Satellite Launch Vehicle
FunctionSmall-lift launch vehicle
Country of originIndia
Height22 m (72 ft)
Diameter1 m (3.3 ft)
Mass17,000 kg (37,000 lb)
Payload to LEO
Altitude400 km (250 mi)
Mass40 kg (88 lb)
Associated rockets
Derivative workASLV, PSLV
Launch history
Launch sitesSriharikota
Total launches4
Partial failure(s)1
First flight10 August 1979
Last flight17 April 1983
Type of passengers/cargoRohini
First stage
Propellant mass8.6 t (19,000 lb)
Powered by1 solid
Maximum thrust450 kN (100,000 lbf)
Specific impulse253 seconds (2.48 km/s)
Burn time49 seconds
PropellantPBAN (Polybutadiene acrylonitrile) Solid[1]
Second stage
Propellant mass3 tonnes
Powered by1 solid
Maximum thrust20 tonnes
Specific impulse267 sec
Burn time40 seconds
PropellantPBAN (Polybutadine Acrylo Nitrate) Solid
Third stage
Propellant mass1 tonnes
Powered by1 solid
Maximum thrust6.3 tonnes
Specific impulse277 sec
Burn time45 seconds
PropellantHigh energy propellant (HEF 20) Solid
Fourth stage
Propellant mass262 kg
Powered by1 solid
Maximum thrust2.4 tonnes
Specific impulse283 sec
Burn time33 seconds
PropellantHigh energy propellant (HEF 20) Solid

The Satellite Launch Vehicle or SLV was a small-lift launch vehicle project started in the early 1970s by the Indian Space Research Organisation to develop the technology needed to launch satellites. SLV was intended to reach a height of 400 kilometres (250 mi) and carry a payload of 40 kg (88 lb).[2] The first experimental flight of SLV-3, in August 1979, was a failure.[3] The first successful launch took place on 18 July 1980.

It was a four-stage rocket with all solid-propellant motors.[3]

The first launch of the SLV took place in Sriharikota on 10 August 1979. The fourth and final launch of the SLV took place on 17 April 1983.

It has taken approximately seven years to realise the vehicle from start. The solid motor case for first and second stage are fabricated from 15 CDV6 steel sheets and third and fourth stages from fibre reinforced plastic.[1]

Launch statistics

  •   Failure
  •   Partial failure
  •   Success

Launch history

All four SLV launches occurred from the SLV Launch Pad at the Sriharikota High Altitude Range. The first two launches were experimental (E) and the next 2 were designated as developmental (D) as this was the first launch vehicle being developed by India not intended for a long service life.[4]

Flight No. Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit User Launch
E1 10 August 1079 Satellite Launch Vehicle SLV Launch Pad Rohini Technology Payload[5] 35 kg Low Earth ISRO Failure
Faulty valve caused vehicle to crash into the Bay of Bengal 317 seconds after launch.[4]
E2 18 July 1980 Satellite Launch Vehicle SLV Launch Pad Rohini RS-1 35 kg Low Earth ISRO Success [4]
It was the first satellite successfully launched by the indigenous launch vehicle SLV. It provided data on the fourth stage of SLV.
D1 31 May 1981 Satellite Launch Vehicle SLV Launch Pad Rohini RS-D1 38 kg Low Earth ISRO Partial failure
Orbit too low. Decayed after 9 days[4]
D2 17 April 1983 Satellite Launch Vehicle SLV Launch Pad Rohini RS-D2 41.5 kg Low Earth ISRO Success[4]
Earth Observation satellite

See also


  1. ^ a b "First Successful Launch of SLV-3 - Silver Jubilee" (PDF). ISRO.
  2. ^ "Launch Vehicles". Department of Space, Government of India. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b "SLV". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e TS Subramanian. "Silver jubilee of the first successful SLV-3". Frontiline. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  5. ^ "Rohini Technology Payload". Retrieved 28 December 2014.