The GSAT-7A, a military communications satellite, in deployed configuration
Country of originIndia
RegimeGeostationary orbit
StatusIn service

The GSAT (Geosynchronous Satellite)[1] satellites are India's indigenously developed communications satellites, used for digital audio, data and video broadcasting. As of 5 December 2018, 20 GSAT satellites of ISRO have been launched out of which 14 satellites are in service.


The GSAT series of geosynchronous satellites is a system developed by ISRO with an objective to make India self-reliant in broadcasting services. The repertoire of 10 GSAT satellites, a total of 168 transponders (out of which 95 transponders are leased out to provide services to the broadcasters) in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting, disaster warning and search and rescue operations.

List of active satellites

This is a list of GSAT current satellites with their outcome.

GSAT Satellites In Service
Satellite Longitude Date of launch Launch vehicle Lift-off mass Status Notes
GSAT series INSAT series Known as
GSAT-6 INSAT-4E 83° East 27 August 2015 India GSLV Mk II D6 2,132 kg (4,700 lb) In service A multi-media mobile satellite system; will offer a Satellite Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (S-DMB) service, via mobile phones and mobile video/audio receivers for vehicles; Can also be utilized for strategic and social applications.
GSAT-7 INSAT-4F[2] Rukmani 74° East 30 August 2013 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-215 2,650 kg (5,840 lb) In service According to defense experts, to enable the Indian Navy to acquire blue water capabilities and need not depend on foreign satellites like Inmarsat, which provide communication services to its ships.
GSAT-7A - Angry Bird 19 December 2018 India GSLV Mk II F11

2,250 kg (4,960 lb)

In service GSAT-7A is an advanced military communications satellite meant exclusively for the Indian Air Force.
GSAT-8 INSAT-4G GramSat 8[3] 55° East 20 May 2011 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-202 3,093 kg (6,819 lb) In service To augment the capacity in the INSAT system; The GAGAN payload provides the Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS), through which the accuracy of the positioning information obtained from the IRNSS Satellites is improved by a network of ground-based receivers and made available to the users in the country through the geostationary satellites.
GSAT-9 - South Asia Satellite 48° East 5 May 2017 India GSLV Mk II F09 2,330 kg (5,140 lb) In service Carried GAGAN navigation payload, a regional navigational services by NAVIC, a navigational system developed by India, that provides navigational services to the security forces and air traffic control organizations.
GSAT-10 - 83° East 29 September 2012[4] European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-209 3,435 kg (7,573 lb) In service To augment telecommunication, Direct-To-Home and radio navigation services.
GSAT-11 - 74° East 4 December 2018 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-246 5854 kg

(12,906 lb)

In service Aimed at providing advanced telecom and DTH services in the country. Heaviest satellite build by India.
GSAT-12 - GramSat 12[5] 83° East 15 July 2011 India PSLV-XL C17 1,412 kg (3,113 lb) In service Replacement of the INSAT-3B; to provide services like tele-education, tele-medicine, disaster management support and satellite internet access. Only GSAT satellite to be launched by PSLV.
GSAT-14 - 75° East 5 January 2014 India GSLV Mk.II D5 1,982 kg (4,370 lb) In service To replace the GSAT-3 satellite; launched by a GSLV Mk.II, which incorporated an Indian-built cryogenic engine on the third stage.
GSAT-15 - 93.5° East 10 November 2015 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-227 3,100 kg (6,800 lb) In service Similar to GSAT-10 satellite; to augment the capacity of transponders to provide more bandwidth for Direct-to-Home television and VSAT services.
GSAT-16 - 55° East 6 December 2014 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-221 3,150 kg (6,940 lb) In service[6] The communication payloads provide a combination of total 48 transponders across the three frequency bands (24-Normal C, 12-Extended-C and 12 in Ku-band) along with a Ku-band beacon transmitter, which is the highest for an Indian satellite. The spacecraft will be Co-located with GSAT-8 at 55 deg E.
GSAT-17 - 93.5° East 28 June 2017 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-238 3,477 kg (7,551 lb) In service[7] Payload includes 24 C-band, 2 lower C-band, 12 upper C-band, 2 CxS (C-band up/S-band down), and 1 SxC (S-band up/C-band down) transponders as well as a dedicated transponder for data relay (DRT) and search-and-rescue (SAR) services.
GSAT-18 - 74° East 5 October 2016 European Union Ariane 5 ECA


3,404 kg (7,505 lb) In service[7] to provide services in Normal C-band, Upper Extended C-band and Ku-bands of the frequency spectrum.[8]
GSAT-19 - 48° East 5 June 2017 India GSLV Mk III D1 3,136 kg (6,914 lb) In service[9] Maiden (developmental) flight of GSLV Mark III
GSAT-24 - CMS-02 48° East 22 June 2022 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-257 4,181 kg (9,218 lb) In Service
GSAT-29 - 55° East 14 November 2018 India GSLV Mk III D2 3,423 kg (7,546 lb) In service[10] Second developmental flight of GSLV Mark III
GSAT-30 83° East 17 January 2020 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-251 3,547 kg (7,820 lb) In Service[11] Replacement satellite for INSAT-4A
GSAT-31 48° East 6 February 2019 European Union Ariane 5 ECA VA-247 2,535 kg (5,589 lb) In Service[12]

List of upcoming GSAT satellites

GSAT Satellites Planned
Satellite Longitude Date of launch Launch vehicle Lift-off mass Status Notes
GSAT series INSAT series Known as
GSAT-7B - 20XX India GSLV Mk II F? Planned Military communication satellite for Indian Army[13]
GSAT-7C - 20XX India GSLV Mk II F? Planned Military communication satellite for Indian Air Force[14]
GSAT-7R - 20XX India GSLV Mk II F? Planned Replacement for GSAT-7 Rukmini for Indian Navy[15]
GSAT-20 - 2023 India GSLV Mk III 5,300 kg (11,684 lb) Planned[16]
GSAT-22 - 2023 India GSLV Mk III Planned[16]
GSAT-23 - 2023 India GSLV Mk III Planned[16]
GSAT-32 2023 India GSLV Mk II Planned[16] Replacement of GSAT – 6A.

List of defunct satellites

GSAT satellites decommissioned/failed/cancelled
Satellite Longitude Date of launch Launch vehicle Lift-off mass Status Notes
GSAT series INSAT series Known as
GSAT-1 - GramSat 1[17] 73° West (2000)
99° West (2000–2006)
76.85° West (2006–2009)
18 April 2001 India GSLV Mk I D1 1,540 kg (3,400 lb) Failed to orbit
(Experimental satellite)
Envisaged as a technology demonstrator; Failed to achieve its target orbit, which prevented it from fulfilling its primary communications mission.
GSAT-2 - GramSat 2[18] 47.95° East 8 May 2003 India GSLV Mk I D2 1,825 kg (4,023 lb) Decommissioned
(Experimental satellite)
Experimental communication satellite on board the second developmental test flight of India's GSLV.
GSAT-3 - EduSat 74° East 20 September 2004 India GSLV Mk I F01 1,950 kg (4,300 lb) Decommissioned
(30 September 2010)
Built exclusively to serve the educational sector. It was mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite-based distance education system for the country.
GSAT-4 - HealthSat 82° East 15 April 2010 India GSLV Mk II D3 2,220 kg (4,890 lb) Failed to orbit Experimental communication and navigation satellite; maiden flight of the GSLV Mk.II rocket.
GSAT-5 INSAT-4D[19] India GSLV Mk II 2,250 kg (4,960 lb) Cancelled Rebuilt as the GSAT-5P.
GSAT-5P - 55° East 25 December 2010 India GSLV Mk I F06 2,310 kg (5,090 lb) Failed to orbit As a replacement for INSAT-3E.
GSAT-6A - 29 March 2018 India GSLV Mk II F08 2,140 kg (4,720 lb) Communication lost Communication with the satellite was lost after the second orbit raising manoeuvre. Efforts are on to re-establish link but at this point it remains incommunicado.[20]

See also


  1. ^ "ISRO GeoStationary Satellites". Archived from the original on 11 February 2014.
  2. ^ "GSAT 7". NASA. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  3. ^ "GSAT 8". NASA. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  4. ^ "GSAT 10". NASA. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  5. ^ "GSAT 12". NASA. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  6. ^ "Ariane 5 delivers DIRECTV-14 and GSAT-16 to orbit on Arianespace's latest mission success". Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Annual Report 2015-2016" (PDF). Indian Space Research Organisation. December 2015. p. 28. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-07-05.
  8. ^ "GSAT-18 launched successfully on board Ariane-5 from Kourou in French Guiana". 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
  9. ^ "Now, ISRO successfully puts GSAT-19 satellite in orbit with GSLV Mk-III". The New Indian Express. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  10. ^ ISRO successfully launches the GSAT-29 satellite from Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota on Wednesday. Bangalore Mirror. 14 November 2018.
  11. ^ "India's communication satellite GSAT-30 launched successfully". ISRO. Archived from the original on 30 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  12. ^ "India's 40th Communication Satellite, GSAT-31, Launched". NDTV. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  13. ^ "Military communication satellite for Indian Army approved". Deccen Herald. 22 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  14. ^ "Defence ministry clears proposal for GSAT-7C satellite for IAF: A look at other military satellites in India". Firstpost. 24 November 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  15. ^ Pubby, Manu (18 July 2019). "Navy to buy Rs 1,589 crore satellite from ISRO". Economic Times. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  16. ^ a b c d Kumar, Chethan (5 October 2021). "Space PSU NSIL to launch 4 more demand-driven communication satellites". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  17. ^ "GSAT 1". NASA. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  18. ^ "GSAT 2". NASA. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  19. ^ "GSat 5 (Insat 4D)". Gunter's Space Page. 29 March 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  20. ^ "The second orbit raising operation of GSAT-6A satellite has been successfully carried out by LAM Engine firing for about 53 minutes on March 31, 2018 in the morning. - ISRO". Archived from the original on August 4, 2022. Retrieved April 5, 2018.