Country of originRussia
General characteristics
Diameter3.2 metres (10 ft)
Length1.025 metres (3 ft 4.4 in)
Propellant mass300–900 kilograms (660–1,980 lb)
Empty mass840 kilograms (1,850 lb)
Powered by1 17D64[2][3] (KB Melnikov)
Maximum thrust2.94 kilonewtons (660 lbf)
Specific impulse307 seconds (3.01 km/s)
Burn time600 s

Volga, GRAU index 14S46, also designated 141KS, is a rocket upper stage designed in Russia. It is used with the Soyuz-2.1a and Soyuz-2-1v rockets to insert payloads into Sun-synchronous orbit. It is derived from the propulsion module of the Yantar spy satellites.[4] It is closely related to the retired Ikar upper stage.[3]


  1. ^ "Volga upper stage". Russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  2. ^ "Soyuz-2-1v Launcher (formerly Soyuz-1)". Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Soyuz 2-1 launches maiden mission from Vostochny | NASASpaceFlight.com". www.nasaspaceflight.com. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  4. ^ "Soyuz 2-1v Launch Vehicle". Spaceflight101. Retrieved 26 March 2016.