Lambda 4S (replica) and the launcher as exhibited at National Museum of Nature and Science.

Lambda is the name of a series of Japanese carrier rockets.[1] It consisted of the types Lambda 2,[2] LS-A, LSC-3,[3] Lambda 3,[4] Lambda 4[5] and LS-C, developed jointly by Institute of Industrial Science of University of Tokyo, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Tokyo University, and Prince Motor Company, which merged with Nissan in 1966.[6]

On February 11, 1970, the first Japanese satellite Ohsumi was launched using a Lambda 4 rocket.

Lambda series rockets did not have guidance systems, as they had the potential to be converted for offensive military use, thus interpreted as a violation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution. However, future Japanese launch vehicles, such as the H-II, were allowed to have guidance systems.[7]

The Lambda 4 was launched nine times, though five were failures.[5] The first launch of the Lambda 4S rocket took place on September 26, 1966, from Kagoshima.[8] A fourth-stage attitude control failed resulting in loss of the vehicle and payload.

Launches

Lambda rockets were launched by ISAS, from Kagoshima pad L:[1]

Date Version Apogee (km) Mission
1963 August 24 Lambda 2 51 Failure
1963 December 11 Lambda 2 410 Ionosphere mission
1964 July 11 Lambda 3 857 Ionosphere mission
1965 January 31 Lambda 3 1040 Ionosphere mission
1965 March 18 Lambda 3 1085 X-ray astronomy mission
1966 March 5 Lambda 3H 1829 X-ray astronomy mission
1966 July 23 Lambda 3H 1800 Gyro-plasma probe Ionosphere / aeronomy mission
1966 September 26 Lambda 4S 400 Failure: Fourth stage attitude control failed
1966 December 20 Lambda 4S 400 Failure: Fourth stage failed to ignite
1967 February 6 Lambda 3H 2150 Ionosphere / chemical release / x-ray astronomy mission
1967 April 13 Lambda 4S 200 Failure: Fourth stage failed to ignite
1969 January 16 Lambda 3H 1800 Ionosphere mission
1969 September 3 Lambda 4T 400 Test mission
1969 September 22 Lambda 4S 400 Failure: Fourth stage control system malfunction after third stage collided with fourth stage
1970 January 21 Lambda 3H 1848 Ionosphere / plasma mission
1970 February 11 Lambda 4S 2440 Ohsumi (first successful satellite of Japan, fifth attempt of L-4S)
1970 September 19 Lambda 3H 2017 X-ray / ultraviolet astronomy mission
1971 August 20 Lambda 4SC 1500 Failure
1971 September 3 Lambda 3H 1718 Aeronomy / ionosphere / x-ray astronomy mission
1973 January 28 Lambda 4SC 1500 TVC test
1974 January 22 Lambda 3H 1571 St 2: 329 km X-ray astronomy mission
1974 September 1 Lambda 4SC 1500 TVC test
1976 August 30 Lambda 4SC 1500 Radar transponder
1977 August 16 Lambda 3H 1294 Aeronomy / ionosphere / plasma mission
1979 September 20 Lambda 4SC 82 TVC test

References

  1. ^ a b "Lambda". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  2. ^ "Lambda 2". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  3. ^ "LSC-3". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  4. ^ "Lambda 3". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  5. ^ a b "Lambda 4". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  6. ^ "A short history of the Prince Motor Co., Ltd". Nissan. Retrieved 2020-08-31.
  7. ^ "H-II Launch Vehicle". JAXA. Retrieved 2021-01-01.
  8. ^ "Lambda 4S". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2023-10-09.