Qaem 100
FunctionSmall-lift space launch vehicle
ManufacturerIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Country of originIran
Payload to LEO 500 km
Mass80 kg
Associated rockets
Based onQased
Launch history
Launch sitesShahroud space center
Total launches3 (1 suborbital)
Success(es)2 (1 suborbital)
First flight5 November 2022
Last flight20 January 2024
First stage
Powered byRafe motor
Maximum thrust68,000 kilograms-force (670,000 N; 150,000 lbf)
Second stage
Diameter1 m
Powered bySalman motor
Burn time60 seconds
Third stage
Diameter1 m
Powered byUnnamed IRGC motor

Qaem 100 (also Ghaem 100, Persian: قائم ۱۰۰, from a word meaning "upright")[1] is an Iranian expendable, small-lift, space launch vehicle developed by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). It was unveiled on 5 November 2022 and is the first rocket of the Qaem family. After a successful suborbital test flight in 2022, the rocket performed its orbital maiden flight in 2023 carrying the Nahid telecommunication satellite but failed to put it in orbit.[2][3] In the next launch in 2024, it succeeded in putting the Soraya satellite into 750km orbit, breaking Iran's previous altitude record.[4]

Development history

In 2020, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps successfully launched its first rocket, the Qased.[5] Experience acquired through the Qased's development allowed the IRGC to develop the Qaem 100.[6] Its first suborbital test flight has been successfully carried out on 5 November 2022.[7][3] The IRGC then announced Qaem 100 will "soon" be used to launch the Nahid satellite manufactured by the Ministry of Information and Communications Technology of Iran.[3] The Qaem 100 is planned to be followed by other Qaem rockets including the Qaem 105, Qaem 110 and Qaem 120, which will ultimately allow Iran to put satellites into the 36,000 km GEO orbit.[6]


Qaem 100 is the first three-stage solid-fueled rocket manufactured by Iran.[8] It will be able to put a satellite weighing 80 kg (180 lb) into a 500 kilometres (310 miles) LEO.[9][3] This is twice the payload that the Qased rocket can lift while the two rockets weigh the same.[6]

The first stage is the Rafe motor that successfully passed its static ground test in January 2022.[3][10] Rafe is able to produce 68 tonnes-force (670 kN; 150,000 lbf) of thrust. It uses gimballed thrust vector control (TVC) for steering and has a carbon-fiber composite wound casing, which reduces weight compared to traditional casing.[10]

Launch history

Flight No. Date (UTC) Launch site Payload Orbit Outcome Remarks
1 5 November 2022 Shahroud N/A Suborbital Success Test flight[3]
2 4 March 2023 Shahroud Nahid-1 LEO Failure Maiden orbital flight[2][11]
3 20 January 2024 Shahroud Soraya LEO Success First successful orbital flight. Satellite placed into 750 km orbit breaking Iran's previous record.[12][13]

See also

Other Iranian satellite launch vehicles


  1. ^ Rastrow, A. A. (21 December 2002). Rahnama Turkish-English-Persian Dictionary. Alhoda UK. ISBN 9789646054707 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ a b "Identical letters dated 28 April 2023 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council" (PDF). Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "پرتاب موفقیت‌آمیز زیرمداری ماهواره‌بر قائم 100- اخبار نظامی | دفاعی | امنیتی – اخبار سیاسی تسنیم | Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم | Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved 5 November 2022.
  4. ^ "Iran launches Sorayya satellite, sets 'new record'". Retrieved 20 January 2024.
  5. ^ Bizaer, Maysam. "Iran satellite launch 'sends a message' on failed US pressure". Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  6. ^ a b c "سردار جعفرآبادی: "قائم 100" اولین پله از نقشه راه سپاه در توسعه سری ماهواره‌برهای قائم است". پایگاه خبری تحلیلی فردا | Farda News (in Persian). Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  7. ^ "Iran test launches new satellite-carrying rocket". Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  8. ^ "Launch of Qaem satellite-carrying rocket made foes angry, delirious: diplomat". Tehran Times. 7 November 2022. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  9. ^ "Iran Revolutionary Guard launches satellite-carrying rocket". 5 November 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
  10. ^ a b "سپاه با "رافع" به باشگاه سازندگان ماهواره‌بر سوخت جامد پیوست/ نقش تدبیر رهبر انقلاب درباره "الیاف کربن" در ارتقاء صنعت فضایی کشور +عکس و فیلم". مشرق نیوز (in Persian). 16 January 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
  11. ^ @projectmeshkat (28 August 2023). "Qaim-100 satellite carrier has failed" (Tweet). Retrieved 15 October 2023 – via Twitter.
  12. ^ "Iran successfully launches Sorayya satellite into orbit: Report". 20 January 2024.
  13. ^ "خبرگزاری فارس - رکورد پرتاب فضایی ایران شکسته شد؛ پرتاب «ثریا» به ارتفاع 750 کیلومتری زمین برای اولین بار". خبرگزاری فارس. 20 January 2024. Retrieved 20 January 2024.