 April 1970
China Jiuquan, LA-2A China Dong Fang Hong 1 MEO Technology demonstration 14 May 1970 Success First satellite launched by China.
3 March 1971
China Jiuquan, LA-2A China Shijian 1 LEO Technology demonstration 17 June 1979 Success

See also


  1. ^ "Space Launchers - Long March". Archived from the original on 8 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  2. ^ "Go Taikonauts! - Launch Vehicle". Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  3. ^ "CZ-1". Astronautix.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  4. ^ 问鼎苍穹:共和国航天纪实. 中国南京: 江苏文艺出版社. 2009. p. 128. ISBN 978-7-5399-3457-0.
  5. ^ "Long March". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 23 March 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  6. ^ Stokes, Mark A. (July 2003). "The People's Liberation Army and China's Space and Missile Development". In Laurie Burkitt; Andrew Scobell; Larry Wortzel (eds.). The Lessons of History: The Chinese people's Liberation Army at 75 (PDF). Strategic Studies Institute. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-58487-126-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2023. Retrieved 2 December 2023.